Winkelbury Hill earthworks
Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument
List Entry Number: 1005585
Date first listed: 15-Jul-1955
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This copy shows the entry on 24-Jan-2019 at 07:14:31.
The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
District: Wiltshire (Unitary Authority)
Parish: Berwick St. John
National Grid Reference: ST 95056 21025, ST 95211 21041
Cross ridge dyke and associated boundary 785m south-east of Chapel Farm.
Reasons for Designation
Cranborne Chase is an area of chalkland well known for its high number, density and diversity of archaeological remains. These include a rare combination of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age sites, comprising one of the largest concentrations of burial monuments in England, the largest known cursus (a linear ritual monument) and a significant number and range of henge monuments (Late Neolithic ceremonial centres). Other important remains include a variety of enclosures, settlements, field systems and linear boundaries which date throughout prehistory and into the Romano-British and medieval periods. This high level of survival of archaeological remains is due largely to the later history of the Chase. Cranborne Chase formed a Royal Hunting Ground from at least Norman times, and much of the archaeological survival within the area resulted from associated laws controlling land-use which applied until 1830. The unique archaeological character of the Chase has attracted much attention over the years, notably during the later 19th century, by the pioneering work on the Chase of General Pitt-Rivers, Sir Richard Colt Hoare and Edward Cunnington, often regarded as the fathers of British archaeology. Archaeological investigations have continued throughout the 20th century and to the present day. Cross ridge dykes are substantial linear earthworks typically between 0.2km long and 1km long, comprising one or more ditches arranged beside and parallel to one or more banks. They generally occur in upland situations, running across ridges and spurs. They are recognised as earthworks or as cropmarks on aerial photographs, or as a combination of both. The evidence of excavation and analogy with associated monuments demonstrates that their construction spans the millennium from the Middle Bronze Age, although they may have been reused later. Current information favours the view that they were used as territorial boundary markers, probably demarcating land allotment within communities, although they may also have been used as trackways, cattle droveways or defensive earthworks. Cross ridge dykes occur across Cranborne Chase and are one of the few monument types which illustrate how land was divided up in the prehistoric period. They are of considerable importance for any analysis of settlement and land use in the Bronze Age. Very few examples have survived to the present day nationally. The number of well-preserved examples within Cranborne Chase is particularly notable. Despite cultivation the cross ridge dyke and associated boundary 785m south east of Chapel Farm survive comparatively well and will contain archaeological and environmental evidence relating to their construction, relationship and relative chronologies, function, territorial significance, maintenance, agricultural practices and overall landscape context.
This record was the subject of a minor enhancement on 22 September 2015. This record has been generated from an "old county number" (OCN) scheduling record. These are monuments that were not reviewed under the Monuments Protection Programme and are some of our oldest designation records.
This monument, which falls into two areas, includes a cross ridge dyke and associated boundary of unknown date situated on the summit of the extremely prominent and steeply sided ridge called Winkelbury Hill. The cross ridge dyke is entirely preserved as buried features running east to west across the ridge summit visible on aerial photographs with a northern associated boundary which meets the cross ridge dyke at right angles and survives as a slight bank of up to 0.6m wide and 0.6m high. The cross ridge dyke is mentioned in a Saxon charter of 955 AD and called ‘Esna Dic’ meaning ‘serf’s dyke’. It has had various interpretations including Pitt-Rivers who suggested it was an outwork for the hillfort to the north.
Further archaeological remains survive in the immediate vicinity and are scheduled separately.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
Legacy System number: WI 469
Legacy System: RSM - OCN
PastScape 210618; Wiltshire HER ST92SE637
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing