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The Public House in England

This page highlights one of England’s best-known and best-loved building types – the public house or ‘pub’ – and the increasingly vulnerable position it holds in our historic environment.

Historic England has been carrying out a series of internal and external projects to increase understanding and protection of pubs.

The level of threat

Pubs have closed in huge numbers across the country over recent decades, especially in urban and suburban areas. In 2009, a record number of 52 pubs a week closed.

This number has now fallen – research carried out in late 2012 by the Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA) showed that 18 pubs were closing each week. However, the level of change remains significant, and has a notable impact on the historic environment and the lives of many people.

The result of pub closures has been a steady stream of conversions, with many historic features and fittings being lost in the process. It is especially common to find that former pubs are converted to restaurants, convenience stores and supermarkets, something which currently requires no planning permission. In numerous other cases, pubs have simply been demolished, their grounds often providing ample space for residential blocks, supermarkets or nursing homes.

A picture of the front and side of The Good Companions Pub, Brighton
The Good Companions pub, Dyke Road, Brighton, East Sussex, built in 1939. © Historic England; DP054276

Why are pubs closing?

The closure of pubs has its roots in the late 1800s and early 1900s, when the British government – influenced by the temperance movement and a growing awareness of the ‘evils’ of alcohol – actively sought to reduce the number of public houses.

Throughout the 20th century, other factors have contributed, such as:

  • Social change, and a broader range of forms of social entertainment.
  • The smoking ban, introduced to England in 2007.
  • Excessive rates of beer tax, which has increased by 42% since 2008.
  • Discounted alcohol sales by supermarkets and other shops.
  • The high and rising value of pub sites for redevelopment, especially in urban and suburban areas.

Boarded-up pub in Swindon with half-timbered gables, built around 1900. Formerly the Oddfellows Arms.
The former Oddfellows Arms pub, Cricklade Street, Swindon, built c. 1900, closed by 2006 and now in use as a private house. © Historic England; aa059394

What is being done?

Various groups have responded to the threat to pubs. One of those is CAMRA, whose current campaigns include ‘List your Local’, encouraging people to nominate pubs to be listed by local authorities as ‘assets of community value’. This can help save a pub by providing communities with extra time to explore options before a building is sold or demolished.

Other champions of the public house include the British Beer and Pub Association (BBPA) and the parliamentary Save the Pub Group, chaired by Greg Mulholland MP.

Projects on the English pub

Inter-war pubs

This project, completed in Spring 2015, assessed the level of threat to pubs across the country and sought to increase understanding, awareness and protection of this building type. See the resulting research report on inter-war pubs. Around 30 of the pubs investigated were recommended for protection through listing.  You can read more about the listing of these inter-war pubs in our news section.

Post-war pubs

Historic England has recently started a project on England’s post-war pubs to complement the inter-war pubs project. It focuses more on raising levels of understanding and appreciation. Pubs of this period are especially vulnerable

19th and 20th century Bristol pubs

This project was commissioned by Historic England from external consultants and was completed in 2015. It identified and assessed significant pubs of a range of types and dates, and aimed to raise awareness about the history and development of Bristol’s pubs, and the threats they currently face.  See the project report on Bristol pubs.

19th and 20th century Leeds pubs

A second externally commissioned project looked at the pubs of Leeds, and had the same aims as that assessing the pubs of Bristol. The project was completed in summer 2015.

The Public Houses of the State Management Scheme 1916 – 1973

Historic England is currently undertaking this project, which aims to study and investigate the buildings of the state management scheme, started in 1916 to control the supply and sale of alcohol in certain key areas – notably Carlisle, Cumbria, where the scheme lasted until 1973.

A corner image of the former Seagull Pub. A building with half-timbered gables and a sculpture of a flying seagull above the entrance.
The former Seagull pub, Broad Street, Portsmouth, built in 1900, closed in 1970 and now in use as an estate agent’s. © Historic England, DP086435
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Also of interest...

  • Exterior of the Spirit Vaults public house (later renamed Carlistle Arms) with a delivery of barrels being unloaded from a horse-drawn wagon.

    State Control of Pubs

    At the height of the WWI, government nationalised public houses to reduce the impact of excessive drinking on productivity of munitions workers.