Bowl barrow east of the A360 forming part of the Winterbourne Stoke crossroads round barrow cemetery
- Heritage Category:
- Scheduled Monument
- List Entry Number:
- Date first listed:
- Date of most recent amendment:
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This copy shows the entry on 23-May-2019 at 11:43:48.
The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
- Wiltshire (Unitary Authority)
- Winterbourne Stoke
- National Grid Reference:
- SU 09979 41612
Reasons for Designation
A small number of areas in southern England appear to have acted as foci for
ceremonial and ritual activity during the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods.
Two of the best known and earliest recognised areas are around Avebury and
Stonehenge, now jointly designated as a World Heritage Site.
The area of chalk downland which surrounds Stonehenge contains one of the
densest and most varied groups of Neolithic and Bronze Age field monuments in
Britain. Included within the area are Stonehenge itself, the Stonehenge
cursus, the Durrington Walls henge, and a variety of burial monuments, many
grouped into cemeteries.
The area has been the subject of archaeological research since the 18th
century when Stukeley recorded many of the monuments and partially excavated a
number of the burial mounds. More recently, the collection of artefacts from
the surfaces of ploughed fields has supplemented the evidence for ritual and
burial by revealing the intensity of contemporary settlement and land-use. In
view of the importance of the area, all ceremonial and sepulchral monuments of
this period which retain significant archaeological remains are identified as
Round barrow cemeteries date to the Bronze Age (2000-700 BC). They comprise
closely spaced groups of up to 30 round barrows - rubble or earthen mounds
covering single or multiple burials. Most cemeteries developed over a
considerable period of time, often many centuries, and in some cases acted as
a focus for burials as late as the early medieval period. They exhibit
considerable diversity of burial rite, plan and form, frequently including
several different types of round barrow and occasionally associated with
earlier long barrows. Where investigation beyond the round barrows has
occurred, contemporary or later 'flat' burials between the barrow mounds have
often been revealed. Round barrow cemeteries occur across most of lowland
England with a marked concentration in Wessex. In some cases they are
clustered around other important contemporary monuments, as is the case both
here and at Avebury. Often occupying prominent positions, they are a major
historic element in the modern landscape, while their diversity and their
longevity as a monument type provide important information on the variety of
beliefs and social organisation amongst early prehistoric communities.
Bowl barrows, the most numerous form of round barrow, are funerary monuments dating from the Late Neolithic period to the Late Bronze Age. They were constructed as earthen or rubble mounds, normally ditched, which covered single or multiple burials. Often superficially similar, although differing widely in size, they exhibit regional variations in form and a variety of burial practices. The burials, either inhumations or cremations, are sometimes accompanied by pottery vessels, tools and personal ornaments. There are over 10,000 surviving bowl barrows recorded nationally and at least 320 in the Stonehenge area.
The bowl barrow east of the A360 survives well and forms an integral part of the Winterbourne Stoke linear round barrow cemetery. Partial excavation has shown that it contains archaeological remains and environmental evidence relating to the monument and the landscape in which it was constructed.
The monument includes a bowl barrow on the east side of the A360 forming part
of the Winterbourne Stoke crossroads round barrow cemetery, a nucleated
cemetery situated on a ridge with views westwards across the Till valley and
eastwards across Stonehenge and Normanton Down. The focal point and origin of
the cemetery is a long barrow situated 100m to the south west of the monument,
its long axis orientated along the ridge on which the cemetery has developed.
The Winterbourne Stoke crossroads cemetery contains 22 round barrows in all,
including 14 bowl barrows, three bell barrows, two disc barrows, two pond
barrows and a saucer barrow. This monument contains one of the bowl barrows,
an outlier situated to the south west of the cemetery.
The barrow mound is 22m in diameter and 3.25m high, surrounded by a ditch 4m
wide and 0.5m deep from which material was quarried during its construction.
The overall diameter is therefore 30m. The mound is flat-topped. Partial
excavation in the 19th century revealed a primary skeleton with a small
MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
- Legacy System number:
- Legacy System:
Books and journals
Grinsell, LV, The Victoria History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume V, (1957), 201
Hoare, R C, Ancient History of Wiltshire, (1812), 121
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing