Wayside cross-base 300m north west of the Church of St Newlina

Overview

Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1018210

Date first listed: 29-Jan-1998

Map

Ordnance survey map of Wayside cross-base 300m north west of the Church of St Newlina
© Crown Copyright and database right 2018. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
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Location

The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

District: Cornwall (Unitary Authority)

Parish: St. Newlyn East

National Grid Reference: SW 82687 56566

Summary

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross erected during the medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD. In addition to serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the Christian faith amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the traveller, wayside crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in difficult and otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly used routes linking ordinary settlements or on routes having a more specifically religious function, including those providing access to religious sites for parishioners and funeral processions, or marking long-distance routes frequented on pilgrimages. Over 350 wayside crosses are known nationally, concentrated in south west England throughout Cornwall and on Dartmoor where they form the commonest type of stone cross. A small group also occurs on the North York Moors. Relatively few examples have been recorded elsewhere and these are generally confined to remote moorland locations. Outside Cornwall almost all wayside crosses take the form of a `Latin' cross, in which the cross-head itself is shaped within the projecting arms of an unenclosed cross. In Cornwall wayside crosses vary considerably in form and decoration. The commonest type includes a round, or `wheel', head on the faces of which various forms of cross or related designs were carved in relief or incised, the spaces between the cross arms possibly pierced. The design was sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ and the shaft might bear decorative panels and motifs. Less common forms in Cornwall include the `Latin' cross and, much rarer, the simple slab with a low relief cross on both faces. Rare examples of wheel-head and slab-form crosses also occur within the North York Moors group. Most wayside crosses have either a simple socketed base or show no evidence for a separate base at all. Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval religious customs and sculptural traditions and to our knowledge of medieval routeways and settlement patterns. All wayside crosses which survive as earth- fast monuments, except those which are extremely damaged and removed from their original locations, are considered worthy of protection.

The presence of this medieval wayside cross-base at its original location demonstrates well the major roles of wayside crosses, the development of the road network and the longevity of many routes still in use.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a medieval wayside cross-base situated beside the road on a route from St Newlyn East to Tregair. The wayside cross-base is visible as a rectangular granite slab measuring 0.6m north-south by 0.75m east-west, and 0.19m thick. The east side of the cross-base is rounded in shape. The cross-base is groundfast set into a granite walled niche in the base of the hedge. The central rectangular socket measures 0.25m east-west by 0.18m north-south and is 0.1m deep. The road which the cross stands beside leads northwards towards the lowest bridged crossing point of the River Gannel at Trevemper Bridge, linking St Newlyn East with one of the main routes through Cornwall. There is a footpath just south of the cross-base to the church at St Newlyn East, so this cross acted as a waymarker on a local level marking the route to the parish church. The cross-base is Listed Grade II. The metalled surface of the road passing to the west of the cross-base where it falls within its protective margin is excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Legacy

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 30437

Legacy System: RSM

Sources

Books and journals
Langdon, A, Stone Crosses in Mid Cornwall, (1994)
Other
Title: 1:25000 Ordnance Survey Map; SW 85/95; Pathfinder 1353 Source Date: 1983 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:

End of official listing