Bird's-eye view of the interlocking diamond black and white paving in the sunken garden.
The Lutyens Sunken Garden at White Lodge, Brighton. © Historic England.
The Lutyens Sunken Garden at White Lodge, Brighton. © Historic England.

Historic England Highlights Fascinating Heritage Sites Listed in 2022

As 2022 draws to a close, Historic England is highlighting 23 listed gems from the 240 sites across the country added to the National Heritage List for England (NHLE) over the past year.

A picturesque watermill drawn by Constable, two iconic green London cab shelters, a military milestone in Northumberland and a 1960s-church in Wiltshire feature in Historic England’s annual round up, which showcases intriguing examples of county’s rich and varied heritage protected through listing or scheduling over the last 12 months.

They also include a Victorian fountain in Stockton-on-Tees, an early 20th-century tin tabernacle in Nottinghamshire, two shipwrecks off the Isle of Wight, an Arts and Crafts doctor’s house in Manchester, a Georgian folly in Cornwall and First World War training trenches in Norfolk connected to the history of the S.A.S.

Listings in 2022

Additions to the List in 2022

  • Listing – 221
  • Scheduled Monuments – 16 (including 1 scheduled shipwreck)
  • Protected Wrecks – 3

Total: 240

Amendments to the List in 2022

  • Listing – 234
  • Scheduled Monuments – 20
  • Parks and Gardens – 2
  • Protected Wrecks – 2

Total: 258

Heritage sites tell the story of our country, boost tourism, and help us understand and take pride in where we live. By listing buildings and protecting wrecks, battlefields and monuments, we can safeguard our history for future generations to enjoy as well. With an extra 240 places added to the list this year, I'm pleased to join Historic England in encouraging everyone to get out and explore our shared heritage this Christmas.

Lord Parkinson of Whitley Bay Heritage Minister

The variety of listings this year illustrates the rich diversity of our shared heritage and the importance of everyday places – from an Edwardian Bank to a London cab shelter, to a 19th century watermill – that make up the fascinating fabric of our past. Places like these create distinctiveness and make us proud of where we live. Listing recognises their value so they are protected for the future and everyone can continue to enjoy them. In England, 99% of us live less than a mile from a listed site and the festive season is a great time to find out more about the historic places on our doorsteps. We’re inviting everyone to share their knowledge and pictures of listed places to help expand our shared understanding and perhaps even unlock some of the secrets of the past.

Duncan Wilson Chief Executive of Historic England
Coombe Gill Mill, Borrowdale, Keswick, Cumbria

Listed at Grade II (read the List entry for Coombe Gill Mill)

The rugged rubblestone and slate building, perched on the edge of Coombe Gill, a tributary of the river Derwent, was once used to mill corn for the local community.

Nestled in the lush scenery of the Lake District National Park, Coombe Gill Mill became a source of inspiration for artists keen to capture its picturesque qualities.

The most famous was John Constable, who produced a pencil and watercolour drawing of the mill in 1806 while on a tour of the Lake District to expand his repertoire.

Cabmen’s shelters at Pont Street and Chelsea Embankment, London

Each listed at Grade II

Cab shelters were built to solve the problem of the capital’s Victorian cabbies needing a place to get hot food or take a break at all hours of the day and night, without leaving their vehicles unattended, which was against the law.

Today, just 13 cab shelters survive out of the 61 known to have been built in London between 1875 and 1950.

The shelter at Pont Street was built by the Cabmen’s Shelter Fund in 1892 and is still open today. It replaced an earlier version from 1875, which was one of the first cabmen’s shelters constructed in London.

The shelter at Chelsea Embankment, sometimes referred to as ‘The Pier’ due to its proximity to Cadogan Pier, was built by the Cabmen’s Shelter Fund in 1912. It has been moved slightly from its original position on Royal Hospital Road to the east.

Lovat Scouts' First World War training trenches, Docking, Stanhoe, Norfolk

Scheduled Monument (read the list entry for Lovat Scout's First World War Training Trenches)

First World War training trenches constructed by the Lovat Scouts, a Scottish Highland Yeomanry regiment commanded by Lord Lovat.

The Lovat Scouts began in 1900 as two companies of Scottish Yeomanry that served in the Second Boer War.

On 4 June 1915 a local newspaper reported the presence of the Lovat Scouts on Docking common. First, they produced a series of enemy trenches. Then they constructed a complex set of opposing trenches. 

