The Castle Keep, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear
The castle keep was built in 1168-78. The current roof and battlements were added in c1811 by the Newcastle Corporation. It was restored in 1848 for the Society of Antiquaries Newcastle. The first castle was built in 1080 on the site of the Roman fort of Pons Aelius. It was refortified from 1168 to 1178 under Henry II. As well as the keep the North Gate and the curtain walls were added. A barbican, the Black Gate, and the Heron Pit, the prison, were built under Henry III (1216-1272). When the town walls were built in the late 13th century, the castle gradually became obsolete and began to decay. However the castle was bought by the Newcastle Corporation in 1809 and during the 19th century much restoration was carried out.