100 Places - Science & Discovery
Bletchley Park, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire
Shortly before the Second World War began, the Government Code and Cipher School, in need of a safe and secret location away from London, moved to Bletchley Park in Buckinghamshire. Large, plain huts were built in the grounds and it was here that the Bombe machine, designed by Alan Turing, helped break the Enigma code. This was also where Tommy Flowers created the semi-programmable electronic machine Colossus, the world's first electronic computers. The crucial work of the thousands of people who worked in the wider Bletchley organisation, 75% of whom were women, helped shorten the war by an estimated two to four years and saved countless lives. Block H is known as the birthplace of modern computing because large scale electronic information processing began here.
Royal Observatory, Greenwich, London
Commissioned by King Charles II, and designed by Sir Christopher Wren, the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, was the first state-funded scientific institution in Britain. Over the course of more than 300 years, the Observatory has played a fundamental role in the history of navigation, the progress of astronomy, the modern measurement of time, and our understanding of the universe itself.
Jodrell Bank Observatory, Macclesfield, Cheshire
Jodrell Bank Observatory is the only site in the world that can chart the entire history of radio astronomy and it remains a place of live scientific research. It has been at the heart of ground-breaking discoveries for more than 70 years and is home to the Lovell Telescope, a near 90-metre-tall structure that stands as an icon of British science and engineering. Also a site of cultural significance, it has played host to live music acts, inspired artists and featured in film, television, and literature - seamlessly bridging the gap between science and the arts. The Lovell Telescope was the first telescope in the world upon its completion in 1957. It was able to track Sputnik on its launch in 1957. Other space-age triumphs included being asked by the Soviet Union to track the moon spaceship Luna 9 which sent the first images from the surface of the moon.
Ouse Washes, March, Cambridgeshire
This huge water channel was cut in the 1630s to drain the fenlands and make a temporary floodwater storage area between Earith in Cambridgeshire and Denver in Norfolk. It is one of the most important, largest and oldest drainage engineering structures in the country. It was created by Dutch engineer Cornelius Vermuyden, whose ingenuity enabled the creation of the 'food basket' of the UK, because it protects approximately 29,000 hectares of agricultural land from flooding. This mid-17th Century feat of engineering is striking in its beauty when flooded between the banks built to hold the water and is a unique habitat for all kinds of animals, making it a Site of Special Scientific Interest.
Calder Hall, Sellafield, Cumbria
Opened by the Queen in October 1956, Calder Hall was the world's first nuclear power plant to generate electricity on a commercial scale. It is not widely known that the primary function of Calder Hall was to create weapons-grade plutonium, although those activities ended in the 1990s. Initially designed to last for 20 years, Calder Hall ceased generating electricity in 2003, almost 47 years after its inauguration.
Brown Firth Research Laboratories, Sheffield
This is the site where Harry Brearley accidentally made stainless steel in 1913 when he incorporated chromium into steel. The invention of a non-corroding steel revolutionised manufacturing worldwide: not only is stainless steel cutlery used by people around the world every day, but Brearley’s invention was also important for how buildings were constructed. The metal trade has been alive in Sheffield since the Middle Ages and by the 18th century, Sheffield was the nation’s principal producer of different types of steel. The invention of stainless steel, a lucky accident, remains perhaps Sheffield’s most important contribution to the industry.
The Jenner Hut, Berkeley, Gloucestershire
Dr Edward Jenner performed early experiments with vaccination in a humble hut in the grounds of his house in Gloucestershire, where he created a vaccination for smallpox. Smallpox killed more than 400,000 people each year in 18th century Europe and was known as the “speckled monster”. Thirty years after Jenner’s death, smallpox vaccinations were made compulsory but perhaps his most important legacy was his dedication to sharing the importance of vaccines to human health. Such experiments with vaccinations and the subsequent start of the concept of immunology have saved and continue to save millions of lives across the world.
Former MRC Biophysics Unit, King's College London
In May 1952, at King’s College London’s Strand campus, Photo 51 (an X-ray diffraction image of DNA) was taken by Chemist and Research Associate, Rosalind Franklin. The photograph confirmed theories that DNA had a double helical structure and was used by James Watson and Francis Crick to correctly model DNA in the double helix form. Franklin died of cancer in 1958 and missed out on the Nobel prize, which her peers swept up in 1962. Although in the shadow of Watson and Crick’s work for many years, Franklin and her team’s contribution to the findings was incredibly important.
Former ICI laboratory, Widnes, Cheshire
It was in this small laboratory that a big step in modern medicine and a lifesaving invention was made. In 1951 the chemist, Dr Charles Suckling, first synthesised the non-flammable inhalation anaesthetic called 'halothane' which revolutionised surgery and the pharmacology of anaesthetics. Phased out for use on humans in the 1980s, its invention and use represents the importance of the chemical industry to England’s history, which is often forgotten.
Water pump on the corner of Broadwick & Poland streets, Soho, London
In 1854, a severe outbreak of cholera in London killed 616 people and thousands of people had died in previous outbreaks. At the time, nobody knew for sure how diseases like this one were spread but physician John Snow thought Cholera could be water-borne. He studied the causes and traced the outbreak to the contaminated water from this single pump in Soho. His findings led to fundamental changes in London’s water and waste systems, and then those of other cities around the world, resulting in massive improvements to public health on a global scale.
Historic England and The Royal Society celebrate International Women’s Day by bringing to light the exceptional achievements of female scientists
Also of interest...
The Colossus now commonly regarded as the world's first programmable, digital computer evolved as an unintended by-product of the Allied intelligence-gathering process during the Second World War.
In the mid-1870s, a former dairy farm became the site of Alexandra Palace - a vast iron and glass structure, described as the 'People's Palace' and known affectionately as 'Ally Pally'.
Britain detonated its first atomic bomb on 3 October 1952. It was a carefully protected scientific device that needed to be 'weaponised', before the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment (AWRE) could issue it to the Royal Air Force.
As part of our Women in Science series, read how the work of Sarah Paynter, Materials Scientist, informs our understanding of the past.
As part of our Women in Science series, read about what inspires Alison James, Maritime Archaeologist at Historic England, in her work.
The Industrial Revolution was a time of intense innovation, groundbreaking discoveries and seismic social change. From the 18th to the 19th century new technologies and methods of production, improved transport by canal, sea and road.
Edward Jenner christened the rustic hut in which he developed his theory and carried out trials of his vaccine the 'Temple of Vaccinia', and he continued to use it to provide vaccinations to the poor of the district free of charge.
The Scilly Naval Disaster provided the trigger for the Board of Longitude's quest to determine longitude at sea.