Most of the trenches were filled in after the war. In 2012, roughly one third of the 'British' trenches were partially excavated to reveal their form, and a campsite was created around the quarried area.

Former doctor’s surgery, 39 Great Ancoats Street, Manchester

Listed at Grade II (read the list entry for 39 Great Ancoats Street)

Striking red brick Arts and Crafts house rebuilt as a doctor’s surgery in 1887, to serve the health care needs of the working-class community in Ancoats, the world’s first industrial suburb.

Historic records suggest that Dr Thomas Price, a medical officer to the ‘guardians of the poor’ converted 39 Great Ancoats Street into his house and surgery around 1887, in an Arts and Crafts style.

The property was in continuous use as a doctor’s surgery for the next 28 years, with Dr Walter Treliving Williams succeeding Price as district medical officer in 1895 and practicing from there until 1915.

London Scottish House 95 Horseferry Road, London

Listed at Grade II (read the list entry for 95 Horseferry Road)

1980s drill hall built for the London Scottish Regiment, incorporating elements from their previous Victorian building at 59 Buckingham Gate.

London Scottish House was built as the drill hall for the London Scottish Regiment, an army unit founded in 1859, with enrolment restricted to men with Scotland connections. It still serves as their headquarters today.

Although constructed in the 1980s, the exterior is designed in neo-Classical style enlivened with classical and Post-Modern details.

The Kibworth Cemetery lych gate and iron gate, Harborough Road, Kibworth Harcourt, Leicestershire

Listed at Grade II (read the list entry for The Kibworth Cemetery Lych Gate)

An ornate late 19th-century lych gate, which gives an insight into social and religious beliefs at the end of the Victorian era.

A lych gate is a ceremonial entrance to a graveyard. The lych gate at Kibworth was built in 1894, a year after the cemetery opened. Designed in the Gothic Revival style, it has a steeply pitched roof and detailed carving on the large wooden front door, as well as wooden panels inside.

Its large size and enclosed design are unusual for the time and point to shrewd financial thinking on the part of the local Burial Board. By making it big and grand enough to accommodate funeral services, they saved the cost of building two chapels on the site - one for Church of England parishioners and another for the growing number of non-conformist denominations.

Former Union Bank of Manchester, 2 Church Street, Heywood, Greater Manchester

Listed at Grade II (read the list entry for Former Union Bank of Manchester)

A distinctive early 20th-century bank that conveys the confidence and reliability of the Edwardian banking industry.

Still functioning as a bank, this 103-year-old building was constructed in 1909 for the Union Bank of Manchester, which was expanding across the North West at the time.

The eye-catching commercial building was designed by the Mould brothers, James Diggle and Samuel Joseph, in a robust Edwardian Baroque style. They designed a number of Union Bank buildings in the region, some of which have also been listed, including those in Bury, Rochdale, and Nelson.

The Howk Bobbin Mill, Caldbeck, Lake District National Park, Cumbria

Scheduled Monument (read the list entry for The Howk Bobbin Mill)

A 19th-century purpose-built bobbin mill, one of the best surviving examples in the country.

The Howk Bobbin Mill was built by local entrepreneur John Jennings in a picturesque natural limestone gorge, with waterfalls, and started production in 1857. It was one of the largest in the Lake District and at the height of its operation employed 60 men and boys.

Today it’s one of the best surviving examples of a purpose-built bobbin mill in the country, with a range of buildings and machinery which show how the mill and production processes operated.

Fountain, Ropner Park, Hartburn Lane, Stockon-on-Tees, County Durham

Listed at Grade II (read the list entry for Fountain, Ropner Park)

A flamboyant Victorian fountain in the Grade II* Ropner Park, manufactured by one of the best-known companies in the world for ornamental ironwork.

The highly decorative three-tier fountain, which features an intricate array of flowers, animals, and birds, was erected in 1893, shortly after Ropner Park opened to the public.

Made by Glasgow-based Walter MacFarlane and Company - one of the best-known suppliers of cast-iron structures in the world - its unashamed brashness reflects late-Victorian tastes. It was illustrated in the Company’s 1890 catalogue.

The Church of St Aidan (tin tabernacle) Caythorpe, Nottinghamshire

Listed at Grade II (read the list entry for The Church of St Aidan)

Early 20th-century ‘tin tabernacle’ or steel church. There are fewer than 20 of these fast-disappearing buildings listed in England.

Erected in 1900 as a Chapel of Ease for the village of Caythorpe, the Church of St Aidan is a good example of a prefabricated iron church.

