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Enclosed settlement containing three carved rocks known as Backstone Beck Enclosure

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Enclosed settlement containing three carved rocks known as Backstone Beck Enclosure

List entry Number: 1012847

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Bradford

District Type: Metropolitan Authority

Parish: Ilkley

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 22-May-1995

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 25334

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Rombalds Moor is an eastern outlier of the main Pennine range lying between the valleys of the Wharfe and the Aire. The bulk of this area of 90 sq km of rough moorland lies over 200m above sea level. The moor is particularly rich in remains of prehistoric activity. The most numerous relics are the rock carvings which can be found on many of the boulders and outcrops scattered across the moor. Burial monuments, stone circles and a range of enclosed settlements are also known. Within the landscape of Rombalds Moor are many discrete plots of land enclosed by stone walls or banks of stone and earth, most of which date to the Bronze Age (c.2000-700 BC), although earlier and later examples may also exist. They were constructed as protected areas for settlement, stock penning, or crop growing. They may be subdivided into a series of smaller enclosures; those used for settlement may retain evidence of the round huts originally located within them. The size and form of enclosures vary considerably, depending on their particular function. Their variation in form, longevity and relationship to other monument classes provide important information on the diversity of social organisation and farming practices among prehistoric communities. They are particularly representative of their period and a substantial proportion of surviving examples are worthy of protection.

Prehistoric rock carving is found on natural boulders and rock outcrops in many areas of upland Britain. It is especially common in the north of England in Northumberland, Durham, and North and West Yorkshire. The most common form of decoration is the `cup' marking, where small cup-like hollows are worked into the surface of the rock. These cups may be surrounded by one or more `rings'. Single pecked lines extending from the cup through the rings may also exist, providing the design with a `tail'. Other shapes and patterns also occur but are less frequent. Carvings may occur singly, in small groups, or may cover extensive areas of rock surface. They date to the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age periods (c.2800-500 BC) and provide one of our most important insights into prehistoric `art'. The exact meaning of the designs remains unknown, but they may be interpreted as sacred or religious symbols. All positively identified prehistoric rock carving sites will normally be identified as nationally important. This enclosed settlement is well-preserved, and is important evidence of prehistoric activity on this part of Rombalds Moor. The carvings on these rocks survive well and they will contribute to an understanding of the wider grouping of carved rocks on Rombalds Moor.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a rubble-walled enclosed settlement containing three carved rocks and two possible hut circles. It is situated on a low ridge at the western end of Green Crag Slack, a short distance east of Backstone Beck. The enclosed settlement, which was partially excavated by the Ilkley Archaeology Group (1982-1987), has been partly reconstructed as a low rubble wall, 1.25m wide and 0.4m high. This reconstruction also includes two small circular structures, probably hut circles, at the southern end. Where the bank is undisturbed it has little visible structure and is 1.9m wide and 0.3m high. The enclosure is incomplete on its western side, and has an area of rough cobbling near the south east corner. All three carved rocks are in prominent positions on the ridge and have complex carvings in the cup-and-ring tradition.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 46
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 46
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 46
Other
Backstone Beck Excavation, Godfrey HW, Summary Report, (1987)

National Grid Reference: SE 12832 46184

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1012847 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 15-Dec-2017 at 02:45:30.

End of official listing