Asset Type Terms – NHLE Advanced Search

Use the Asset Type filter on the National Heritage List for England (NHLE) advanced search to filter your search by the terms on this page.

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A

  • ABATTOIR — A building where animals are slaughtered.
  • ABBEY — A religious house governed by an abbot or abbess. Use with narrow terms of DOUBLE HOUSE, MONASTERY or NUNNERY.
  • ABBOTS PALACE — The official residence of an abbot.
  • ABBOTS SUMMER PALACE — An official residence of an abbot during the summer months.
  • ABLUTIONS BLOCK — A building housing washing facilities and toilets. The term occurs mainly in a military context.
  • ABRASIVES MANUFACTURING SITE — A place where abrasive mediums such as sand-paper and grinding wheels are manufactured.
  • ACADEMY SCHOOL — A school that is directly funded by central government (specifically, the Department for Education) and independent of direct control by local government in England.
  • ACCESS BARRIER — Purpose-built structure, other than a bollard, to prevent vehicle or pedestrian access to a road or site, for example concrete blocks to obstruct vehicles accessing beaches on the north-east coast for illegal sea-coaling.
  • ACCIDENT HOSPITAL — A hospital which primarily cares for patients injured in accidents.
  • ACCOMMODATION BRIDGE — A bridge, often over a canal or road, allowing access between two parcels of land.
  • ACCOMMODATION HUT — A hut used for the accommodation of members of the armed forces.
  • ACCUMULATOR HOUSE — A building used for the collection and storage of electricity using large lead-acid batteries (accumulators).
  • ACETATE FACTORY — A factory used for the production of acetate.
  • ACETONE FACTORY — A factory or group of buildings engaged in the manufacture of acetone. A variety of processes may be used to manufacture acetone including the use of destructive distallation of wood and fermentation technology.
  • ACID TOWER — A coke-filled tower used for the dissolving and neutralising of acid produced by alkali-making processes.
  • ACID WORKS — A building or site used for the production of acids by a range of chemical processes.
  • ACTIVE AIR DEFENCE SITE — A site equipped for active defensive action against an airborne enemy assault.
  • ACTIVITY CENTRE — Site or building constructed or adapted for indoor and/or outdoor leisure and sport activities, for example archery, team-building and "outward-bound" activities based on military training.
  • ADIT — Horizontal tunnel opening from the surface used for haulage or access to a mine. It can also be used for drainage.
  • ADMIRALTY SIGNAL ESTABLISHMENT — A building or site conducting research into communication techniques for use in the Royal Navy.
  • ADMIRALTY SIGNAL STATION — A building or site used for naval communications.
  • ADMISSION HOSPITAL — A separate hospital building, or block of an asylum, where new arrivals were segregated from old inmates for a defined period. This system was developed from the mid-19th century onwards.
  • ADULTERINE CASTLE — A castle erected without permission, ie. without a royal licence to crenellate.
  • ADVANCED LANDING GROUND — A temporary airfield in use during the build-up to D-Day. They consisted of a natural earth or grass surface reinforced with wire mesh.
  • AERIAL LIFT — A means of transportation where cars, chairs or cabins are carried above the ground by means of one or more cables suspended between towers or pylons.
  • AERIAL ROPEWAY — A system of overhead cables from which cars or containers are suspended (usually driven electrically).
  • AEROPLANE REPAIR SECTION SHED — A shed used for the maintenance and repair of aircraft.
  • AEROPLANE TWIN SHED — A coupled timber built end-opening First World War aircraft hangar.
  • AEROSPACE ENGINEERING WORKS — A site specializing in the manufacture of parts for the Aerospace industry.
  • AGAPEMONE — Religious establishment, founded in Somerset, where free love was practised.
  • AGGREGATE FIELD SYSTEM — A field system which appears to have developed in an organic, or piecemeal, fashion over time.
  • AGGREGATE VILLAGE — A settlement whose plan suggests the aggregation of several formerly distinct settlement nuclei into a single settlement.
  • AGRICULTURAL BUILDING — A building used for an agricultural and/or subsistence purpose. Use more specific type where known.
  • AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SITE — Buildings, structures or sites used for the production of chemicals used in agriculture, such as fertilizers and weed killers.
  • AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE — An educational establishment where agricultural theory and practice is taught.
  • AGRICULTURAL DWELLING — Buildings and structures inhabited by agricultural workers.
  • AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING WORKS — Small engineering works specialising in the production of items such as ploughs and threshing machinery.
  • AGRICULTURAL HALL — A hall used for the promotion and selling of agricultural produce and practice.
  • AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY DEPOT — A site for the sale or hire of agricultural machinery.
  • AGRICULTURAL MERCHANTS — The premises of an agricultural merchant where agricultural equipment, animal feed and fertilizers can be bought.
  • AGRICULTURAL TOOL WORKS — A small works used for the production of agricultural tools such as hay rakes.
  • AGRICULTURE AND SUBSISTENCE — Sites, buildings, structures, features and areas of land associated with cultivation, the rearing of livestock, gathering, hunting & fishing. Includes farm based processing of foodstuffs & storage of agricultural produce.
  • AIR DEFENCE SITE — A site equipped for passive or active defence against an airborne enemy assault.
  • AIR FORCE HEADQUARTERS — A building used for the daily administration of the Royal Air Force.
  • AIR RAID PRECAUTIONS CENTRE — A building used as a control centre for the Air Raid Precautions network, responsible for issuing air raid warnings and coordinating fire and rescue services.
  • AIR RAID PRECAUTIONS HEADQUARTERS — A building used in the Second World War to co-ordinate action against enemy air raids.
  • AIR RAID PRECAUTIONS LANTERN — A specialized lantern, with a reduced glare, for use in air raids.
  • AIR RAID PRECAUTIONS OBSERVATION POST — An observation post used by Air Raid Precautions wardens to watch for aircraft and bomb strikes.
  • AIR RAID PRECAUTIONS REPORT CENTRE — A centre used by the Air Raid Precautions network to co-ordinate reports of air raids in an area.
  • AIR RAID PRECAUTIONS SIGN — A sign used by the Air Raid Precautions network to assist in identifying vital equipment and resources in the event of an air raid or to aid movement during blackouts.
  • AIR RAID PRECAUTIONS SIGNAL BOX — A brick built railway signal box, usually with a reinforced correct roof, designed to minimize the effects of blast damage from aerial bombardment and thus protect the signalling equipment.
  • AIR RAID PRECAUTIONS SITE — A site used by the Air Raid Precautions network. Use more specific term.
  • AIR RAID PRECAUTIONS STORE — A building used for the storage and distribution of civilian respirators and Air Raid Precautions equipment.
  • AIR RAID PRECAUTIONS TRAINING CENTRE — A centre used to train Air Raid Precautions wardens.
  • AIR RAID SHELTER — A fortified structure used to protect civilians and military personnel from enemy bombing.
  • AIR RAID WARDENS POST — A purpose-built or adapted structure intended as a headquarters for an air raid precautions warden.
  • AIR RAID WARNING SIREN — A siren used to warn of an impending attack by enemy aircraft.
  • AIR SEA RESCUE STATION — A site or building used to co-ordinate Air-Sea Rescue operations.
  • AIR TERMINAL — A building at an airport from where passengers embark and disembark from an aircraft.
  • AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SCHOOL — A special school to train personnel for employment in Air Traffic Control and operation duties.
  • AIR TRAINING CORPS HEADQUARTERS — A building used for the daily administration of that branch of the RAF dealing with training pilots.
  • AIR TRANSPORT SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the control, accommodation, service and testing of aircraft.
  • AIRCRAFT — An aircraft, either whole or in part. Aircraft often survive as commemorative monuments, gate guardians or crash sites.
  • AIRCRAFT BREAKING YARD — A site where aircraft are stored, dismantled and processed for the recovery of serviceable parts.
  • AIRCRAFT COMPASS PLATFORM — A circular concrete platform onto which aircraft would be taxied allowing the ground crew to calibrate, check and adjust the accuracy of the aircrafts compass, usually by rotating the platform.
  • AIRCRAFT CRASH SITE — A site which is known, or believed to be, where an aircraft crashed. It is an offence to interfere with the wreckage of crashed military aircraft without a licence (Protection of Military Remains Act 1986). Index with AIRCRAFT TYPE where known.
  • AIRCRAFT ENGINE FACTORY — A factory where aircraft engines are assembled.
  • AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING SITE — Sites used for the manufacture of aircraft.
  • AIRCRAFT FACTORY — A factory where aircraft are assembled.
  • AIRCRAFT HANGAR — A structure used for the housing and servicing of aircraft.
  • AIRCRAFT HANGAR (TRANSPORTABLE) — An aircraft hangar designed to be moved from site to site as necessary.
  • AIRCRAFT HANGAR (TYPE A) — A permanent military RAF aircraft hangar type, designed in 1924. It features a steel frame (with longitudinal ridge and valley trusses for the roof) reinforced concrete and brick infilling for the walls. Typically 122 foot span by 249 foot in length.
  • AIRCRAFT HANGAR (TYPE A1) — An aircraft hangar built to Air Ministry design. Mainly constructed on aircraft factory aerodromes.
  • AIRCRAFT HANGAR (TYPE A2) — An aircraft hangar built to Air Ministry design number 454/43. Mainly constructed on aircraft factory aerodromes
  • AIRCRAFT HANGAR (TYPE B) — Aircraft hangars designed by T. Bedford Consulting Engineers to meet the requirement to repair damaged heavy bombers in situ on their airfields.
  • AIRCRAFT HANGAR (TYPE B1) — A large type of military repair hangar mainly used on WWII bomber bases, constructed using steel stanchions and clad in corrugated iron. B 1 hangars were part of a series of prefabricated buildings intended to supplement existing hangars on bases.
  • AIRCRAFT HANGAR (TYPE B2) — An aircraft hangar designed by T. Bedford Consulting Engineers usually erected on aircraft factory sites rather than operational airfields.
  • AIRCRAFT HANGAR (TYPE C) — A type of large steel framed aircraft hangar introduced by the Royal Air Force in its Expansion Period with a number of designs between 1934 and 1939, to accomodate heavy bombers.
  • AIRCRAFT HANGAR (TYPE D) — A military storage aircraft hangar built in the late 1930s. It comprises a semicircular concrete structure with reinforced concrete columns, featuring a curved roof and straight walls.
  • AIRCRAFT HANGAR (TYPE E) — A military storage aircraft hangar designed in 1937. It has a curved profile and is constructed from steel ribs supporting a concrete skin. The roof is covered with earth and turf.
  • AIRCRAFT HANGAR (TYPE J) — A large steelframed military aircraft hangar designed in 1939, intended for aircraft maintenance on operational stations. It includes side annexes for workshops and offices, provided with a large number of windows. The annexes are of brick or concrete.
  • AIRCRAFT HANGAR (TYPE K) — A type of large permanent military aircraft hangar with a curved steel frame and storage annexes on its side used in World War II. It was intended for storage purposes on Aircraft Storage Unit stations.
  • AIRCRAFT HANGAR (TYPE L) — A curved military aircraft hangar produced in 1939. The frame is steel which is then clad with steel sheeting and reinforced concrete and typically covered with a thin layer of concrete, earth and turf.
  • AIRCRAFT HANGAR (TYPE S) — A small transportable hangar built by the Teesdie Bridge and Engineering Company. Mainly used on RNAS airfields for folding wing aircraft.
  • AIRCRAFT HANGAR (TYPE T) — A temporary, steel-framed transportable hangar developed by Teesside Bridge and Engineering Company to replace the obsolete Bellman hangars.
  • AIRCRAFT HANGAR (TYPE T1) — A type of steel framed transportable British military aircraft hangar developed from 1941onwards. The hangar had a steel frame, some versions used commercially available sheeting for cladding. It was similar to but smaller than the arcraft hangar type T2.
  • AIRCRAFT HANGAR (TYPE T2) — A type of temporary military aircraft hangar introduced in 1940; of steel welded and bolted construction typically clad in galvanized corrugated iron sheets. The T2 became the standard temporary hangar for the RAF in World War Two.
  • AIRCRAFT HANGAR (TYPE T3) — A steel framed transportable hangar similar in construction to Type T2 but about half the size. Designed in 1941 and 1942.
  • AIRCRAFT HANGAR (TYPE VR1) — A single-span aircraft hangar designed by Boulton & Paul of London and Norwich (drawing number 4178/44). Mainly used on aircraft factory sites and at Armament Training Schools.
  • AIRCRAFT HANGAR (TYPE VR2) — A double-span aircraft hangar designed by Boulton & Paul of London and Norwich. Mainly used on aircraft factory sites and at Armament Training Schools.
  • AIRCRAFT LEVEL CROSSING — A level crossing designed to allow the passage of aircraft to and from a runway which has a railway or road running through it.
  • AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE UNIT — Site used for the maintenance of aircraft.
  • AIRCRAFT OBSTRUCTION — Shallow ditches and/or poles erected across open land to obstruct the landing of enemy aircraft and gliders.
  • AIRCRAFT PICKETING POINT — A device on an airfield for securing aircrafts when parked outside in order to prevent major movement due to the weather or other conditions.
  • AIRCRAFT STORAGE FACILITY — A building or site where aircraft can be stored and maintained.
  • AIRCRAFT TESTING SITE — A site used for the functional testing of aircraft and their components.
  • AIRFIELD — An area or site used for the landing and take-off of aircraft, often including associated buildings, equipment and other installations.
  • AIRFIELD BUILDING — Non-specific building type associated with an airfield.
  • AIRFIELD CODE LETTERS — Large concrete letters representing the ground-to-air airfield code. It has been used to show pilots in WWII the name of the airfield they were above e.g. DW for Dunkeswell.
  • AIRFIELD DEFENCE SITE — A site or building associated with active or passive defence of the landing ground and buildings of an airfield.
  • AIRFIELD SLEEPING SHELTER — Shelter on military airfield to provide night time accommodation for airmen during WWII.
  • AIRMENS INSTITUTE — An building, often including recreational facilities, provided for the relaxation of serving Royal Air Force Personnel.
  • AIRMENS QUARTERS — A building where non-commissioned aircrew are housed.
  • AIRPORT — A site, including an airfield and customs house, where air passengers embark and disembark.
  • AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTION WORKS — Construction works for the production of rigid or dirigible airships.
  • AIRSHIP HANGAR — A hangar for the storage and maintenance of dirigible motor-driven balloons.
  • AIRSHIP MOORING MAST — A large metal pylon structure used to tether airships.
  • AIRSHIP STATION — A site, including hangars, moorings and ancillary buildings, used for the storage, maintenance, take off and landing of airships.
  • AISLED BARN — A barn in which a central space is separated from side aisles by posts and braces.
  • AISLED BUILDING — A building with an aisle along one or both sides. Usually a row of posts separates the main space from the aisle.
  • AISLED HALL HOUSE — A house with an open hall whose main span is separated by an arcade from the side aisles.
  • AISLED HOUSE — Use where the intervening arcade is closed but timber-framed.
  • ALE STORE — A building or area within a brewery where barrels of ale are stored.
  • ALIEN CELL — A residence of two or three monks dependent on a foreign mother house sent to exploit a distant estate. Alien houses were officially suppressed in 1414.
  • ALIEN PRIORY — A priory dependent on a foreign mother house. Use with narrow terms of DOUBLE HOUSE, MONASTERY or NUNNERY.
  • ALKALI WORKS — A building or site used to produce alkaline chemicals by controlled reactions.
  • ALL WEATHER PITCH — A sports pitch usually with a synthetic surface (ie. not grass).
  • ALLAN WILLIAMS TURRET — A rotating, domed, steel turret set over a circular pit used as a gun emplacement.
  • ALLEE — A walk bordered by trees or clipped hedges in a garden or park. Made of gravel, sand or turf, it is different from a path or avenue.
  • ALLEY — A passageway or lane between buildings.
  • ALLOTMENT — A share or portion of land, allotted to a person, often used for growing, vegetables, fruit, etc.
  • ALLOTMENT SHED — A slight structure built on an allotment for shelter or storage, or for use as a workshop, by the allotment holder.
  • ALMONRY — A building adjacent to a monastery where alms were distributed to the poor.
  • ALMS TABLE — Place where food or money was handed out to the poor.
  • ALMSHOUSE — A house devoted to the shelter of the poor and endowed by a benefactor for this use.
  • ALPACA MILL — A mill where long-staple hair, often from llamas, is made into yarn.
  • ALPINE GARDEN — A garden which consists of rocks and rock-loving plants that require little water.
  • ALTAR — An elevated table or podium on which to place or sacrifice offerings to the deities.