Unlike many other 'tin tabernacles', St Aidan’s has remained in its original location since it was built, which is unusual because they were often meant to be temporary structures before being replaced by more permanent churches.

Former Skipton County Court, Skipton, North Yorkshire

Listed at Grade II (read the list entry for Former Skipton County Court)

A Victorian local County Court designed between 1856 and 1857.

Situated on a prominent corner in the town centre, Skipton’s former County Court was purpose-built following the Act of 1846, which allowed a national system for the recovery of small debts. It highlights the great desire to extend the jurisdiction of the county courts with the creation of a new type of building.

The 166-year-old court was designed in Italianate style by the notable architect and national surveyor of County Courts, Charles Reeve, who has many listed buildings associated with his name.

Samuel Heath & Sons Head Offices, Leopold Street, Birmingham

Listed at Grade II (read the list entry for Samuel Heath and Sons Head Offices)

Late 19th-century commercial offices of Samuel Heath and Sons, which highlights the industrial development of this part of Birmingham.

Family-run firm Samuel Heath and Sons still operate from the site where the company started as a brass foundry in 1820.

During a period of increasing prosperity, architect David Henry Ward was commissioned to design a new office building at the site, intended to convey the quality of the brass founder’s products.

1 Silver Street and 71 to 72 Trumpington Street, Cambridge

Listed at Grade II (read the list entry for 1 Silver Street and 71 to 72 Trumpington Street)

Distinctive 19th-century building designed by the nationally significant architect W M Fawcett as his own home with a robe-makers’ shop on the ground floor.

Designed and built by W M Fawcett between 1868 and 1869, this building served as both his home and showcase for his skill and exceptional attention to detail. He lived in here until 1890.

The ground floor shop has been continuously occupied for 152 years by a succession of robe-makers and tailors associated with Cambridge University. It’s currently home to Ede & Ravenscroft. The shop front was specially designed to show golden heraldic beasts and symbols connected to Queens’ College.

John Piper panels on the Piper Building, Peterborough Road, London

Listed at Grade II (read the list entry for John Piper panels)

Twenty-nine colourful abstract decorative fibreglass panels in Fulham, London, by celebrated artist John Piper, one of England’s most eminent 20th-century artists, were listed along with the former exhibition building they were designed to adorn.

These eye-catching panels bring colour and joy to the area and fit into a wider trend of outdoor art at the time when, following the Second World War, there was a rise in the creation of public art, designed to bring public spaces back to life as the country began to repair its shattered towns and cities.

Piper collaborated with Gillespie and Manzaroli Associates to produce the panels between 1961 and 1962. They have the hand-made appearance of paper cut-outs but are made to an architectural scale in industrial materials. This commission was Piper’s first time working with fibreglass.

The Lutyens Sunken Garden at White Lodge, Brighton

Listed at Grade II (read the list entry for The Lutyens Sunken Garden)

1920s sunken garden commissioned by socialite Lady Victoria Sackville, mother of Lady Vita Sackville West, and designed by the noted architect Sir Edwin Lutyens.  

The garden is a striking example of Lutyens’ landscaping style and a manifestation of his longstanding relationship with his patron, Lady Victoria Sackville, which was the subject of much gossip at the time.

It survives today with most of its original structure intact, featuring geometric shapes in the paving and steps leading away from the house, towards the sea. It highlights Lutyens' style of landscaping, with materials used to great effect in combining formality in the patterned pavements with the informality of plant growth.

St Peter's Church, Chippenham, Wiltshire

Listed at Grade II (read the list entry for St Peter's Church)

A late 1960s architecturally significant geometric-designed church with striking interior and an extensive collection of work by British sculptor and stained-glass artist, Frank Roper MBE.

Built between 1967 and 1968 to serve the expanding population of Chippenham, the Church of St Peter is an amazing example of bold design and skilled artistry coming together to create a place of worship and community.

Built to the designs of architect Kenneth Nealon, the church is stylistically rooted in the 1960s, with converging geometric forms and a simple selection of materials. The interior consists of a series of striking spaces, including a dramatic main space nave with an exposed concrete roof structure and full-height vertical strip windows.

Shingles Bank Wreck NW96 and Shingles Bank Wreck NW68, Needles Channel, Isle of Wight

Designated under the Protection of Wrecks Act 1973

The 16th and 17th century Shingles Bank Wreck sites (NW96) and (NW68) off the Isle of Wight have been granted the highest level of protection. Their remains include cannons and lead ingots and have shed light on trading at the time.

