The Slave Trade and Abolition
Research into the impact of the slave trade and its abolition.
As Lord Chief Justice, Lord Mansfield (from 1705 to 1793) presided over a number of cases about slavery in Westminster Hall, Palace of Westminster, London, SW1A 2PW. As well as Parliament, it was a Court of Law. Here you can find out more about some of these cases.
Lord Mansfield lived at Kenwood House, Hampstead Lane, London NW3 7JR. His most famous case was that of James Somerset.
Having been enslaved, Somerset ran away but had been recaptured and held aboard a ship bound for Jamaica. The slavery abolitionist, Granville Sharp, helped Somerset to bring his case to court. Sharp wanted to find out once and for all if slavery was legal in England.
After much delay Lord Mansfield eventually gave a carefully worded judgement. He avoided the question of whether slavery was legal in England. Instead he stated:
No master was ever allowed here to take a slave by force to be sold abroad because he deserted from his service, or for any other reason whatever.
James Somerset was freed.
Immediately afterwards the Somerset case was hailed by many as a victory. However, some slave owners ignored the ruling and continued to take Africans abroad forcibly.
The case of James Somerset was widely reported in the press and highlighted the question of slavery and British involvement in the slave trade.
In 1781, 133 enslaved people on board the ship Zong on route to Jamaica were thrown overboard so that the owners could file an insurance claim under British law.
In 1783 Olaudah Equiano heard about the massacre and that the insurers had brought a legal case against the ship's owners. It was to be heard by the Lord Chief Justice, Lord Mansfield at Guildhall. Equiano told his friend, the abolitionist Granville Sharp, about the case. Sharp tried to have the ship's captain tried for murder. A re-trial was ordered by Lord Mansfield, but never took place.
The details of the massacre of the slaves shocked the public and it was a turning point in the campaign to end slavery.
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