Cornwall National Mapping Programme project
A rich and varied heritage
Cornwall has a rich and varied archaeological heritage reflected in the wide range of sites mapped during the NMP project. A striking aspect of Cornwall’s historic landscape is the extraordinary legacy of its tin and copper mining industries. The value of NMP interpretation and mapping of early workings is that many of these features do not appear on any other maps. This data was a key source of information leading to the inscription of the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape as a World Heritage Site in 2006.
Archaeologists in Cornwall are fortunate that in the uplands the surviving remains are easily seen. On Bodmin Moor, for example, there are prehistoric settlements as well as abandoned medieval hamlets.
Away from the moors, in the farming heartland, many archaeological features have been levelled by ploughing. In some cases below-ground remains do survive and in certain dry summers these remains can be seen from the air as cropmarks.
At Coswarth in central Cornwall, an oval enclosure can be seen as a dark green mark in a field containing a paler green crop. Excavation of similar enclosures has shown that this site is likely to be a settlement of late Iron Age or Romano-British date. In Cornwall they are traditionally called rounds and are the predominant settlement type from this period in lowland areas. Rounds usually have entrances with gates, and contain several round houses although in this particular example all that can be seen is the enclosing ditch.
The defence of Cornwall
Leaping forward in time, many of Cornwall’s wartime defences are visible on RAF aerial photographs taken during the 1940s. By mapping individual features, such as pill boxes, anti-tank ditches and anti-aircraft batteries, a picture can be built up of the complete defensive networks protecting the county’s key strategic locations.
For example, Carkeel Anti-Aircraft battery is a fine example of a heavy anti-aircraft battery near the River Tamar, which forms the county border with Devon. Two phases of construction are known for the site and both are visible in the image below; the four gun emplacements that are still well preserved, towards the bottom of the image, were constructed towards the end of the war. Traces of four earlier emplacements, dating from 1940, can be seen towards the top of the image.
Ironically, although it is sited in Cornwall, this battery formed part of the defensive ring around Plymouth. Batteries like this worked to put up a barrage of fire to force bombers to fly higher, thereby reducing their accuracy.
The downside of this, of course, is that wayward bombs often fell onto residential areas. During the Plymouth blitz in the spring of 1941, the Cornish towns of Torpoint and Saltash, a few miles south of this battery, sustained severe damage.
The key findings from the project can be found in the project report:
The images used on this page are copyright Historic England unless specified otherwise. For further details of any photographs or other images and for copies of these, or the plans and reports related to the project, please contact the Historic England Archive.
For further information on a project or any other aspect of the work of the Remote Sensing Team please contact us via email using the link below.
Historic Places Investigation
Also of interest...
Historic England experts use airborne remote sensing methods to identify, record and monitor the condition of heritage assets
We identify archaeological sites and landscapes using aerial photography, lidar, geophysics, earthwork analysis and excavation.
Read about the threats to our coastal heritage and what Historic England is doing to discover, record and protect that vulnerable heritage
Dartmoor was an early pre-National Mapping Programme survey undertaken in 1984-5 covering Dartmoor National Park and part of south-west Dartmoor.
The aerial survey of North Devon AONB was part of a programme of mapping projects in Devon carried out to NMP standards.
Find out about funding for projects that directly address themes outlined in Historic England’s Research Agenda
Further details are available on Cornish Mining World Heritage