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Prehistoric embanked avenue with incorporated funerary cist 210m WNW of Showery Tor

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Prehistoric embanked avenue with incorporated funerary cist 210m WNW of Showery Tor

List entry Number: 1011501

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Cornwall

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: St. Breward

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 15-Sep-1993

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 15215

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Bodmin Moor, the largest of the Cornish granite uplands, has long been recognised to have exceptional preservation of archaeological remains. The Moor has been the subject of detailed archaeological survey and is one of the best recorded upland landscapes in England. The extensive relict landscapes of prehistoric, medieval and post-medieval date provide direct evidence for human exploitation of the Moor from the earliest prehistoric period onwards. The well-preserved and often visible relationship between settlement sites, field systems, ceremonial and funerary monuments as well as later industrial remains provides significant insights into successive changes in the pattern of land use through time.

Embanked avenues are ritual monuments which in all cases are associated with other classes of ceremonial and funerary monuments dating to the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age (c.2500-1600 BC). They contain two near- parallel open-ended elements, either in the form of stone or timber uprights or as banks constructed of stone rubble or earth, sometimes ditched. They range from 64m to 2.34km long and their courses are variously straight or sinuous. Both of the avenues recorded on Bodmin Moor are formed from stone banks incorporating end-set stones and lacking ditches. Excavations of this monument class elsewhere have revealed associated stone- and post-holes and small pits, both within and outside the avenue's boundaries. Some of the pits contain burials, pottery, bone and flint or antler tools. The functions of avenues are poorly understood. Their consistently close association with, and respect for, other Bronze Age ritual monuments indicates a related purpose, while several avenues are directly aligned on stone circles. Under twenty avenues are known nationally, largely in central southern England together with the two examples on Bodmin Moor and isolated examples in Nottinghamshire, North Yorkshire and Northumberland. Of these, several are now destroyed and known only from antiquarian sources. Funerary cists are one of the several forms of Bronze Age burial monument with which avenues are associated. They are box-like structures of stone slabs in which burials were placed. They range from 0.75m to over 2m long and may occur within or beneath funerary cairns or, less frequently, as free-standing monuments, either set into the ground surface or standing partly proud of it. Of at least 33 known cists on Bodmin Moor, only three are not wholly or partly covered by a cairn. Burials may include skeletal remains or cremations, the latter sometimes contained within funerary urns, and are occasionally accompanied by grave goods, including pottery vessels, tools, weapons and beads. Both avenues and funerary cists are rare and long-lived monument types contributing important information on the diversity of ritual and funerary practices during the Neolithic and Bronze Ages. The avenue with its incorporated cist on Showery Tor has survived well and has suffered only minor and well-defined disturbance from recent stone-robbers and tracks. This is the westernmost avenue recorded nationally and it contains one of only three cists lacking a cairn on Bodmin Moor. The incorporated relationship of the cist with the avenue is extremely rare and demonstrates the broader relationship between ritual and funerary practices during the later Neolithic and Bronze Age. The proximity of the monument to the earlier Neolithic hillfort, to the broadly contemporary tor cairn on Showery Tor, and to the field systems and cairns on the lower slopes shows well the organisation of land use and its development in the prehistoric period.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a prehistoric ritual embanked avenue, incorporating a small funeray cist, situated on the western slope of the summit of Showery Tor on north-west Bodmin Moor, near broadly contemporary cairns, settlement sites and field systems. The embanked avenue is visible as two banks of heaped rubble, each up to 3.5m wide and 0.5m high, which follow a wavering but near-parallel course, generally 2m to 8m apart, extending over 120m up the western slope near the summit of Showery Tor. The avenue curves slightly from an east-west axis along its western third, adopting a WNW-ESE axis over its eastern third and bringing its alignment directly on the distinctive natural outcrop and surrounding cairn on the summit of Showery Tor. The rubble banks incorporate occasional edge-set slabs, up to 1m high, and frequent leaning slabs placed against the bank's outer faces. Occasional gaps, up to 2m wide, occur in each bank, sometimes accompanied by small rubble spreads, the result of limited episodes of relatively recent stone-robbing and breaks caused by tracks running along the hillside below the summit of the Tor. The wavering course of each bank mirrors that of the other bank causing them to converge and diverge. This produces three distinct sectors where the avenue's banks, in plan, bulge out to each side, these sectors each occupying approximately one third of the avenue's length. The western end of the western sector is almost closed by the banks curving towards each other, leaving only a narrow gap 1m apart. The eastern end of the avenue's eastern sector is open, the rubble banks separated by a gap of 8m. The constriction separating the western and central sectors is marked across its western end by a slight slope down to the west and across its eastern end by a low bank of surface rubble. The funerary cist is situated within the line of the southern bank at the constriction separating the central and eastern sectors of the avenue. It survives as a box-like structure containing three edge-set slabs, 0.6m to 1m long and 0.3m to 0.6m high, forming its south-west, north-west and south-east sides, defining a sub-rectangular internal area measuring 1.3m NW-SE and 0.5m NE-SW. The north-east side of the cist is not closed by a surviving slab. Beyond this monument, a large and broadly contemporary tor cairn, 136m to the ESE, encircles the summit outcrop of Showery Tor, on which this avenue is aligned. An earlier, Neolithic, hillfort is located on Roughtor, 320m to the south, while the lower north-west slope of the Shower Tor-Roughtor ridge, 55m to the west, contains extensive traces of a broadly contemporary prehistoric field system on which a dispersed and varied group of funerary cairns were later constructed. These cairns appear to post-date the partial dismantling of the field system which occurred after a change in the prehistoric land use of the area.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Burl, A, The Stone Circles of the British Isles, (1976)
Other
consulted 10/1991, Carter, A./RCHME, 1:2500 AP transcription for SX 1481,
consulted 10/1991, CAU, 1:1000 Survey and explanatory overly for SX 1481 SE, (1984)
consulted 10/1991, Cornwall SMR entries for PRN 3292-3,
consulted 10/1991, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1401,
consulted 10/1991, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 3287-8,
consulted 10/1991, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 3296,
consulted 10/1991, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 3298,
consulted 10/1991, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 3298.1,
consulted 10/1991, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 3307,
consulted 5/1992, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 3384,

National Grid Reference: SX 14728 81380

Map

Map
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This copy shows the entry on 18-Dec-2017 at 01:26:56.

End of official listing