Howgill Fold Romano-British farmstead


Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1018826

Date first listed: 16-Feb-1948

Date of most recent amendment: 29-Oct-1999


Ordnance survey map of Howgill Fold Romano-British farmstead
© Crown Copyright and database right 2018. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
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This copy shows the entry on 11-Dec-2018 at 15:37:43.


The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Cumbria

District: Eden (District Authority)

Parish: Warcop

National Grid Reference: NY 75846 19002


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non- defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common. Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known. These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common, although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography. All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be identified as nationally important.

Despite some impact damage caused by artillery during military training exercises, Howgill Fold Romano-British farmstead survives reasonably well and is a good example of this class of monument. It is one of a number of similar monuments located on the hillslopes of east Cumbria and will facilitate further study of Romano-British settlement patterns in the area.


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.


The monument includes the earthworks and buried remains of Howgill Fold Romano-British farmstead. It is located on the southern slopes of Roman Fell a short distance west of Dobbyhole Gill, and includes a sub-rectangular stone-walled enclosure measuring approximately 67m north east - south west by 60m north west - south east within which are the remains of four stone hut circles and a small stock enclosure. There is an entrance on the monument's western side close to the south west corner. Within the northern half of the enclosure there are the remains of three hut circles in which the occupants lived. These measure 6m-12m in diameter externally; two are located adjacent to the enclosure wall while the third lies above a slight natural scarp running north west - south east across the enclosure. At the centre of the southern half of the enclosure there is a stone-walled sub-rectangular stock enclosure measuring approximately 17m by 14m externally with an entrance on its north western side. A short distance to the east, and attached to this stock enclosure by a bank or wall, is a hut circle. Metal marker posts at the four corners of the monument are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath these is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 27836

Legacy System: RSM


In Cumbria SMR No. 2763, Ordnance Survey, IA/RB Homestead at Howgill Fold, (1978)
RCHME Unique ID No. 14835, RCHME, Howgill Fold, (1997)
RCHME, Westmorland, (1936)

End of official listing