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Medieval long-house with adjacent enclosure 1.44km NNE of Fernacre Farm

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Medieval long-house with adjacent enclosure 1.44km NNE of Fernacre Farm

List entry Number: 1008231

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Cornwall

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: St. Breward

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 02-Mar-1994

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 15225

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Bodmin Moor, the largest of the Cornish granite uplands, has long been recognised to have exceptional preservation of archaeological remains. The Moor has been the subject of detailed archaeological survey and is one of the best recorded upland landscapes in England. The extensive relict landscapes of prehistoric, medieval and post-medieval date provide direct evidence for human exploitation of the Moor from the earliest prehistoric period onwards. The well-preserved and often visible relationship between settlement sites, field systems, ceremonial and funerary monuments as well as later industrial remains provides significant insights into successive changes in the pattern of land use through time. Long houses are one of several distinctive forms of medieval farmhouse. Rectangular in plan, usually with boulder and rubble outer walls and with their long axis orientated downslope, the interior of long houses was divided into two separate functional areas, an upslope domestic room and a downslope stock byre, known in south-west England as a shippon. The proportions occupied by the domestic and shippon areas vary considerably but the division between the two, and their access, was usually provided by a cross-passage of timber screens or sometimes rubble walling, running transversely through the long house, linking opposed openings in the long side-walls. Excavation within the domestic areas of long houses has revealed stone hearths, cooking pits, benches, postholes for internal fittings and medieval artefacts. Excavation within the shippon areas has revealed stone built drains, usually along the central axis, and paving and edging slabs defining mangers. Long houses may be accompanied by ancillary buildings, separated slightly from the farmhouse itself, or by outshuts, attached to the long house and often extending one end of the structure. These additional structures sometimes served as fuel stores and occasionally contained ovens or corn drying kilns. The earliest known long houses date to the 10th to 11th centuries AD, but their main period of construction was during the later 12th to 15th centuries AD. The tradition was largely superseded by other plan forms in the post- medieval period though some long houses continued to be occupied, with subsequent alteration and additions. Long houses are known throughout northern, western and southern England, but have been longest recognised as a distinctive plan form in south-west England. As the standard type of medieval farmhouse plan in the south-western uplands, they may occur singly or grouped to form villages and may be associated with the various types of field system and enclosure current in the medieval period. On Bodmin Moor, of the 33 deserted medieval settlements known to contain long houses, 17 include only a single long house, displaying a considerable diversity of associations with contemporary ancillary structures, field system types and enclosures. This diversity provides important information on the nature of settlement organisation and farming activity during the medieval period.

