Combination of geophysical survey and air photo interpretation for Marden Henge © Historic England

Research Methods

This page introduces the range of methods we use to research, investigate and analyse the historic environment. These include:

  • Landscape-scale approaches involving, for example, aerial photography and mapping, and Historic Landscape Characterisation
  • Place-based non-intrusive methods including analytical landscape survey, geophysical survey, and historic area assessment
  • Site-based methods including building investigation, earthwork survey, geospatial survey, imaging and visualisation, scientific dating, and targeted archaeological excavation
  • Post-excavation conservation and scientific analysis

We also commission research employing these and other methods, and produce technical advice notes that explain our approaches.