  • ALTAR TOMB — A tomb or memorial, resembling an altar, often with a recumbent effigy on top.
  • ALUM HOUSE — A building used for the crystallization process in alum making.
  • ALUM QUARRY — A site where alum (hydrous sulphate or salt and alumina) is quarried.
  • ALUM WORKS — A group of buildings or works where the evaporation and crystallization of sodium aluminium sulphate solution is performed.
  • ALUMINIUM SMELTER — A factory producing metallic aluminium by an electrolysis process.
  • ALUMINIUM WORKS — Works for the extrusion of aluminium and for creating aluminium products.
  • AMALGAMATION PLANT — An ore works at which gold was separated from the ore by the addition of mercury.
  • AMBULANCE GARAGE — A place where ambulances are serviced and maintained.
  • AMBULANCE PARK — A site, usually including hardstandings and associated buildings, where ambulances can be parked and stored.
  • AMBULANCE STATION — A building where ambulances are housed awaiting emergency calls.
  • AMERICAN GARDEN — A concept dating in England from the second half of the 18th century, when hardy North American plants were relatively easy to obtain.
  • AMMONAL WORKS — A works engaged principally in the manufacture of ammonal explosives.
  • AMMONIUM NITRATE WORKS — A chemical works engaged in the production of Ammonium Nitrate, used as a fertilizer or for use in the explosives industry.
  • AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE WORKS — A chemical works engaged in the production of Ammonium Perchlorate, a product used in the explosives industry.
  • AMMUNITION DEPOT — A site, including buildings and hardstandings, used for the storage and distribution of ammunition.
  • AMMUNITION DUMP — An installation used for the storage of ammunition.
  • AMMUNITION STAND — An area of hardstanding on which ammunition is stored.
  • AMPHIBIOUS BASE — A site or building used for the storage and maintenance of both land and sea vehicles and from which terrestrial or maritime operations could be carried out.
  • AMPHITHEATRE — An oval or circular structure with seats rising in tiers around a central open space. Used for religious ceremonies, entertainment, training and armed combat contests.
  • AMUSEMENT ARCADE — A place for recreation with electronic game machines and gambling machines.
  • AMUSEMENT PARK — A recreation ground with usually permanent structure. It usually contains rides such as ghost trains, helter skelter and roller coasters.
  • ANCHOR WORKS — A building or site used for the production of anchors.
  • ANCHORAGE (MARITIME) — An area off the coast where ships anchor.
  • ANCHORESSES CELL — A small dwelling for the solitary confinement of a pious reclusive religious woman or nun, often attached to the north wall of a church. A squint enabled the occupant to witness the Mass.
  • ANCHORITE CELL — A small dwelling for the solitary confinement of a pious reclusive religious man or monk, often attached to the north wall of a church. A squint enabled the occupant to witness the Mass.
  • ANDERSON SHELTER — An air raid shelter, designed to be placed in the garden. Made from prefabricated components, they were often semi-sunken and the structure then covered with soil for added protection.
  • ANGLE TOWER — A fortified tower found at the angle of a castle wall.
  • ANGLICAN CATHEDRAL — The principal Anglican church in a diocese in which the cathedra or bishop's throne is to be found.
  • ANGLICAN CHAPEL — A chapel where the followers of the Anglican tradition worship.
  • ANGLICAN CHURCH — Any church of the Anglican Communion.
  • ANGLICAN MONASTERY — A place of residence and worship for Anglican monks.
  • ANGLICAN NUNNERY — A place of worship and residence for Anglican nuns.
  • ANIMAL BREEDING FACILITY — A building or group of buildings designed for the breeding and rearing of animals, including fish and birds. Often include incubators and heated rooms.
  • ANIMAL BURIAL — Deliberate interment of a complete, or substantially complete, animal. Use the object type thesaurus term ANIMAL REMAINS where skeleton is fragmentary.
  • ANIMAL BURIAL PIT — A place where dead animals are buried.
  • ANIMAL CAGE — A box or place of confinement for animals, made wholly or partly of wire, wood or bars of metal, so as to admit air and light.
  • ANIMAL CEMETERY — A burial site for animals.
  • ANIMAL CREMATORIUM — Place for the cremation of animals.
  • ANIMAL DWELLING — Including accommodation for animals, birds, reptiles and fish in captivity.
  • ANIMAL FOOD PROCESSING PLANT — Buildings used in the production of animal food.
  • ANIMAL HAIR FACTORY — A building or complex where animal hair is processed, using a variety of means, for use in products such as brushes, mattresses etc.
  • ANIMAL HOUSE — Living quarters for animals, birds, etc, as pets or for observation, entertainment, etc.
  • ANIMAL MEMORIAL — A monument commemorating an animal.
  • ANIMAL POWER SITE — Buildings and structures associated with the use of animals to generate power.
  • ANIMAL PRODUCT SITE — Buildings or sites used in the production of items derived from the parts of animals not used for consumption.
  • ANIMAL QUARANTINE CENTRE — A building complex, usually including kennels and cages and built close to a port or airport, in which animals can be securely held, for a designated period, to ensure that they are not carrying any infectious diseases which could be spread to others.
  • ANIMAL SANCTUARY — A place where injured or endangered animals are kept and looked after.
  • ANIMAL SHED — A building in which animals are housed. For non agricultural use see ANIMAL HOUSE and narrow terms in RECREATIONAL class.
  • ANIMAL STALL — A stall where animals are kept individually.
  • ANIMAL TOMB — A burial site for an animal, usually commemorated by a gravestone or other structure.
  • ANIMAL WASH — A place or building where animals can be washed. Often in the form of a pool with a walled funnel-like structure enabling animals to be guided into the pool.
  • ANIMAL WELFARE SITE — A building, range of buildings or site, for the accommodation, rearing and/or treatment of animals, birds and fish, both wild and domestic.
  • ANNEALING FURNACE — For reheating of worked metal or glass to make it malleable or to harden it after use for toolmaking, etc.
  • ANNEXE ENCLOSURE — A subsidiary enclosure externally attached to an enclosure of known or unknown date and function. The annexe is generally smaller than, and secondary to, the main enclosure. Use more specific site type where known. Do not use for Roman military sites.
  • ANODIZING WORKS — A processed used to increase the thickness of the natural oxide layer on the surface of metal parts. The part being treated forms the anode of an electrolytic cell.
  • ANTENATAL BLOCK — An area within a hospital concerned with the care and medical treatment of expectant mothers.
  • ANTENNA ARRAY — A structure used for the transmission and interception of radio signals. Usually composed of a number of different elements such as aerials, receiving equipment and supporting pylons.
  • ANTI AIRCRAFT BATTERY — A site containing one or more artillery pieces and/or rocket launchers for firing at enemy aircraft.
  • ANTI AIRCRAFT BATTERY COMMAND POST — A command post used to direct the guns of an anti aircraft battery.
  • ANTI AIRCRAFT DEFENCE SITE — Sites, buildings and structures for the control and mounting of anti aircraft artillery. Also, structures for passive or indirect defence against enemy aircraft.
  • ANTI AIRCRAFT GUN EMPLACEMENT — Gun emplacement for static or mobile light anti aircraft artillery.
  • ANTI AIRCRAFT GUN POST — A light anti aircraft position, usually open-walled and built of concrete, brick or sandbags used to emplace one or more machine guns mounted on pintels.
  • ANTI AIRCRAFT GUN TOWER — A purpose-built firing platform on which an anti-aircraft battery could be emplaced.
  • ANTI AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS ROOM — A one or two storey reinforced concrete structure, usually associated with two T shaped radio masts. Term is specific to army anti-aircraft control centres operational between 1950-55.
  • ANTI BOAT LANDING OBSTACLE — Obstacles, including scaffolding and anti tank blocks designed to impede an enemy's attempts to land forces onto open beaches.
  • ANTI INVASION DEFENCE SITE — Sites, buildings and structures associated with the prevention of an invasion by a hostile force.
  • ANTI LANDING CABLE — A cable, usually erected between posts, used to prevent the landing or hostile aircraft.
  • ANTI LANDING OBSTACLE — Obstacles placed in open spaces and alongside roads designed to prevent the successful landing of enemy airborne forces.
  • ANTI LANDING POLE — A telegraph pole, tree trunk or similar erected on the side of a road, or in an open space, to prevent the landing of hostile aircraft
  • ANTI LANDING TRENCH — A purpose built trench designed to prevent the successful landing of enemy glider-borne and airborne forces.
  • ANTI MOTOR TORPEDO BOAT BATTERY — A coastal battery containing one or more artillery pieces for to defend the coast against hostile motor torpedo boats.
  • ANTI SEAPLANE OBSTACLE — Submerged obstacles to stop the landing of Seaplanes
  • ANTI SUBMARINE DEFENCE — Second World War defence work usually consisting of securinng points for a boom defence, associated gun, and searchlight, emplacements
  • ANTI TANK BLOCK — A reinforced concrete block designed to obstruct the progress of a tank or armoured vehicle. Use more specific type where known.
  • ANTI TANK BUOY — Blocks of solid concrete, in the shape of a round bottomed cone usually 2 feet 6 inches across x 2 feet 9 inches high. Buoys were mainly used in road blocks intended to impede enemy movement in the event of invasion.
  • ANTI TANK CALTROP — Blocks of concrete with four protruding arms so that, whichever way up the caltrop is placed, one arm will always point upward. Used in imitation of the iron caltrops thrown on the ground to impede cavalry.
  • ANTI TANK COFFIN — Rectangular slabs of concrete with a sloping top usually with sides of 5 feet by 3 feet and 3 feet high which when placed in rows were intended to form a substantial barrier to enemy armoured divisions in the event of invasion.
  • ANTI TANK CONE — Cones of solid concrete usually 3 feet 6 inches in diameter x 2 feet high which, when placed in rows or groups were intended to form a substantial barrier to enemy armoured divisions in the event of invasion.
  • ANTI TANK CUBE — Cubes of solid concrete, usually with sides of 3 feet 6 inches or 5 feet which when placed in rows were intended to form a substantial barrier to enemy armoured divisions in the event of invasion.
  • ANTI TANK CYLINDER — Blocks of solid concrete, in the form of cylinders usually 2 feet across x 2 feet 6 inches or 3 feet high. Cylinders were mainly used in road blocks intended to impede enemy movement in the event of invasion.
  • ANTI TANK DITCH — Stop-line against invading tanks in form of a ditch during the defence of Britain.
  • ANTI TANK DITCH (ARTIFICIAL) — A man made ditch designed to obstruct the progress of a tank or armoured vehicle. Ditches were often reveted with concrete or wood.
  • ANTI TANK DITCH (NATURAL IMPROVED) — A natural ditch the depth and/or width of which has been increased so as to prevent the progress of a tank or armoured vehicle.
  • ANTI TANK GIRDER — A metal girder, usually of iron or steel, embedded in the ground designed to obstruct the progress of hostile tanks or armoured vehicles.
  • ANTI TANK GUN EMPLACEMENT — A defensive structure or site where an anti-tank gun is emplaced.
  • ANTI TANK GUNNERY RANGE — An area of ground on which anti tank guns can be placed for testing purposes and to practice firing at targets.
  • ANTI TANK HAIRPIN — A road block formed by placing curved rails, "hairpins", in sockets in the road surface.
  • ANTI TANK ISLAND — A designated area within a town or village with fixed defences such as pillboxes, anti tank ditches and gun emplacements, designed to threaten the flanks of an enemy force which had broken through a stop line.
  • ANTI TANK OBSTACLE — Obstacles like concrete cubes, cylinders or pimples erected in the defence of Britain.
  • ANTI TANK PIMPLE — Blocks of solid concrete,in the form of truncated pyramids usually 3 feet square x 2 feet high which could be placed in rows to impede enemy movement in the event of invasion. Pimples were recommended for use on soft ground.
  • ANTI TANK SCAFFOLDING — Scaffolding intended to impede the advance of enemy armoured divisions. Often found in association with "one way" anti tank ditches.
  • ANTI TANK TETRAHEDRON — Triangular concrete pyramids with 6 feet long sides and 5 feet high, intended to impede enemy movement in the event of invasion. Thought to be confined geogaphically to Southern Command.
  • ANTI TANK VERTICAL RAIL — A road block formed by placing rails or girders in an upright position in sockets in the road surface, forming a moveable barrier.
  • ANTI TANK WALL — A wall, usually of reinforced concrete, designed to obstruct the progress of a tank or armoured vehicle
  • ANTI TANK WALL (ASSAULT TRAINING) — An anti tank wall constructed specifically to be used for training purposes.
  • ANTIMONY MINE — When secondary product use with major product and MINE, eg. COPPER MINE.
  • ANTIMONY SMELTER — Any building, group of buildings, or site in which antimony was smelted. Mainly 18th century.
  • ANTIQUE MARKET — An indoor market used for the sale of antique goods.
  • ANTLER WORKING SITE — A site which has produced evidence of in situ production of items derived from antler.
  • APARTMENT — A room or suite of rooms used as dwellings, eg. in private houses, hotels or tenement houses.
  • APIARY — A place where beehives are kept.
  • APOTROPAIC MARK — A device, monogram or symbol usually carved on stone or woodwork near a building’s entrance points, particularly doorways, windows and fireplaces, to protect inhabitants and visitors from witches and evil spirits.
  • APPRENTICE HOUSE — A lodging house for apprentices learning a trade or profession. This accommodation was often provided in lieu of wages.
  • APPROACH ROAD — A road, sometimes raised as a causeway, which serves as an approach road to a building or bridge.
  • AQUARIUM — A zoo building containing artificial ponds or tanks in which aquatic plants and animals are kept alive for purposes of observation and study.
  • AQUEDUCT — An artificial water channel for carrying water over long distances. Use also for bridge-like structures that carry the channel or canal across a valley, river or other obstacle.
  • ARBORETUM — A place devoted to the cultivation and exhibition of rare trees.
  • ARBOUR — A lattice work bower or shady retreat covered with climbing plants.
  • ARCH — A structure over an opening usually formed of wedge-shaped blocks of brick or stone held together by mutual pressure and supported at the sides; they can also be formed from moulded concrete/ cast metal. A component; use for free-standing structure only.
  • ARCH BRIDGE — A curved structural span which is supported at the sides or ends. May vary in shape from the horizontal flat arch through semicircular and semielliptical forms.
  • ARCH DAM — A curved dam usually built of concrete and designed with the curve upstream so that the force of the water compresses the structure and strengthens it as it pushes it into its foundations. Arch dams are best suited to narrow gorges
  • ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURE — Use only for features assumed to be archaeological but which cannot be identified more precisely without further investigation .Use more specific term where known
  • ARCHBISHOPS PALACE — The official residence of an archbishop, eg. Lambeth Palace.
  • ARCHDEACONRY — The residence and office of an archdeacon.
  • ARCHERY BUTTS — A mound or structure on which targets are placed for archery practice or competition.
  • ARCHERY GROUND — An open flat gound where the sport of shooting with bow and arrows is pursued. The ground can be equipped with targets mounted on butts and various fixed distance marker.
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT — Use more specific term where known.
  • ARCHITECTURAL ORNAMENT WORKSHOP — A place where architectural ornaments such as stone vases and urns are manufactured.
  • ARCHITECTURE SCHOOL — An educational establishment where the art and theory of building and construction is taught.
  • ARD MARKS — The subsoil traces of prehistoric cultivation, presumed to have been caused by the use of an ard to till the soil.
  • ARMAMENT DEPOT — A building used to store military equipment and ammunition.
  • ARMAMENT MANUFACTURING SITE — A building or site used for the manufacture, assembly and testing of weapons, explosives and associated military hardware.
  • ARMOURED VEHICLE — An armoured fighting vehicle. Often survive as commemorative monuments, targets and coastal wrecks.
  • ARMOURY — A place where weapons are kept.
  • ARMY CAMP — A site where an army or body of troops is, temporarily or permanently, lodged, with or without entrenchments and fortifications.
  • ARMY HEADQUARTERS — A building used for the daily administration of an army.
  • ARMY OFFICE — A building used for a variety of administrative purposes, usually at a military base.
  • ARSENAL — A building or large scale site for the manufacture and/or storage of weapons, ammunition and equipment.
  • ARSENIC CALCINER — A type of calcining kiln used in arsenic manufacture.
  • ARSENIC MINE — When secondary product use with major product and MINE, eg. COPPER MINE.
  • ARSENIC WORKS — Buildings and plant used for the extraction and purification of arsenic oxide into various forms of pure arsenic.
  • ART AND EDUCATION VENUE — Buildings and structures associated with educational and artistic recreational activities.
  • ART GALLERY — A building in which works of art are displayed, permanently or temporarily.
  • ART SCHOOL — A place where the creative arts are taught to students.
  • ART STORAGE FACILITY — A site used for the safe storage of the art held in the national collections. During the Second World War many paintings, sculptures and works of art were moved to modified mines for safe keeping to protect them against bomb damage.
  • ARTEFACT SCATTER — A spatially discrete scatter of mixed artefactual material found on the ground, seabed or riverbed which may have been deposited over time rather than resulting from one particular event. Index particular types where appropriate.
  • ARTIFICIAL DYE WORKS — A site used for the production of dyes from controlled chemical reactions. In use from the mid 19th century onwards.
  • ARTIFICIAL LIMB FACTORY — A factory used for the production of artificial limbs. They were often located within the precincts of a hospital, to enable fittings to take place and help the amputee to get used to wearing the limb.
  • ARTIFICIAL MOUND — An artificial hill constructed in Tudor gardens, especially, to provide a good view.
  • ARTIFICIAL REEF — A human constructed underwater structure, usually built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless eas bed but have also been built to control erosion, block ship passage, or improve surfing.
  • ARTIFICIAL TEXTILE FACTORY — For chemical processes making nylon, rayon, etc.
  • ARTILLERY CASTLE — Castles constructed between 1481 and 1561 for defence using heavy guns.
  • ARTILLERY FIRING RANGE — A piece of ground, or a building, on which artillery may be fired at targets.
  • ARTILLERY FORT — A fortified building or site with purpose built emplacements for artillery pieces.
  • ARTILLERY GROUND — A place in which the artillery is encamped or collected together.
  • ARTILLERY SCHOOL — A training establishment for gunnery personnel.
  • ARTILLERY TOWER — A fortified tower designed to house a number of artillery pieces and a small garrison. Artillery towers first appear in England in the 16th century.
  • ARTISTS STUDIO — An apartment, usually with a north-light, used by artists.
  • ARTS CENTRE — A building housing a variety of facilities, such as theatres, galleries, concert halls, etc.
  • ASBESTOS FACTORY — Factory producing asbestos sheeting and or asbestos fibre.
  • ASH HOPPER — A hopper for the storage of ash.
  • ASH HOUSE — A small outlying farm building, especially common in southern England, used to store ash (which was used as a fertilizer).
  • ASH PIT — A pit containing burnt ashes.
  • ASHKENAZI MATZEVAH — A matzevah from the Ashkenazi group of Jews descended from medieval Jewish communities of the Rhineland and Eastern Europe. Characterised by upright headstones with Hebrew Inscriptions
  • ASSART — A piece of forest land converted into arable.
  • ASSAY OFFICE — A building for the weighing or testing of metals, eg. at a mine site.
  • ASSEMBLY HALL — A hall in which public assemblies and meetings can be held.
  • ASSEMBLY PLANT — A factory for the assembly of components. Usually associated with the manufacture of vehicles: cars, lorries, etc.
  • ASSEMBLY ROOMS — A building or set of rooms, primarily of the 18th century, in which social gatherings and balls were held.
  • ASSIZE COURT — Court where sessions were held periodically in each county in England, for the purpose of administering civil and criminal justice. Presided over by itinerant judges acting under certain special commissions. Abolished 1971 and in 1972 replaced by Crown C.
  • ASTROLABE — Fixed instrument to measure altitude of stars and planets.
  • ASTRONOMICAL CLOCK — A clock with special mechanisms and dials to display astonomical information.
  • ATHENAEUM — A type of public building common in the 18th and 19th century, serving as an educational and/or learned society institute.
  • ATHLETICS TRACK — A running track used for athletic practice and competition.
  • ATMOSPHERIC ENGINE HOUSE — Building housing a form of early steam engine using steam at atmospheric pressure. Chiefly employed in mine pumping.
  • ATMOSPHERIC RAILWAY — A railway worked by the propulsive force of compressed air or by the formation of a vacuum.
  • ATMOSPHERIC RAILWAY ENGINE HOUSE — An engine house which used air pressure to power trains on the experimental atmospheric railways of the 1840s.
  • ATOMIC WEAPONS RESEARCH STATION — Establishments responsible for the research into and the design, development and manufacture of nuclear warheads.
  • AUCTION HOUSE — A place where public sales of goods are made by competitive bidding.
  • AUGUSTINIAN ALIEN CELL — A residence of two or three monks of the Augustinian order dependent on a foreign mother house.
  • AUGUSTINIAN CELL — A small monastery or nunnery of the Augustinian order dependent on a larger mother house.
  • AUGUSTINIAN DOUBLE HOUSE — A mixed house of Augustinian nuns, canonesses and canons.
  • AUGUSTINIAN FRIARY — A house of friars of the Augustinian order. Also known as Austin Friars
  • AUGUSTINIAN GRANGE — An outlying farm or estate belonging to the Augustinian order.
  • AUGUSTINIAN MONASTERY — An abbey or priory of Augustinian canons.
  • AUGUSTINIAN NUNNERY — An abbey or priory of Augustinian canonesses.
  • AUXILIARY FIRE STATION — A fire station built for use by the Auxiliary Fire Service, established in 1938 to supplement existing local brigades.
  • AUXILIARY FORT — A permanent Roman fort enclosed by a number of ditches and ramparts, used to house a garrison of auxiliaries.
  • AUXILIARY HIDE — WWII secret bases, sometimes partially underground, intended for use by the British resistance in the eventuality of a foreign invasion.
  • AUXILIARY HOSPITAL — A building temporarily requistioned for use as a hospital. Auxiliary hospitals treated the less seriously wounded and were less strict than military hospitals although they remained under military control.
  • AUXILIARY UNIT BOMB STORE — A structure, usually well concealed, used to store explosives intended for use by the Auxiliary Units (or British Resistance Organization) in the event of an invasion.
  • AUXILIARY UNIT CONTROL STATION — An underground hideout containing radio equipment to be used by the Auxiliary Units to relay information gained from the various out-stations back to headquarters.
  • AUXILIARY UNIT OBSERVATION POST — An observation post, usually well concealed, intended for use by the Auxiliary Units (or British Resistance Organisation), in the event of an invasion, to watch enemy movements without being seen.
  • AUXILIARY UNIT OPERATIONAL BASE — A well concealed structure, usually constructed underground, intended for use by members of the British Resistance Organization in the event of invasion.
  • AUXILIARY UNIT SITE — A site intended for use by the Auxiliary Units (or British Resistance Organisation) in the event of an invasion. Use more specific term.
  • AUXILIARY UNIT SPECIAL DUTIES BASE — A well concealed structure, usually constructed undergound, intended for use by members of the Special Duties section of the Auxiliary Units (or British Resistance Organization) in the event of invasion.
  • AUXILIARY UNIT SPECIAL DUTIES CONTROL STATION — An underground hideout containing radio equipment to be used by the Special Duties sections of the Auxiliary Units to co-ordinate information collected by the outstations for relaying to headquarters.
  • AUXILIARY UNIT SPECIAL DUTIES OUTSTATION — A hideout containing radio equipment to be used by the Special Duties sections of the Auxiliary Units to send information to the control station for relaying to headquarters.
  • AUXILIARY UNIT SPECIAL DUTIES ZERO STATION — An underground hideout containing radio equipment to be used by the Special Duties sections of the Auxiliary Units to recieve coded information from the out-stations in the surrounding area for relaying to headquarters via direct phone line.
  • AVENUE (LANDSCAPE FEATURE) — A monument consisting of parallel lines of banks, ditches, stones, timber posts or trees which appears to mark out an approach to another monument or monuments. Use specific type where known.
  • AVENUE (ROAD) — A wide street, traditionally lined with trees.
  • AVIARY — A house, enclosure or large cage for the keeping and breeding of birds.

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B

  • BABY GARDEN — A garden associated with a crematorium where the ashes of deceased infants are scattered or buried.
  • BACK HOUSE — A brewing or baking house attached to a vernacular building, 16/17th century.
  • BACK SHED — A single-storey structure, usually situated against the exterior of a walled garden's south facing wall, used for storage and often accomodation.
  • BACK TO BACK HOUSE — A house in a terrace consisting of a double row of houses sharing a common back wall, characteristic of industrial cities in the North of England.
  • BACK TO BACK TERRACE — A terrace consisting of a double row of houses sharing a common back wall, characteristic of industrial cities in the North of England.
