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Prehistoric irregular and regular aggregate field systems with incorporated stone hut circles 750m ENE of Siblyback Farm

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Prehistoric irregular and regular aggregate field systems with incorporated stone hut circles 750m ENE of Siblyback Farm

List entry Number: 1011315

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Cornwall

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: St. Cleer

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 10-Nov-1993

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 15243

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Bodmin Moor, the largest of the Cornish granite uplands, has long been recognised to have exceptional preservation of archaeological remains. The Moor has been the subject of detailed archaeological survey and is one of the best recorded upland landscapes in England. The extensive relict landscapes of prehistoric, medieval and post-medieval date provide direct evidence for human exploitation of the Moor from the earliest prehistoric period onwards. The well-preserved and often visible relationship between settlement sites, field systems, ceremonial and funerary monuments as well as later industrial remains provides significant insights into successive changes in the pattern of land use through time.

Elaborate complexes of fields and field boundaries are a major feature of the Moor landscape. Irregular and regular aggregate field systems are two such methods of field layout known to have been employed in south-west England during the Bronze Age (c.2000-700 BC). Irregular aggregate field systems comprise a collection of field plots, generally lacking in conformity of orientation and arrangement, containing fields with sinuous outlines and varying shapes and sizes bounded by stone or rubble walls or banks, ditches or fences. By contrast, regular aggregate field systems comprise a collection of field plots defined by boundaries laid out in a consistent manner, along two axes set at right angles to each other. A single regular aggregate field system may contain several contiguous blocks of such plots and each of such blocks may differ slightly in the orientation of the axes used in its layout. Where irregular and regular aggregate field systems abut or overlap, the boundaries of one field system may influence the layout of the other. Both forms of field system often incorporate or are situated near stone hut circles, the dwelling places of prehistoric farmers on the Moor, mostly also dating from the Bronze Age. The stone-based round houses survive as low walls or banks enclosing a circular floor area; the remains of a turf or thatch roof are not preserved as visible features. The huts may occur singly or in small or large groups and may occur in the open or be enclosed by a bank of earth and stone. Prehistoric field systems and hut circles are important elements of the existing landscape and provide evidence on the nature and organisation of farming practices and settlement among prehistoric communities. The relatively unintensive post-medieval land use of upland areas which has allowed the preservation of much of the surviving prehistoric settlement and funerary evidence, has also favoured the survival of a diversity of medieval monuments which often impinge on those earlier, prehistoric, remains. Such medieval monuments frequently include various forms of field boundary and cultivation ridging. This monument on north-west Craddock Moor has survived well. The monument's inclusion of successive phases and types of prehistoric field system demonstrates well the development of farming practices and social organisation during the Bronze Age, while the proximity of the monument to other broadly contemporary field systems gives a rare opportunity to observe this sequence across a wider geographical area. The proximity of the monument to the major concentration of Bronze Age ceremonial and funerary monuments on Craddock Moor shows well the nature of land use and the wider relationship to settlement and ritual activity among Bronze Age communities.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a prehistoric irregular aggregate field system with incorporated and adjacent parts of an earlier regular aggregate field system and five incorporated hut circles. The monument is situated at the north-west edge of Craddock Moor on south-east Bodmin Moor. The monument also includes traces of medieval cultivation ridges overlying parts of the prehistoric field systems and part of two medieval ditched boundary banks, at least one of which re-uses a wall of the prehistoric regular field system. The irregular and regular aggregate field systems each survive with field plot walls of heaped rubble and boulders, up to 2m wide and 0.7m high, but generally 1.25m wide and 0.5m high. The walling incorporates occasional end-set slabs, called orthostats. Where the walling runs across the slope, its upper side is partly masked by a build-up of soil, called a lynchet, resulting from a combination of natural soil creep and prehistoric cultivation on the slope. The irregular aggregate field system is visible as a discrete collection of at least thirteen small field plots ranging from 0.08 ha to 0.6 ha in extent, combining to form subdivisions of an overall `heart-shaped' plan covering 3.25 ha. This compact plan is extended to the north-east by a larger sub-rectangular plot of 1.08 ha with a sub-triangular plot of 0.25 ha to its south. The perimeter wall delimiting the irregular system is largely a curving rubble wall, but many of its internal subdividing walls in the central and eastern sectors are straight. These straight walls display a dominant SE-NW axis, running directly downslope and meeting a small block of plots with east- west walls in the north-west sector as the angle of the slope changes. Although the irregular field system also contains some curving internal walls, especially in the northern sector, the regularity of most internal walls derives from the clear re-use of walling from an earlier regular aggregate field system on which the heart-shaped perimeter wall of the irregular system was later imposed. This sequence can also be confirmed by the survival of at least eight further walls sharing those dominant downslope axes in an area extending up to 125m west and 50m north of the irregular system's western and north-western boundaries. Where these walls approach the irregular system's outer boundary they have been robbed of stone in prehistory to construct that perimeter wall. Sufficient survives of the regular aggregate system's walls to show its layout as two contiguous blocks of field plots, each defined by an uphill terminal wall from which plot walls extend downslope at intervals ranging from 25m to 90m apart. Although the resulting strips are subdivided by several cross-walls into field plots, these subdivisions all occur within the area of the irregular field system and are considered to derive from that later phase. One regular field system block, with three strips on an east-west axis and a terminal boundary at about the 280m contour level, is located in the centre of the western sector of the monument. The other, larger, regular block extends up to 105m south, 45m north and 200m east, uphill, from the former block, and with a terminal boundary at the 295m-300m contour level and at least eight strips on a SE-NW axis, changing to east-west in its northern sector as the angle of slope changes. Consequently it is clear that the terminal boundary of this larger regular block was re-used as the south-east perimeter wall of the later irregular field system, while the boundaries of the large sub- rectangular plot extending north-east from the irregular field system are almost entirely re-used from the regular system. The monument contains five stone hut circles. Four are situated at wall intersections or adjacent to walls within the area of the irregular field system. The fifth is situated within the southern strip of the regular field system's smaller block, 20m west of the irregular system's western boundary. The hut circles survive with near-circular walls of heaped rubble and boulders, up to 2m wide and 0.6m high, defining internal areas ranging from 4.3m in diameter to a slightly ovoid 9.2m by 8.2m area. The hut circle walls contain end-set inner facing slabs, up to 0.9m high and often contiguous, and the largest hut circle also has outer facing slabs. An entrance gap, 1m wide, is visible in the west side of the largest hut circle's wall. A break 3m wide in the west side of the westernmost hut circle, in the regular field system block, has been occasioned by partial clearance for medieval cultivation. Much later farming activity is evident in the monument's western and northern sectors where the prehistoric field systems are overlain by the upper levels of medieval cultivation ridges which occur along much of the periphery of Craddock Moor. The cultivation ridges are visible as contiguous, parallel, earthen ridges, averaging 1.75-2m crest to crest, 0.1m high, and generally orientated downslope. They are present over extensive areas, lacking any clear contemporary boundary to their edges but they have tended to re-use, rather than clear, prehistoric field walls within their area. Consequently the ridging often forms into small blocks defined by the prehistoric plots, with a ridge-axis governed partly by the dominant axis of the plot walls, as is especially clear in the north of the monument. Later medieval farming enclosed blocks along the edge of the Moor by ditched earthen boundary banks, two of which occur within the monument. One is visible as an earthen bank 1m wide and up to 0.3m high, with a ditch 1m wide and up to 0.1m deep along its northern side, and re-uses the east-west northern wall-line of the large prehistoric plot in the north-east of the irregular field system, continuing further west on the alignment of the regular system's dominant axis in this sector. The other medieval boundary bank appears to have been maintained until relatively recently and runs through the monument's south-west sector, cutting across the prehistoric walls and the cultivation ridges. This survives as an earth and rubble bank up to 1.8m wide and 0.9m high with a ditch 1m wide and 0.3m deep along its east side. Beyond the monument, to both north and south, are further extensive prehistoric settlement sites and field systems on the periphery of Craddock Moor, some of which display similar sequences of development. Beyond these, to the south and south-east near the centre of Craddock Moor, is one of the largest concentrations of broadly contemporary ritual and funerary monuments on Bodmin Moor. All post-and-wire fences are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath them is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Other
consulted 1992, Carter, A./Fletcher, M. J. RCHME, 1:2500 AP plot and field trace for SX 2472,
consulted 1992, Carter, A./RCHME, 1:2500 AP plots and field traces for SX 2472-3,
consulted 1992, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1289,
consulted 1992, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1289.01,
consulted 1992, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1289.02,
consulted 1992, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1289.03,
consulted 1992, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1289.04,
consulted 1992, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1289.05,
consulted 1992, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1362,

National Grid Reference: SX 24205 72850

Map

Map
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This copy shows the entry on 21-Nov-2017 at 05:55:14.

End of official listing