Wayside cross at Bulland Cross

Overview

Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1013738

Date first listed: 22-Oct-1971

Date of most recent amendment: 15-Nov-1995

Map

Ordnance survey map of Wayside cross at Bulland Cross
© Crown Copyright and database right 2018. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2018. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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Location

The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Devon

District: West Devon (District Authority)

Parish: Sampford Courtenay

National Grid Reference: SS 62987 01239

Summary

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross erected during the medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD. In addition to serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the Christian faith amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the traveller, wayside crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in difficult and otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly used routes linking ordinary settlements or on routes having a more specifically religious function, including those providing access to religious sites for parishioners and funeral processions, or marking long-distance routes frequented on pilgrimages. Over 350 wayside crosses are known nationally, concentrated in south west England throughout Cornwall and on Dartmoor where they form the commonest type of stone cross. A small group also occurs on the North York Moors. Relatively few examples have been recorded elsewhere and these are generally confined to remote moorland locations. Outside Cornwall almost all wayside crosses take the form of a `Latin' cross, in which the cross-head itself is shaped within the projecting arms of an unenclosed cross. In Cornwall wayside crosses vary considerably in form and decoration. The commonest type includes a round, or `wheel', head on the faces of which various forms of cross or related designs were carved in relief or incised, the spaces between the cross arms possibly pierced. The design was sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ and the shaft might bear decorative panels and motifs. Less common forms in Cornwall include the `Latin' cross and, much rarer, the simple slab with a low relief cross on both faces. Rare examples of wheel-head and slab-form crosses also occur within the North York Moors group. Most wayside crosses have either a simple socketed base or show no evidence for a separate base at all. Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval religious customs and sculptural traditions and to our knowledge of medieval routeways and settlement patterns. All wayside crosses which survive as earth- fast monuments, except those which are extremely damaged and removed from their original locations, are considered worthy of protection.

The wayside cross at Bulland Cross survives well and is likely to be in its original position. It is one of a group of five crosses in Sampford Courtenay village, an unusual concentration in this area.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

This monument includes a wayside cross at Bulland Cross, in Sampford Courtenay, at the crossroads between Bulland Lane, Chapple Lane and Cliston Lane. The wayside cross is complete and set into a hedge at the roadside. The cross is 2.3m high and has an octagonal shaft which is 0.43m wide at the base and tapers to 0.3m at the arms. The cross measures 0.7m wide at the arms and 0.3m at the head. At the back of the cross and 0.33m from the head is a recess which measures 0.23m high, 0.1m wide and 0.06m deep and is rectangular in shape. The Bulland Cross is thought to date to the 14th to 15th centuries and is of a type common to Devon. Excluded from the scheduling are the field boundary bank and metalled road surface where they fall within the cross's protective margin, although the ground beneath both is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Legacy

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 27312

Legacy System: RSM

Sources

Books and journals
Masson Phillips, E, 'Devonshire Association Transactions' in The Ancient Stone Crosses of Devon : Part 1, , Vol. 69, (1936-37), 335
Other
Clayton,C, (1994)
Devon County Sites and Monuments Register, SS60SW-017, (1982)
MPP fieldwork by H. Gerrard, (1994)

End of official listing