  • BACK TO EARTH HOUSE — A type of back to back house built on a hillside, of four storeys and with entrances at different levels.
  • BACK TO EARTH TERRACE — A terrace of BACK TO EARTH HOUSES.
  • BACKYARD — A small yard attached to the rear of a house or other building.
  • BADGER PIT — A site used for the sport of badger baiting using fighting dogs.
  • BADMINTON COURT — An indoor play area for the game of badminton.
  • BAGGAGE HALL — Use for distinct structure on a large scale.
  • BAILEY — The courtyard of a castle, ie. the area enclosed by the rampart or curtain. Use with wider site type where known.
  • BAILEY BRIDGE — A type of temporary bridge designed by Sir Donald C.Bailey during the Second World War.
  • BAIT SHED — A shed for storing fishing bait.
  • BAITING PLACE — A site where the baiting of animals took place. Use more specific site type where known.
  • BAIZE WORKS — A factory making baize for snooker and gaming tables.
  • BAKEHOUSE — A service building to a country house, farm, etc, used for baking. If commercial premises use BAKERY.
  • BAKERY — A commercial bakery or bread factory. If domestic use BAKEHOUSE.
  • BALANCE BEAM — The horizontal beam on a lock gate.
  • BALCONY ACCESS BLOCK — Block of flats within which the individual dwellings are accessed by narrow external balconies.
  • BALL CLAY WORKS — A works, including an extractive site, producing a clay of high plasticity and firmness, used as a basic raw material for porcelain.
  • BALL SPORTS SITE — A building, site or structure associated with the playing of ball sports.
  • BALLAST HILL — An artificial mound created by the disposal of aggregate originally used as ballast in ships.
  • BALLAST POND — A water-filled hole used for the disposal of aggregate originally used as ballast in ships.
  • BALLET SCHOOL — A training school where ballet is taught.
  • BALLOON SHED — A building used for fabricating balloon and airship envelopes.
  • BALLROOM — A room designed or suitable for dancing.
  • BALUSTRADE — A row of balusters, usually made of stone, surmounted by a rail or coping.
  • BANDAGE FACTORY — A building manufacturing bandages.
  • BANDSTAND — A platform or other structure for the use of a band of musicians.
  • BANJO ENCLOSURE — A monument consisting of a small (generally less than 100m diameter) subcircular enclosure with a narrow approach way consisting of parallel ditches (thus banjo shaped). Believed to be associated with stock management in the Later Prehistoric period.
  • BANK (EARTHWORK) — Linear or curvilinear construction of earth, turf and stone, often, but not always accompanied by a ditch. Use specific type where known.
  • BANK (FINANCIAL) — An establishment used for the custody of money received from, or on behalf, of its customers.
  • BANK BARN — A multi-purpose, two-storey barn, built on a hillside with entrances at both levels to a first floor threshing barn and ground floor animal housing.
  • BANK BARROW — A poorly understood Neolithic monument comprising a very long, narrow earthen mound. They may be of single-phase construction, or represent the addition of a linear extension to the bank of an existing Long Barrow.
  • BANQUETING HOUSE — A hall, apartment or large room, designed or used primarily for festive or state functions.
  • BAPTIST BURIAL GROUND — A cemetery for baptist followers.
  • BAPTIST CHAPEL — A place of worship for Baptists. The first Baptist church was formed by Thomas Helws in 1611 and gave rise to the General Baptist Movement.
  • BAPTISTERY — An area of a church, often a free-standing building, in which baptism is administered
  • BAR (LICENSED) — An establishment where alcoholic and non alcoholic drinks are served, food may also be served. May be a an individual room within a larger multi purpose building such as a sports pavilion or a theatre.
  • BARBED WIRE ENTANGLEMENT — One or more coils of barbed wire intended to impede the advance of hostile troops.
  • BARBED WIRE OBSTRUCTION — Rolls of barbed wire with supporting metal posts designed to impede enemy advance.
  • BARBERS SHOP — A hairdressing establishment for men.
  • BARBICAN — Any earthworks, walling, bastion or fortified outwork, or combination of these, generally with ditch or moat.
  • BARGE BED — A foreshore structure to prevent barges from sinking in the river mud. Made by placing chalk on fascines of brushwood, which is in some cases retained by a timber revetement.
  • BARILLA MILL — A mill used for the preparation of Barilla, an ash of burnt seaweed that was used for the production of soda.
  • BARK HOUSE — A building used for storing tree bark.
  • BARK MILL — Mill for grinding bark usually for use in the tanning industry. Use with power type(s), eg. WATERMILL where known.
  • BARK PEELERS HUT — A round hut, similar to a CHARCOAL BURNERS HUT, associated with forest industry. The bark was later used in the tanning process.
  • BARK POT — A large cauldron used in the making of a preservative from the bark of spruce, fir or other conifers. The preservative was used to treat nets, sails and other fishing gear.
  • BARMKIN — A defensive cattle enclosure added to fortified towers.
  • BARN — A building for the storage and processing of grain crops and for housing straw, farm equipment and occasionally livestock and their fodder. Use more specific type where known.
  • BARN PLATFORM — A levelled area of ground on which a barn is built. A platform is often the sole surviving evidence for a barn.
  • BARRACKS — A building used to house members of the armed forces.
  • BARRAGE — A manmade barrier built across a river in order to increase the depth of water.
  • BARRAGE BALLOON CENTRE — An RAF Base, used specifically for the storage and maintenance of barrage balloons.
  • BARRAGE BALLOON GAS DEPOT — A building or site used for the storage and distribution lighter than air gases for use in barrage balloons.
  • BARRAGE BALLOON HANGAR — A hangar used for the storage of barrage balloons.
  • BARRAGE BALLOON MANUFACTORING SITE — A site or building where barrage balloons are manufactured. Consider double-indexing with the term WAR PRODUCTION FACTORY if appropriate.
  • BARRAGE BALLOON MOORING — A mooring, usually consisting of a concrete plinth, to which a barrage balloon was attached.
  • BARRAGE BALLOON SHELTER — A building associated with a barrage balloon site and intended to provide shelter for the balloon crew from air attack.
  • BARRAGE BALLOON SITE — A site where a single large balloon was attached by fine wire cables to the ground to form an aerial obstruction to attacking enemy aircraft.
  • BARREL FLAME TRAP — An anti-personnel device consisting of a 40 gallon fuel drum placed on top of an explosive charge and detonator. When detonated the barrel would explode sending burning fuel over the intended target.
  • BARRIER — An obstruction, usually manmade, which is used to restrict or prevent access to a settlement, building or area of land. Use more specific type where known.
  • BARROW — Artificial mound of earth, turf and/or stone, normally constructed to contain or conceal burials. Use specific type where known.
  • BARROW CEMETERY — A cluster of closely spaced barrows and related monuments (eg. ring ditches). Use with specific barrow-types where known.
  • BARYTES MILL — A mill in which barytes concentrates were ground to fine white powder, normally by use of flat millstones similar to those of a corn mill.
  • BARYTES MINE — A site where barytes (barium sulphate) is mined. Barytes is also commonly worked from the waste tips of lead mines.
  • BARYTES WORKS — A complex of buildings where barytes is processed for industrial use.
  • BASCULE BRIDGE — A bridge that incorporates one or two spans that tilt at the abutments, to move up and out of the way of shipping. The most famous example of which is Tower Bridge, London.
  • BASE CRUCK HOUSE — A CRUCK HOUSE where the cruck blades are truncated and joined by a collar beam, above which is a separate roof construction.
  • BASEBALL COURT — A prepared area used for the game of baseball.
  • BASEMENT — Component. Use wider site type where known.
  • BASILICA — An aisled timber or masonry hall, serving as the chief administrative public meeting centre and law courts for a Roman town. Usually located alongside the forum.
  • BASILICAN CHURCH — A church, the plan of which is based on that of a Roman basilica.
  • BASKET MAKERS WORKSHOP — A workshop where baskets were manufactured.
  • BASKETBALL COURT — A prepared area of ground, often enclosed, used for the game of basketball.
  • BASTION — A flanking tower, or projection from the main walls of a defensive work from which a garrison can defend the ground in front or on the flank.
  • BASTION OUTWORK — Earthworks and buildings added around a bastion to enhance protection of the bastion.
  • BASTION TRACE FORT — A fort with projecting bastions, which came into use from the 16th century onwards.
  • BASTLE — A fortified house of two or three storeys, the lower floor being used to house animals and the upper for domestic use.
