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Two Sites Protected to Commemorate New Zealand Lives Lost in the Battle of Messines

  • Large Kiwi chalk figure in Wiltshire commemorates lives lost and sacrifices made by New Zealand troops in First World War
  • Terrain Model of Messines in Staffordshire - an accurate scale model of the battlefield which now survives as archaeological remains - also protected as a scheduled monument to mark important role New Zealand troops played in the war.
  • Almost 10% of New Zealand’s population fought overseas in the First World War

Aerial view of the Bulford Kiwi which is carved into the hillside above Bulford Camp in Wiltshire.
The Bulford Kiwi, a large white chalk figure carved into the hillside above Bulford Camp in Wiltshire by New Zealand troops at the end of the First World War, has been given protection by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport on the advice of Historic England © WYG/NML

To mark the centenary of the Battle of Messines, the Bulford Kiwi, a large white chalk figure carved by New Zealand troops into the hillside above Bulford Camp, near Stonehenge, has been protected as a scheduled monument by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport on the advice of Historic England.

The chalk Kiwi stands 420 feet high (130m) and has a 150 feet (46m) long beak. It was created by New Zealand soldiers stationed at Bulford Camp in Wiltshire at the end of the First World War while they were waiting to go home. It commemorates the lives lost and sacrifices made in the war.

See the list entry for the Bulford Kiwi

Battle of Messines

Some 100,000 troops representing almost 10% of the New Zealand population fought in the First World War. The Battle of Messines (7 June – 14 June) was a well-planned and executed attack on the Western Front near the village of Messines in West Flanders, Belgium and New Zealand troops played a significant role in this battle.

It resulted in the capture of the Wytschaete-Messines ridge south of Ypres, a feature that was important to hold for future offensive operations in Flanders and began with one of the heaviest artillery bombardments of the First World War and the explosion of 19 giant underground mines.

Aerial view of archaeologists excavating the Terrain Model of Messines in Cannock Chase in Staffordshire
Aerial view of archaeologists excavating the Terrain Model of Messines in Cannock Chase in Staffordshire © WYG/NML

Terrain Model of Messines Protected

A second monument, known as The Terrain Model of Messines in Cannock Chase in Staffordshire  which survives as archaeological remains has also been granted protection on Historic England’s advice. It was an accurate scale model of the battlefield created by the New Zealand Rifle Brigade to celebrate the important victory at the Battle of Messines and to train new recruits at Brocton Camp.

It was constructed by German Prisoners of War using soil, concrete, bricks and pebbles to capture every detail of the town, surrounding farms and natural features as they were on the night before the battle began. The model became a popular tourist attraction following the dismantling of the camp at the end of the First World War, but it became neglected and was lost until it was recently excavated, studied and recorded as the only known model of its type.

It was covered over in order to protect it from damage or erosion and there are plans to mark the site as part of a heritage trail to celebrate the significant achievements of both the battle and the model that it inspired.

See the list entry for the Terrain Model of Messines 

Roger Bowdler, Director of Listing at Historic England said: "These two monuments pay tribute to the bravery of New Zealand's fighting forces in the First World War and we are delighted that they are now being protected for the future. The Bulford Kiwi was cut into the chalk at the end of the war by Kiwi soldiers themselves, to mark the presence of their forces in England, and their achievements at the front.

The entrance to one of the model buildings which comprise The Terrain Model of Messines.
The entrance to one of the model buildings which comprise The Terrain Model of Messines. The entrance opens directly onto a trench leading to the firing line defending the north-west side of the town. © WYG/NML

Roger Bowdler continued: “It is an incredibly touching sight, and a moving tribute to men who lost their lives far from home. The taking of the Messines ridge was one of the war's most stirring attacks, and this model lay-out remains as testimony to the planning which made possible the victory. Like so much of our historic environment, these lasting reminders enable us to connect with lives and events from the past that made us who we are as a nation. One hundred years on, it is right to remember New Zealand's valour.”

Sir Jerry Mateparae, New Zealand High Commissioner to the UK said: “It’s fantastic to see Historic England protecting two very significant sites of huge importance for New Zealand. The special connections that were forged 100 years ago, with communities in the UK where New Zealanders trained, are still strong today and it’s moving to see these sites protected for generations to come.”

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