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Enclosure on Woofa Bank with 11 carved rocks and one upright stone

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Enclosure on Woofa Bank with 11 carved rocks and one upright stone

List entry Number: 1011753

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Bradford

District Type: Metropolitan Authority

Parish: Burley

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 20-Jun-1995

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 25311

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Rombalds Moor is an eastern outlier of the main Pennine range lying between the valleys of the Wharfe and the Aire. The bulk of this area of 90 sq km of rough moorland lies over 200m above sea level. The moor is particularly rich in remains of prehistoric activity. The most numerous relics are the rock carvings which can be found on many of the boulders and outcrops scattered across the moor. Burial monuments, stone circles and a range of enclosed settlements are also known. Within the landscape of Rombalds Moor are many discrete plots of land enclosed by stone walls or banks of stone and earth, most of which date to the Bronze Age (c.2000-700 BC), although earlier and later examples may also exist. They were constructed as protected areas for settlement, stock penning, or crop growing. They may be subdivided into a series of smaller enclosures; those used for settlement may retain evidence of the round huts originally located within them. The size and form of enclosures vary considerably, depending on their particular function. Their variation in form, longevity and relationship to other monument classes provide important information on the diversity of social organisation and farming practices among prehistoric communities. They are particularly representative of their period and a substantial proportion of surviving examples are worthy of protection.

Prehistoric rock carving is found on natural boulders and rock outcrops in many areas of upland Britain. It is especially common in the north of England in Northumberland, Durham, and North and West Yorkshire. The most common form of decoration is the `cup' marking, where small cup-like hollows are worked into the surface of the rock. These cups may be surrounded by one or more `rings'. Single pecked lines extending from the cup through the rings may also exist, providing the design with a `tail'. Other shapes and patterns also occur but are less frequent. Carvings may occur singly, in small groups, or may cover extensive areas of rock surface. They date to the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age periods (2800-c.500 BC) and provide one our most important insights into prehistoric `art'. The exact meaning of the designs remains unknown, but they may be interpreted as sacred or religious symbols. All positively identified prehistoric rock carvings sites will normally be identified as nationally important. This enclosure is a typical and well preserved example of an upland prehistoric enclosure. It also forms a vital part of the prehistoric landscape on this part of Rombalds Moor. The presence of the upright rock and the very high concentration of carved rocks in the area of the enclosure may indicate that it had a ritual function as well as being a site for more domestic activities.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes an egg shaped, rubble walled enclosure on Woofa Bank. The monument also includes 11 carved rocks and a stone near the centre of the enclosure which has been set upright. The enclosure is c.80m in length and c.55m in width. It is incomplete on the south eastern side, which may in part be due to the steeper slope on this side. It is, however, more likely that this part of the enclosure walling has been robbed at this point, as there are a number of small stone quarries in this area. The enclosure walling is most substantial on the western side where it is c.3m wide and 0.5m high. The walling appears to be coursed in places and incorporates a number of large boulders, some of which are set upright. The majority of the carved rocks included in this monument are within the enclosure, one is incorporated in the enclosure walling, and another lies immediately outside the enclosure on the western side. The carvings range from single cup marks to much more complex designs; all are in the cup and ring tradition. In the approximate centre of the enclosure is a single rectangular rock which appears to have been intentionally set upright.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 102
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 106
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 50
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 49
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 50
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 49
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 50
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 102
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 106
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 49
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 103

National Grid Reference: SE 13889 45491

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1011753 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 14-Dec-2017 at 08:16:58.

End of official listing