  • BASTLE (NON DEFENSIVE) — A stone building with external access to the domestic accommodation via a permanent stair. The ground floor is normally used as a byre in rural contexts, but in an urban setting it may be intended for one of a number of other non domestic uses.
  • BATH HOUSE — A building equipped with facilities for bathing, and occasionally public baths.
  • BATHS — A building, usually open to the public, containing a number of areas for bathing. In the case of such a complex containing baths for swimming, also index with INDOOR or OUTDOOR SWIMMING POOL.
  • BATTERY — A site where guns, mortars or searchlights are mounted. Use specific type where known.
  • BATTERY ENGINE HOUSE — A building housing the engines used to power equipment used by a searchlight, anti-aircraft or coastal battery.
  • BATTERY MILL — Mill incorporating water-powered hammers for beating brass sheet, etc. into vessels, pots, etc.
  • BATTLE HEADQUARTERS — A concrete structure designed to be the headquarters for the coordination of an airfield's defences. Constructed partially underground it was only intended to be occupied during an attack.
  • BATTLE HEADQUARTERS (11008/41) — A concrete structure, based on drawing number (11008/41), intended to be the headquarters for the coordination of an airfield's defences. Constructed partially underground it was considered less vulnerable than the (3329/41).
  • BATTLE HEADQUARTERS (3329/41) — A structure, based on drawing number (3329/41), intended to be the headquarters for the coordination of an airfield's defences. Constructed above ground this design was found to be vulnerable and was superceded by the (11008/41).
  • BATTLEFIELD — The field or area of ground on which a battle or skirmish was fought.
  • BATTLEFIELD DEBRIS — Ordnance, expended or otherwise, weapons, armour, personal effects, transport wreckage, or ship wreckage, left behind on the site of a terrestrial or naval battle.
  • BATTLEFIELD WRECKAGE — Structural elements (parts of hull etc.) or fixtures and fittings (masts, etc.) lost during a naval engagement without incurring the actual loss of a ship. May also be used as a monument type for expended ammunition (e.g. shells, cannonballs).
  • BCF FLAT ROOF HUT — A hut consisting of a frame of reinforced concrete posts into which concrete panels were slotted. Designed by the British Concrete Federation during WWII to be resistant to bomb blasts & used for military accommodation, child nurseries and clinics etc.
  • BCF LIGHT HUT — A hut consisting of a frame of reinforced concrete posts into which panels of either pre cast concrete or corrugated asbestos could be slotted. Designed by the British Concrete Federation during WWII.
  • BEACH DEFENCE — Obstacles such as scaffolding, barbed wire and concrete blocks or cylinders placed on a beach to impede the progress of enemy soldiers, vehicles or watercraft landing from the sea.
  • BEACH DEFENCE BATTERY — Gun battery built specifically to mount short range weapons to defend a beach against an attempted landing.
  • BEACH DEFENCE LIGHT — A searchlight battery used to light a beach.
  • BEACH HUT — A small timber one-roomed dwelling where holiday makers could rest after a day spent sunbathing, swimming and playing on the beach.
  • BEACH SCAFFOLDING — Scaffolding erected on a beach and in the surf so as to prevent hostile forces from landing.
  • BEACON — A site or structure on which a signal, especially a fire, could be placed as a warning or means of communication. Use for beacon sites or surviving beacon structures.
  • BEAM BRIDGE — A bridge in which the load is carried by a single beam, or beams, spanning the space between two supports.
  • BEAM ENGINE — A steam engine with a horizontal beam connecting the piston and crank.
  • BEAM ENGINE HOUSE — A building housing a beam engine.
  • BEAM SLOT — A trench dug to contain a sill beam, a horizontal timber beam used as a foundation for the wall of a building. Use wider site type where known.
  • BEAMWORK — Mediaeval-17th century mining method which involved exploiting an exposed surface vein. Rarely associated with waste.
  • BEAR ENCLOSURE — An enclosure, usually within a zoo, designed to represent the natural environment for bears, including shelter. For bear baiting enclosures use BEAR PIT.
  • BEAR PIT — A pit where bears were housed for baiting and entertainment purposes. If not used for baiting use BEAR ENCLOSURE.
  • BEARING FACTORY — A factory manufacturing bearings, including ball bearings for use in precision equipment.
  • BEAUTY SALON — An establishment where beauty treatments and associated therapies are provided by professional practitioners.
  • BED BURIAL — An inhumation burial in which the corpse is laid on a wooden bed, often surrounded by a collection of grave-goods. Anglo-Saxon rite of 7th century AD.
  • BEDSTEAD WORKS — A building or site used for the production of frameworks of beds.
  • BEE BOLE — A recess in a stone or brick wall, usually bounding a garden or orchard, set two to three feet from the ground and facing south to south-east to catch the morning sun, in which a bee skep/beehive is placed. Often found in groupings of three to six.
  • BEE GARDEN — A garden in which bees are kept.
  • BEE HOUSE — A building with shelves and/or stands for skeps or wooden hives, and flight holes through the walls for bees.
  • BEE SKEP — A portable beehive, often made of straw.
  • BEEHIVE — A receptacle used as a home for bees, traditionally made of thick straw-work in the shape of a dome, but sometimes made of wood.
  • BEER CELLAR — A building or subterranean structure used for the storage of beer.
  • BEER GARDEN — Garden area next to public house used for the comsumption of alcoholic beverages.
  • BEER HOUSE — A building licensed for the sale of beer.
  • BEER SHOP — A building where beer was sold or displayed.
  • BEETLING MILL — A finishing process for cloth involving the pounding of the cloth with heavy weights.
  • BELFAST TRUSS AIRCRAFT HANGAR — A type of aircraft hangar from the closing years of WWI either of steel or wood utilising a type of lattice work roof support known as a Belfast Truss, which features diagonally interlaced pieces of thin pine. The roof appears as a smooth curve.
  • BELISHA BEACON — Traditionally an amber-coloured globe lamp atop a tall black and white pole, acting as a signal to road users that there is a pedestrian crossing. Modern beacons may also include an outer ring of flashing LED lights.
  • BELL BARROW — A round barrow in which the mound and ditch are separated from each other by a berm. The ditch may be accompanied by an external (or occasionally internal) bank.
  • BELL CASTING PIT — A pit, sometimes found close to a church or cathedral, where bells were cast in medieval times.
  • BELL DISC BARROW — A form of round barrow intermediate between the Bell Barrow and the Disc Barrow. Only use where it is not possible to determine specific type.
  • BELL FOUNDRY — A workshop or factory where bells are made by casting molten metal into moulds.
  • BELL MAST — A tall pole topped with a bell used to summon the workforce to their place of work.
  • BELL PIT — A bell-shaped pit used in early coal mining. Use with functional type if known, eg. COAL WORKINGS.
  • BELL TOWER — A tower or turret in which bells are hung.
  • BELLAND YARD WALL — A wall within a lead mine surrounding a dressing floor, where waste from mining and smelting is deposited, to protect livestock from entering and consuming contaminated material and becoming poisoned, or 'bellanded'.
  • BELLITE WORKS — A works engaged principally in the manufacture of the explosive bellite.
  • BELLMAN AIRCRAFT HANGAR — A type of temporary transportable aircraft hangar designed in 1936 by N.S. Bellman. It was designed for ease of installation, and was composed of light rolled steel sections.
  • BELLOWS HOUSE — A building housing a set of bellows used to provide the blast of air to a blast furnace or similar installation.
  • BELTING WORKS — A works site making and/or maintaining drive belts for industrial power.
  • BELVEDERE — A turret, tower or look out occupying a prominent position to provide a view, either a separate building, or part of a villa.
  • BENCH — A long seat, usually made of stone or wood, with or without a back.
  • BENCH MARK — Mark, usually consisting of a horizontal line above an arrow, cut by the Ordnance Survey as part of the survey of Britain and referenced to a known height above mean sea level.
  • BENEDICTINE ALIEN CELL — A residence of two or three monks of the Benedictine order dependent on a foreign mother house.
  • BENEDICTINE CELL — A residence of two or three monks of the Benedictine order dependent on an English mother house.
  • BENEDICTINE DOUBLE HOUSE — A mixed house of nuns and religious men of the Benedictine order.
  • BENEDICTINE GRANGE — An outlying farm or estate belonging to the Benedictine order.
  • BENEDICTINE MONASTERY — An abbey or priory for monks of the Benedictine order.
