21st-Century Challenges for Archaeology
The main challenges
We have identified six topics for discussion:
- New models for archive creation, deposition, storage, access and research
- Professional standards and guidance - who sets them and what are they for?
- Designation and management of the archaeological resource in the context of a changing planning system
- New models for local curatorial services: potential future roles for local authority archaeology services and Historic England
- Synthesis of information from developer-funded investigation to create new historical narratives
- Challenges for archaeological publication in a digital age
In 2015 the sector celebrated the 25th anniversary of the introduction of Planning Policy Guidance 16 Archaeology and Planning (1990). PPG16 initiated far-reaching changes, not only in the way that the archaeological resource is protected and managed, but also in the structure of the sector itself.
Planning Policy Statement 5: Planning for the Historic Environment (2010) subsequently drew together for the first time government policy across the whole of the historic environment, giving a new emphasis to public benefit.
These changes prompted an initative by a group of archaeologists that first met at Southport. The Southport Group’s report, Realising The Benefits Of Planning-Led Investigation In The Historic Environment: A Framework For Delivery (2011), represented a first review of professional practice post-PPG16 and looked forward to a new policy context, one that was soon superseded by the National Planning Policy Framework which provides the current overarching policy context for much archaeological work.
The current backdrop
At a time when the legislative and policy framework is again changing rapidly, and the gains as well as the dis-benefits of post-PPG16 arrangements have become apparent, it is time to look forward to the key challenges of the next 25 years.
Continuing reductions in public sector funding affecting both Historic England and local government, and the challenges arising from the decision of the United Kingdom to leave the European Union, provide the current backdrop to our discussions.
Meanwhile, the private sector faces great opportunities as well as challenges in capacity, skills, and training against the anticipated high demand for skilled professional archaeologists generated by planned large infrastructure projects and other development.
A brief review of progress on the initiatives proposed by Southport and of the changed context since that optimistic time is being carried out and we will make this available to start the debate.
We are facilitating discussions on the topics above through on-line discussions and in workshop settings.
How to get involved
Before each workshop we will hold wider discussions on the Historic England LinkedIn discussion group.
Next online discussion
The next online discussion in the 21st-century Challenges for Archaeology series will be about 'synthesis of information from developer-funded investigation to create new historical narratives'. It will take place on 25th-26th October 2017 through the Historic England LinkedIn Group. Discussion will focus on how we transform recorded data from archaeological investigations into wider knowledge and new narratives.
In particular we will address the folowing questions:
- What questions are we asking of the data? How is this moderated in the planning process?
- In current excavations, are we collecting the right data to enable the full range of these questions to be answered?
- How are we assembling the data to ensure that we are comparing like with like?
- How are we organising the primary data to allow the greatest access for those wishing to synthesise it?
- How are we ensuring the distinction between data and interpretation is clear for others using the information?
- Are there scales of synthesis? If so, are there obvious candidates for funding and undertaking these different scales?
- Should developers pay for synthesis? Is there room for an escrow model, where a percentage of the funding for every dig goes into a common fund? Should it be left to chance and circumstance, or does it need a formal programme?
- How do we ensure synthesis informs subsequent investigations? What might this mean for backlogs?
- What new technological approaches might assist synthesis?
- How would we know things have changed for the better?
Further information about the online discussion, including background briefing papers, will be available through the CIfA website soon.
If you are not already on LinkedIn you will need to join LinkedIn to take part in the discussions.
If you are not yet a group member you will also need to ask to join the Historic England discussion group by clicking the "join" button on the group page. If you are an archaeologist, planner, curator, or other interested party, please do join in the conversation!
Jan Wills BA, MCIfA, FSA, has worked in archaeology for over 35 years, initially as a field archaeologist before moving into project and service management in local government. She is now a freelance consultant, and is currently focused on advisory and advocacy work with the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists of which she is Chair. She is a member of the Historic England Advisory Committee.
Steve Trow, BSc, MCIfA, FSA is Director of Research at Historic England and a member of its Executive Team. Since joining English Heritage in 1987, Steve has worked in its designation department, as an Inspector of Ancient Monuments and as its Head of Rural and Environmental Policy. He is an archaeologist with research interests in the Roman period and has previously worked for the Museum of London and The British Museum.
The Chartered Institute for Archaeologists are adding further information about the project, including timings of future workshops and online discussions, to their dedicated project page on the CIfA website.
New report warns there will not be enough trained archaeologists to do excavations required on future major infrastructure projects unless action is taken.
Also of interest...
This section describes archaeological excavation methods and the techniques used to study artefacts and ecofacts, including scientific dating.