This long-house and its adjacent enclosure has survived well, despite some stone-robbing in limited sectors of the long-house wall. The long-house has not been excavated but retains unusually good surface evidence for a range of features, including the careful preparation of the site, its cross-passage entrance, shippon drain, outshut and ancillary building with door slabs. The adjacent cultivation plot remains virtually unaffected by subsequent modification and combines with the long-house as a rare intact survival of one form of medieval farmstead in the remoter parts of the Moor. The contrast between this small but complete medieval economic unit and the broadly contemporary large long-house settlement and field system on Brown Willy nearby to the south, demonstrates well the adaptability of the long-house form and diversity of settlement and farming practices during the medieval period.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a deserted medieval long-house with a single adjacent cultivation plot situated in a remote position on the lower eastern slope of Showery Tor in the upper valley of the De Lank River on north-west Bodmin Moor. A medieval tin-miner's leat crosses the plot and a post-medieval peat stack platform is situated adjacent to the plot's south-west corner. The long-house is visible as the surviving lower wall courses of a rectangular building with a WNW-ESE axis, built on a prepared, almost levelled, plot cut deeply into the hillslope. The slope from this levelling cut runs 1.5m beyond the long-house's NNE wall and 2.5m beyond its WNW wall, where the scarp rises 1.25m high. The long-house walling is of unmortared coarsed rubble, surviving up to 1.3m wide and 0.8m high, incorporating edge-set slabs up to 0.9m long and rising to 1.2m high. The walls define an internal area 7m long and 4.2m wide. Some stone-robbing subsequent to the long-house's desertion has removed some parts of the walling above the foundations in the northern and southern walls, but even there the wall line remains visible either as foundation rubble in the surface or as turf-covered scarps. An entrance gap, 0.6m wide and faced on its ESE side by a transverse wall-slab, is located at the centre of the southern wall. At the centre of the ESE wall, two edge-set transverse slabs, 0.6m apart, mark the passage through the wall of a drain to remove slurry from the lower, cattle-byre, end of the long-house. A narrow annexe, measuring 3.5m NNE-SSW by 1.2m WNW-ESE externally, is defined by a wall of edge-set slabs up to 0.6m high against the WNW end of the long-house. A rectangular ancillary structure is situated 2m beyond the long-house's ESE wall. Built of similar unmortared coursed rubble and slab walling, up to 0.6m wide and 0.6m high, this structure measures 4m NNE-SSW by 1.5m WNW-ESE internally. Two door-slabs, each 1.4m long and 0.5m wide, have fallen outwards from the centre of the ESE wall. The cultivation plot is situated from 17m east of the long-house on the gentle ESE-facing slope near the valley floor. The plot is visible as a sub- rectangular enclosure of 0.25 hectares, measuring 60m ENE-WSW by 47m NNE-SSW internally. It is defined by an earth-and-rubble bank up to 1.5m wide and 0.7m high, with an outer ditch up to 2m wide and 0.5m deep. The bank's rubble includes a small millstone roughout, 0.6m in diameter, visible in the surface at the plot's north-east corner. The WNW side of the plot passes through an area of dense natural surface stone which was used to replace the bank with a wall of coursed and edge-set slabs up to 2m wide and 1m high in that sector only. The interior surface of the plot contains cultivation ridges running downslope on a WNW-ESE axis. A medieval tin-miners' water course, called a leat, passes through the cultivation plot on a WNW-ESE axis, parallel to and 10m from the plot's NNE bank. The leat is visible as a slight ditch, up to 0.75m wide and 0.2m deep, which ends to each side of the plot's WNW boulder wall, but which cuts through the bank of the plot's ESE side. Beyond this monument, the leat extends downhill from a source 275m to the WSW on the saddle between Showery Tor and Roughtor, and continues south-east beyond the plot for over 35m to the medieval tin workings which it served along the floor of the De Lank River. The post-medieval peat stack platform, used for the storage of cut peat, is located immediately adjacent to the plot's SSW ditch at its south-west corner. It is visible as a rectangular earthwork with a central platform, measuring 6.5m east-west by 2.5m north-south, level with the ground surface and defined by a ditch, 0.8m wide and 0.2m deep. Outside the ditch is an earthen bank, 0.8m wide and 0.2m high, whose northern edge runs along the edge of the cultivation plot's ditch. Beyond this monument,another isolated medieval cultivation plot is located 330m to the SSW, while the outer walls of the extensive medieval field system associated with a deserted medieval settlement on Brown Willy straddle the De Lank valley downstream from 600m to the south.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Other
CAU/RCHME, The Bodmin Moor Survey, Unpubl. draft text. Ch.4, 1.3, fig 17
consulted 1992, Carter, A./Quinnell, N.V./RCHME, 1:2500 AP transcription and field trace for SX 1581,
consulted 1992, Carter, A/Quinnell, N.V./RCHME, 1:2500 AP transcriptions and field traces for SX 1579-81,
consulted 1992, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 12004,
consulted 1992, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 3516,
consulted 1992, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 3517,
consulted 1992, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 3518,

National Grid Reference: SX 15285 81185

Map

Map
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This copy shows the entry on 21-Nov-2017 at 02:08:42.

End of official listing