Round barrow,lime kiln and warrening enclosure in Wykeham Forest, 540m east of Jenny Thrush Spring
Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument
List Entry Number: 1019355
Date first listed: 22-Jan-1969
Date of most recent amendment: 06-Oct-2000
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
County: North Yorkshire
District: Scarborough (District Authority)
National Park: NORTH YORK MOORS
National Grid Reference: SE 92770 87457
Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.
Reasons for Designation
Round barrows are funerary monuments dating from the Late Neolithic period to
the Late Bronze Age, with most examples belonging to the period 2400-1500 BC.
They were constructed as earthen mounds, sometimes ditched, which covered
single or multiple burials. They occur either in isolation or grouped as
cemeteries and often acted as a focus of burials in later periods. Often
superficially similar, although differing widely in size, they exhibit
regional variations in form and a diversity of burial practices. There are
over 10,000 surviving examples recorded nationally (many more have already
been destroyed), occurring across most of Britain, including the Wessex area
where it is often possible to classify them more closely, for example as bowl
or bell barrows. Often occupying prominent locations, they are a major
historic element in the modern landscape and their considerable variation in
form and longevity as a monument type provide important information on the
diversity of beliefs and social organisations amongst early prehistoric
communities. They are particularly representative of their period and a
substantial proportion of surviving examples are considered worthy of
The Tabular Hills in the Wykeham Forest area contain a dense concentration of prehistoric monuments, dating from the Neolithic to the Iron Age, which includes field systems, enclosures and land boundaries as well as both round and square barrows. The spatial and chronological relationships between the round and square barrows in this area, and between both types of barrow and other prehistoric monuments, are of considerable importance for understanding the development of later prehistoric society in eastern Yorkshire. Unlike many of the other barrows in Wykeham Forest, this barrow, has not been excavated. Despite the limited disturbance caused by the construction of the limekiln, the barrow has survived in a very good state of preservation. The archaeological deposits survive largely intact and evidence for the date and original form of the barrow and the burials placed within it will be preserved. Evidence for earlier land use and the contemporary environment will also survive beneath the barrow mound. Lime kilns are structures which were built in order to produce lime by burning chalk or limestone with a fuel, such as wood, peat or coal. The earliest lime kilns are Roman in date, but most surviving examples which have been identified are 18th or 19th century and date from a time when agricultural intensification generated the need for large quantities of lime for spreading on cultivated fields. Clamp kilns are generally found in rural locations where they were constructed for single or intermittant use and had no permanent superstructure. The kiln was formed of an excavated bowl or pit, within which was placed a base of kindling and a mound of alternating layers of limestone and fuel. The sides may have been built up slightly with earth and/or rough stone walling, and the load was covered with sods of earth. A flue was incorporated into the base of the mound and when ready, the whole mass was set alight and left to burn itself out over a period of days. The kiln was then dismantled and the lime removed. This lime kiln is important because it has been constructed in the side of a round barrow, and this demonstrates the diversity of form which it is thought rural clamp kilns had. A warren is an area of land set aside for the breeding and management of rabbits or hares in order to provide a constant supply of fresh meat and skins. Although the hare is an indigenous species, the tradition of warren construction and use dates from the 12th century, following the introduction of rabbits into England from the continent. Warrens usually contain a number of purpose-built breeding places known as pillow mounds or rabbit buries, which were intended to centralise the colony and make catching the animals easier, whether using nets, ferrets or dogs. Earlier monuments such as burial mounds, boundary features and mottes were sometimes reused as breeding places. Many warrens were enclosed by a bank, hedge or wall intended to contain and protect the stock. Other features associated with the warren include vermin traps, and more rarely traps for the warren stock which could contain the animals unharmed and allow for selective culling. In Yorkshire, rabbit traps are known as `types' and in the larger warrens on the Tabular Hills, they were often placed within a stone or turf-walled enclosure. These warrening enclosures could be as small as 5m x 5m or be much larger, covering areas of up to 2ha. Early warrens were mostly associated with the higher levels of society; however, they gradually spread in popularity so that by the 16th and 17th centuries they were a common feature on most manors and estates throughout the country. Warrens continued in use until fairly recent times, finally declining in the face of 19th and 20th century changes in agricultural practice, and the onset of myxomatosis. Warrens are found in all parts of England, the earliest examples lying in the southern part of the country. Approximately 1000-2000 examples are known nationally, with concentrations in upland areas, on heathland and in coastal zones. The profits from a successfully managed warren could, however, be considerable and many areas in lowland England were set aside for warrens at the expense of agricultural land. Although relatively common, warrens are important for their associations with other classes of monument, including various forms of settlement, deer parks, field systems and fishponds. They may also provide evidence of the economy of both secular and ecclesiastical estates. All well preserved medieval examples are considered worthy of protection. A sample of well preserved sites of later date will also merit protection. Despite limited disturbance, this warrening enclosure has survived well and will preserve valuable information about its original form and use. It is important because of its spatial association with the round barrow and lime kiln around which it is built. The successive insertion of the lime kiln within the barrow and construction of the enclosure around both forms an interesting demonstration of evolving attitudes to the barrow in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.
The monument includes a round barrow situated on level ground towards the
northern scarp edge of the Tabular Hills.
The barrow has a well defined earthen mound which measures up to 24m in
diameter and stands up to 2.5m high. On the northern edge of the mound there
are the remains of a lime kiln which was constructed in the 18th or 19th
century and is of a type known as a clamp kiln. The lime kiln is visible as a
steep-sided oval shaped hollow, orientated north to south and measuring 4m by
1.5m, which has been excavated from the side of the barrow mound. The hollow
is surrounded on the east and west sides by earthen banks which are continuous
with the barrow mound and extend to the north for 4m beyond the edge of it.
The banks and the barrow mound together form a horseshoe shape around the
hollow which at its northern limit has an overall width of 3m.
The barrow and lime kiln lie within a trapezoidal enclosure which is
orientated NNE to SSW. The enclosure has an internal length of 79m on the east
side and 89m on the west side, and an internal width of 44m. It is defined by
an earthen bank with near vertical sides, which would have been constructed as
a turf wall. The bank is 2m wide and stands up to 1m high. On the inside of
the enclosure bank there is a ditch which survives up to 0.5m wide and 0.3m
Originally there would also have been a ditch up to 1m wide around the
exterior of the enclosure bank, but this has become infilled over the years
and is now only visible on the west side, where traces survive up to 0.7m wide
and 0.3m deep. There is a break in the enclosure bank at the south west corner
which has been caused by recent forestry activities. The enclosure would have
been used for rabbit warrening and would have contained at least one rabbit
trap, but this is no longer visible, having become infilled after the
enclosure went out of use.
The monument lies within a dense concentration of prehistoric burial monuments
in an area which also includes the remains of prehistoric settlement and land
MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
Legacy System number: 34163
Legacy System: RSM
Books and journals
Harris, A, Spratt, D A, 'Yorkshire Archaeological Journal' in The Rabbit Warrens of the Tabular Hills, North Yorkshire, , Vol. 63, (1991), 176-206
Spratt, D A , 'Prehistoric and Roman Archaeology in North East Yorkshire' in Prehistoric and Roman Archaeology of North East Yorkshire, , Vol. 87, (1993)
Lee, G E, (1999)
Rimmington, N, (2000)
Title: 1st Edition 6" Ordnance Survey sheet 76 Source Date: 1854 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing