Bamburgh Castle, Bamburgh, Northumberland
The remains of the castle seen today date back to the 12th century. The castle is built on top of a volcanic outcrop of rock. It is also built over prehistoric and Roman occupation. It was the citadel of the Kings of Bernicia. It became a royal fortress in 1095 when it was captured from the Earl of Northumberland. The keep is known to have existed by 1164. It was beseiged unsuccessfully by the Scots in 1138,1328 and 1333. It was taken by Yorkists in 1462 (twice) and by French and Scots on behalf of the Lancastrians in 1463. It was finally captured by the Yorkists using guns in 1464. Except for a short period when it was in the possession of the Earl of Huntingdon, King David of Scotland's son, it remained an important royal fortress until the unification of the English and Scottish Crowns in 1603. It was all in ruins when it was acquired by Lord Crewe in 1704. It was left to various charities on his death. It was made habitable in c1757 by Dr Sharp (a trustee). He used the buildings for schooling, an infirmary, a granary and a lighthouse. The whole castle was drastically restored in the 1890s when it was acquired by Lord Armstrong.