Bell Tower and Fortifications, Berwick upon Tweed, Northumberland
Berwick upon Tweed is one of the best examples in Europe of a fortified town. Medieval walls were begun by Edward I and surrounded the town. They had the Castle at their North West corner. Their course is traceable, and fragments remain in the Bell Tower (base) and walling on the North side. The Elizabethan fortifications are unique in Britain. They were begun in c1555 and built to the latest Italian designs. In the 1760s the medieval walls were rebuilt with gun batteries, and Coxon's Tower was rebuilt. The gates in the walls include Scotsgate, Cowport, Ness Gate and Shore Gate .