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Five bowl barrows 300m north of Chalk Hill Cottage; part of the Cow Common round barrow cemetery

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Five bowl barrows 300m north of Chalk Hill Cottage; part of the Cow Common round barrow cemetery

List entry Number: 1008193

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Gloucestershire

District: Cotswold

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Swell

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 25-Mar-1948

Date of most recent amendment: 12-Apr-1994

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 22878

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Round barrow cemeteries date to the Bronze Age (c.2000-700 BC). They comprise closely-spaced groups of up to 30 round barrows - rubble or earthen mounds covering single or multiple burials. Most cemeteries developed over a considerable period of time, often many centuries, and in some cases acted as a focus for burials as late as the early medieval period. They exhibit considerable diversity of burial rite, plan and form, frequently including several different types of round barrow, occasionally associated with earlier long barrows. Where large scale investigation has been undertaken around them, contemporary or later "flat" burials between the barrow mounds have often been revealed. Round barrow cemeteries occur across most of lowland Britain, with a marked concentration in Wessex. In some cases, they are clustered around other important contemporary monuments such as henges. Often occupying prominent locations, they are a major historic element in the modern landscape, whilst their diversity and their longevity as a monument type provide important information on the variety of beliefs and social organisation amongst early prehistoric communities. They are particularly representative of their period and a substantial proportion of surviving or partly-surviving examples are considered worthy of protection.

Despite partial excavation, the five bowl barrows 300m north of Chalk Hill Cottage survive comparatively well as the core of a round barrow cemetery and are known to contain archaeological and environmental evidence relating to the monument and the landscape in which it was constructed.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a line of five bowl barrows forming part of a wider round barrow cemetery. The barrows are aligned broadly north-south and are situated 300m north of Chalk Hill Cottage on Cow Common, a gently sloping plateau with views to the south and east in the area of the Cotswold Hills. The five bowl barrows include four examples which survive as upstanding earthworks under grass, and one to the north which is under cultivation and which has been partially spread and reduced from its original height. The most southerly barrow (SP 1315 2632) has a mound composed of small stones with a maximum diameter of 21m and a maximum height of c.1m. This mound survives under grass as an earthwork 10.5m in diameter; the outer periphery has been reduced in height by cultivation, although it survives as a stony rise c.0.3m high. The barrow was partially excavated by William Greenwell in 1874. This revealed that the mound was capped by oolitic slabs and that a central stone lined grave was cut into the rock and contained a crouched inhumation of an adult male. Two secondary interments were also found within the mound. The lowest deposit consisted of the cremation of an adult which was contained within a Middle-Late Bronze Age urn along with a bronze razor. The interment was underneath a slab, above which was another adult cremation contained within a Late Bronze Age basket urn. The remaining four barrows, from north-south are described as follows: (SP 1316 2633): This bowl barrow has a mound with a diameter of 13m and a maximum height of c.1.1m. The mound has a central depression which marks the location of the partial excavations conducted at the site by William Greenwell in 1874. These revealed that the mound contained an unusual beehive shaped chamber which was sunk into the ground and associated with a passage extending WNW. When investigated by H E O`Neil in 1934, the chamber was thought to represent a Neolithic structure. The chamber was found to contain intrusive material including a horseshoe and a clay pipe, suggesting it was reused as a shelter in the medieval or post-medieval period. (SP 1315 2634): This barrow has a mound composed of small stones with a maximum diameter of 18.3m from east-west and a maximum height of c.1.2m. The mound survives under grass as an earthwork 10m wide with an outer margin having been reduced in height by cultivation and surviving as a rise of c.0.3m. The barrow was partially excavated by William Greenwell in 1874 and a central primary cremation of an infant with a bone pin was discovered, surrounded by the burnt remains of a funerary pyre. A secondary cremation of an adult female surrounded by small flagstones was found 3.2m WNW of the centre of the mound. (SP 1315 2635): This barrow has a mound composed of stone slabs with maximum dimensions of 19m from east-west. The mound survives under grass as an upstanding earthwork with a diameter of 9.3m from east-west. The outer periphery has been reduced in height by cultivation, but remains visible as a slight rise c.0.3m high. The barrow was partially excavated by William Greenwell in 1874 and a central primary cremation was discovered, although in this case there was no sign of a funerary pyre. The most northerly bowl barrow (SP 1317 2636), has a mound composed of small stones which has been spread by ploughing. This has an overall diameter of 14.5m and has a maximum height of c.0.35m. The barrow was partially excavated by Greenwell in 1874 and a primary cremation of an adult, probably a male, was discovered. This was associated with an unburnt bone pin which may have been used to contain the burial within a pouch or hide. Surrounding all five mounds are ditches from which material was quarried during their construction. Although these have become infilled over the years, they survive as buried features c.2m wide, which converge on all but the outer edges of the monument.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 132
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 132
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 132
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 132
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 132
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 132
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 132
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 131
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 131
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 131
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 131
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 131
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 131
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 131
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 131
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 131
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 132
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 132
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 132
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 132
Other
Mention of Greenwell record no. 216,
Mention of Greenwell reference 219,
Mention of Greenwell`s ref no. 217,
Mention of Greenwell`s reference 218,
Reference to Greenwell`s number 220,

National Grid Reference: SP 13159 26336

Map

Map
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End of official listing