Test buildings at Orford Ness, Suffolk
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Test buildings, now scheduled monuments, associated with the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment occupation of the spit at Orford Ness, Suffolk
Test buildings, now scheduled monuments, associated with the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment occupation of the spit at Orford Ness, Suffolk

Introductions to Heritage Assets (Archaeology)

Here you can find our Introductions to Heritage Assets (IHAs) for archaeology, which are accessible, authoritative, well-illustrated summaries of what we know about specific classes of  sites or monuments.

While there is no aspiration to have an entirely comprehensive series covering all types of sites from early prehistory to present, the 41 IHAs completed to date do include the majority of the main groups of heritage asset from early prehistory to the end of the Middle Ages.

More will be added as time goes on, especially when new research alters accepted understanding.

What IHAs cover

IHAs share a common approach, headings and format.

A short Introduction defines the asset type, notes any alternative names by which the site or monument-type is known, gives the broad date range, and discusses the distribution and number of known examples.

Next comes a Description, or Historical background,  which considers in greater detail the sites’ locations in the landscape, their form and plan, and how it is thought they functioned.

With more complex asset types there may be a separate section on Chronology, tracing their development through time, followed by a discussion of the Development of the monument type as revealed by investigation - what has been revealed by archaeology or survey work of all sorts.

In each case a narrative guide to Further Reading is supplied, which signposts key works, especially those of an accessible character.

Introductions to Heritage Assets. The history, development and use of animal management heritage assets which exist in the historic environment.
Animal Management
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Animal Management.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets. An introduction to several types of defences used in England to protect against gunpowder artillery.
Artillery Defences
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Artillery Defences.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets: An introduction to Banjo enclosures describing their common forms, characteristics and including prominent examples.
Banjo Enclosures
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Banjo Enclosures.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets: An introduction to causewayed enclosures describing their form and common plan.
Causewayed Enclosures
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Causewayed Enclosures.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets. An introduction to caves, fissures and rockshelters.
Caves, Fissures and Rockshelters
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Caves, Fissures and Rockshelters.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets: An introduction to earthwork and timber castles, including sections on ringworks, mottes and baileys.
Earthwork and Timber Castles
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Earthwork and Timber Castles.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets: An introduction to enclosed prehistoric settlements, the earliest identifiable farming communities in England.
Enclosed Prehistoric Settlements
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Enclosed Prehistoric Settlements.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets: An introduction to field systems, a physical manifestation of farming from its prehistoric origins to the present.
Field Systems
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Field Systems.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets: An introduction to hermitages which housed a religious individual or group seeking solitude and isolation.
Hermitages
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Hermitages.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets. An introduction to hillforts which are defended places, surrounded by one or more circuits of banks and ditches.
Hillforts
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Hillforts.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets. An introduction to later prehistoric shrines and ritual structures.
Later Prehistoric Shrines and Ritual Structures
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Later Prehistoric Shrines and Ritual Structures.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets: An introduction to linear frontiers
Linear Frontiers
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Linear Frontiers.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets. An introduction to medieval and early post-medieval glassworks.
Medieval and Early Post-Medieval Glassworks
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to glassworks.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets. An introduction to medieval and later fieldworks.
Medieval and Later Fieldworks
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Medieval and Later Fieldworks.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets. An introduction to medieval settlements, ranging from individual farms, through hamlets, to villages.
Medieval Settlements
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Medieval Settlements.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets: An introduction to megalithic chamber tombs, often dating to early in the Neolithic period around 3500 BC.
Megalithic Chamber Tombs
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Megalithic Chamber Tombs.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets: An introduction to mills, the two main types are defined by their power sources; water and wind.
Mills
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Mills.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets: An introduction to oppida (Late Iron Age enclosed and unenclosed settlements)
Oppida
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Oppida.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets. An introduction to Pre-Christian cemeteries.
Pre-Christian Cemeteries
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Pre-Christian Cemeteries.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets: An introduction to prehistoric and Romano-British settlements with structures.
Prehistoric and Romano-British Settlements with Structures
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Prehistoric and Romano-British Settlements with Structures.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets. An introduction to prehistoric avenues and alignments, which date to the Neolithic period (about 4000-2500 BC).
Prehistoric Avenues and Alignments
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Prehistoric Avenues and Alignments.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets: An introduction to prehistoric barrows and burial mounds.
Prehistoric Barrows and Burial Mounds
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Prehistoric Barrows and Burial Mounds.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets: An introduction to prehistoric henges and circles.
Prehistoric Henges and Circles
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Prehistoric Henges and Circles.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets: An introduction to prehistoric linear boundary earthworks.
Prehistoric Linear Boundary Earthworks
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Prehistoric Linear Boundary Earthworks.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets. An introduction to prehistoric rock art.
Prehistoric Rock Art
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Prehistoric Rock Art.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets. An introduction to pre-industrial ironworks.
Pre-industrial Ironworks
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Pre-industrial Ironworks.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets. An introduction to pre-industrial lime kilns.
Pre-industrial Lime Kilns
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Pre-industrial Lime Kilns.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets. An introduction to pre-industrial mines and quarries.
Pre-industrial Mines and Quarries
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Pre-industrial Mines and Quarries.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets. An introduction to pre-industrial roads, trackways and canals.
Pre-industrial Roads, Trackways and Canals
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Pre-industrial Roads, Trackways and Canals.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets. An introduction to pre-industrial salterns.
Pre-industrial Salterns
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Pre-industrial Salterns.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets: An introduction to river fisheries and coastal fish weirs.
River Fisheries and Coastal Fish Weirs
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to River Fisheries and Coastal Fish Weirs.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets. An introduction to Roman amphitheatres, theatres and circuses.
Roman Amphitheatres, Theatres and Circuses
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Roman Amphitheatres, Theatres and Circuses.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets: An introduction to Roman and medieval pottery and tile production.
Roman and Medieval Pottery and Tile Production
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Roman and Medieval Pottery and Tile Production.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets: An introduction to Roman and medieval sea and river flood defences (largely consisting of banks rather than walls).
Roman and Medieval Sea and River Flood Defences
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Roman and Medieval Sea and River Flood Defences.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets: An introduction to Roman forts and fortresses (permanent or semi-permanent bases of Roman troops).
Roman Forts and Fortresses
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Roman Forts and Fortresses.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets. An introduction to Roman settlements.
Roman Settlements
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Roman Settlements.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets. An introduction to Saxon Shore Forts.
Saxon Shore Forts
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Saxon Shore Forts.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets. An introduction to shielings.
Shielings
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Shielings.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets: An introduction to Roman and post-Roman shrines.
Shrines (Roman and Post-Roman)
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Shrines (Roman and Post-Roman).

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Introductions to Heritage Assets: An introduction to stone castles.
Stone Castles
Published 31 October 2018

An introductory guide to Stone Castles.

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Introductions to Heritage Assets. An introduction to water meadows.
Water Meadows
Published 31 October 2018

This short guide provides an introduction to the history and typology of water meadows. It is intended to support the scheduling selection guide on Agriculture.

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