The Shingles Bank in the Needles Channel is a well-known navigational hazard for ships entering the Solent from the west. It is thought that both NW96 and NW68 became stranded on the banks before sinking.

Folly on Kit Hill, Cornwall

Schedule Amended (read the list entry for Folly on Kit Hill)

The folly at the top of Kit Hill in east Cornwall was constructed in 1780 by Sir John Call, a local landowner. He intended it to be the setting for his tomb but he was eventually buried in London.

For many years, the folly was a source of mystery. When it was originally scheduled in 1963 it was thought to be a 17th century earthwork related to events of the Civil War. However, evidence has now shown that it was built by Sir John Call, not only as his proposed resting place but as a monument to the battle of Hingston Down in AD 838.

As the Duke of Cornwall, King Charles gifted Kit Hill to the people of Cornwall to mark the birth of his son Prince William, in 1982.

Apperly Family Mausoleum, Rodborough Churchyard, Gloucestershire

Listed at Grade II (read the list entry for Apperly Family Mausoleum)

An Arts and Crafts style miniature mausoleum, constructed for a prominent local landowner and bearing the names of his family including a grandson who died during the Battle of the Somme.

The Apperly family mausoleum is unusual. Despite being small and located in a quiet country churchyard, it’s exquisitely designed by the talented architect Percy Morley Horder and designer John Houghton Maurice Bonnor.

It was constructed in about 1913, to house the remains of Sir Alfred Apperly, a member of a prominent local family which became wealthy through the woollen trade. Sir Alfred was an important figure in the local community; he was a benefactor of local causes, a councillor and Justice of the Peace.

All Hallows Convent, Ditchingham, Norfolk

Listed at Grade II (read the list entry for All Hallows Convent)

A Victorian convent and home for ‘fallen or unfortunate’ women, designed by the eminent ecclesiastical architect Henry Woodyer.

All Hallows Convent opened in 1859 as a House of Mercy, a Victorian institution set up to provide for so-called ‘fallen’ women.

The buildings are large and sprawling, built of red brick with Gothic features: pointed windows, turrets, and clustered rooftops.

Roman Catholic Church of St Edward, High Street, Clifford, West Yorkshire

Upgraded to Grade II* (read the list entry for Roman Catholic Church of St Edward, High Street, Clifford)

An impressive mid-19th century Roman Catholic church, grand enough to be a city cathedral but built to serve a small Yorkshire village and a testament to local Catholic grassroots activism.

The Grimson family were committed to spreading their faith. They were descended from the Blessed Ralph Grimston, who was martyred in York during the persecution of Catholics under Elizabeth I.

They established a mill in Clifford specifically to employ Roman Catholics who were often discriminated against by other employers. Then, working with local families, they set about raising money from across Europe to build the Church of St Edward King and Confessor. They succeeded, and the church opened its doors in 1848, at a time when it was still difficult to worship as a Catholic in England.

Milestone 7 on Military Road, Heddon-on-the-Wall, Northumberland

Listed at Grade II (read the list entry for Milestone 7)

An 18th-century milestone and troop mustering point on the Military Road from Newcastle to Carlisle (which was partially laid on the alignment of Hadrian’s Wall). The milestone played an important role in the defence of the North.

Known as Milestone 7, it was erected between 1751 and 1757 as part of a major military investment in the defences of the north of England in response to the Second Jacobite Rising of 1745.

It joins the two other Grade II listed Milestones, 11 and 15, which are situated further to the west along the Military Road.

The Cottage and former Soup Kitchen, Berkhamsted Castle

Listed at Grade II (read the list entry for The Cottage and former Soup Kitchen)

A 17th-century cottage that acts as a time capsule, showing changes over hundreds of years, including an extension to create a Victorian soup kitchen.

Records suggest it started life as a stable and brewhouse in the 16th century. In the early 19th century, stairs and a new floor were inserted to create an upper story. In 1865 a scrapbook belonging to Lady Marian Alford, wife of the owner, indicates that a small extension and veranda were added, and the staircase was moved.

The same year, another extension linked the cottage to a new building set up as a soup kitchen for the poor. The Bucks Advertiser and Aylesbury News referred to “the soup-house at the Castle grounds” on 26 January 1867. Another veranda was added to form a covered walkway for people to queue under while they waited to receive soup at the kitchen door.

Please be aware that not all listed places are publicly accessible.

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