  • BENEDICTINE NUNNERY — An abbey or priory for nuns ofthe Benedictine order.
  • BERCEAU — A vault shaped trellis on which climbing plants are trained.
  • BERM — A horizontal surface separating the base of a rampart or earthwork from an associated ditch or moat. Can also refer to a continuously sloping bank of earth against a wall, as in a fortified city wall.
  • BERTH — A place where a ship lies at a wharf. Use specific type where known.
  • BESSEMER STEEL WORKS — Site where steel is produced from molten pig iron using a Bessemer Converter, a development from the cementation and crucible steel-making techniques .
  • BESSONNEAU AIRCRAFT HANGAR — The first transportable aircraft hangar developed by the RFC/RAF, which comprised a kit of timber and canvas that could be assembled in 48 hours. The canvas doors open one end only. Also known as Type H hangar.
  • BET HAMIDRASH — A hall, often associated with a synagogue, used for studying the Torah and other religious texts.
  • BET TAHARA — A cleansing house associated with Jewish burial ceremonies
  • BETTING OFFICE — An establishment where wagering and the placing of bets takes place.
  • BIBLE CHRISTIAN CHAPEL — A place of worship for Bible Christians, a group who split from the Wesleyan Methodists to form their own church in the South West of England. They were amalgamated into the United Methodist Church in 1907.
  • BICYCLE FACTORY — A factory for the assembly of bicycles.
  • BICYCLE SHED — A shelter for the storage of bicycles.
  • BIELD — A wall built to give shelter to sheep.
  • BIER HOUSE — A building containing a bier; a movable stand on which a corpse, often in a coffin, is placed prior to burial.
  • BILLET — Accommodation, often in private houses or lodgings, provided for military personnel.
  • BILLIARD HALL — A Hall where billiards was played.
  • BILLIARD TABLE FACTORY — A factory manufacturing billiard tables.
  • BINDERY — A bookbinding workshop.
  • BINGO HALL — A place where the popular gambling game of bingo is played.
  • BIRD BATH — An ornamental receptacle to catch rainwater for birds to drink from and bathe in. Sometimes mounted on a column or plinth.
  • BIRD SANCTUARY — An area where birds are protected and bred.
  • BISCUIT FACTORY — A factory where biscuits are manufactured.
  • BISHOPS PALACE — The official residence of a bishop.
  • BISHOPS SUMMER PALACE — An official residence of a bishop used during the summer months.
  • BISMUTH MINE — Mine for the extraction of bismuth, which usually occurs in small quantities in the ores of other metal ores, particularly lead, and some copper ores.
  • BISON MOBILE PILLBOX — A flatbed lorry with a concrete defensive position fitted on the back enabling the "pillbox" to be driven to where it was most needed in the event of an airborne force landing on the airfield.
  • BIVALLATE HILLFORT — A hilltop enclosure bounded by a double line of ramparts.
  • BLACKING FACTORY — A building or buildings used for the manufacture of shoe and leather polish, etc.
  • BLACKSMITHS WORKSHOP — Place where a smith works iron. May be for small scale local use or within a larger industrial complex.
  • BLANKET MILL — A factory where lengths of soft, woollen cloth, loosely woven to retain heat, used as a bed covering, were manufactured.
  • BLAST FURNACE — Smelting furnace into which compressed hot air is driven.
  • BLAST PEN — A protective structure, often made of sandbags with reinforcement, designed to protect aircraft at airfields from enemy attack.
  • BLAST SHELTER — A structure, usually of earth and concrete, and usually, although not always, subterranean, designed for protection against explosives.
  • BLAST SHELTER (2360/41) — An unroofed structure, found on military airfields, protected by brick walls and earth banks for shelter during air raids.
  • BLAST WALL — A reinforced wall designed to reflect the blast from an explosion. Often found associated with powder magazines, pillboxes and air raid shelters.
  • BLEACH WORKS — A works where bleach is manufactured.
  • BLEACHERY — Bleach works or bleach house for bleaching of textiles, etc.
  • BLEACHFIELD — Large field or yard used to lay fabrics out ready for bleaching.
  • BLENDER SHED — A building where threads of different qualities and colours are mixed together.
  • BLIND BACK HOUSE — A house with windows and doors on one side only; often built facing inwards onto a burgage plot, or sometimes on a steep slope, with no apertures on the uphill side.
  • BLIND BACK TERRACE — A terrace with windows and doors on one side only, often built facing inwards onto a burgage plot, or sometimes on a steep slope, with no apertures on the uphill side.
  • BLISTER AIRCRAFT HANGAR — A type of transportable aircraft hangar patented by Miskins and Sons in 1939. The arched hangar was constructed of steel or wooden ribs and generally clad in steel sheets. The hangar did not require any foundations and could be anchored by iron stakes.
  • BLOCK MILL — Building housing machinery used in the production of wooden pulley blocks for the rigging of sailing ships.
  • BLOCKHOUSE — A detached fort covering a strategic point.
  • BLOOD DONOR CENTRE — A centre in which the public donate blood that will be used for the care of patients in hospitals.
  • BLOOD LETTING HOUSE — Place for people who underwent regular blood letting.
  • BLOODHOUND MISSILE SITE — A missile base armed with the Bristol Bloodhound surface-to-air missile. Bloodhounds were deployed to defend the launch sites of Thor Intermediate Range Ballistic Missiles.
  • BLOOMERY — A charcoal fired shaft furnace used for the direct reduction of iron ore to produce wrought iron.
  • BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE — Steam engine, usually, driving a centrifugal fan to provide an air blast for a blast furnace.
  • BLOWING HOUSE — A building containing a small stone cylindrical furnace, eg. used for tin smelting in Cornwall.
  • BLUNGING PIT — Pit for mixing raw materials with water in the preparation of a clay body.
  • BOAR PEN — A pen to separate the boar from the other pigs.
  • BOARD MILL — A mill used for the production of cardboard and other similar products.
  • BOARD SCHOOL — 19th century school administered by a school board.
  • BOARDING KENNEL — A house or range of buildings where domestic dogs and cats can be kept for a period.
  • BOARDING SCHOOL — A private school offering term time accommodation for pupils being taught there.
  • BOAT HOUSE — A house or shelter for the storage and/or launching of boats.
  • BOAT LIFT — A structure used for the lifting of boats and other water craft.
  • BOAT SHED — A light, mostly wooden errected structure serving as workshop for the building, storage, repair and maintenance of boats.
  • BOAT STORE — A place where boats are stored.
  • BOAT YARD — A place where boats are built and stored.
  • BOATING LAKE — A lake, often artifical, in a park or open space, used for the recreational rowing and sailing of boats.
  • BOB SETTING — 18th-19th century stone-lined pit which held the balance bob for a pump-rod or flat-rod system. It includes examples where the surviving feature is a pillar for the bearing, rather than the pit.
  • BOBBIN MILL — A mill manufacturing bobbins for the textile industry.
  • BOG BURIAL — A body which has been interred in boggy or marshy ground or other similarly waterlogged environment. Interment may have been deliberate or accidental.
  • BOG GARDEN — A soft, marshy garden, often peat-based where water- and peat-loving plants are grown.
  • BOILER HOUSE — A building housing a boiler, often connected to a steam engine house.
  • BOILER ROOM — A room containing a boiler, used to provide heating.
  • BOILER SHOP — Workshop for the construction and maintenance of boilers within an industrial complex.
  • BOILER WORKS — Engineering works dedicated solely to the manufacture and repair of boilers.
  • BOILING HOUSE — A building, or part of a building for the boiling and preparation of animal feed, usually attached to pigsties.
  • BOLEHILL — An early form of lead furnace, set upon a hilltop or crest to utilize winds in smelting.
  • BOLLARD — A wooden, stone or iron post for securing things to or for preventing vehicular access to pedestrianized areas.
  • BOLT WORKS — A site where iron or steel bolts, and often their accompanying nuts, are manufactured. Sometimes referred to as NUT AND BOLT WORKS.
  • BOMB CRATER — A depression in the ground caused by the explosion of a mine or bombshell.
  • BOMB SITE — A site which has been bombed but where there is no crater, eg. bombed buildings.
  • BOMB STORE — A complex of buildings and earthworks constructed for the storage of bombs and pyrotechnics.
  • BOMBASINE MILL — A mill used for the manufacture of twilled dress material of worsted with or without a mixture of cotton or silk.
  • BOMBER COMMAND STATION — An airfield, and associated structures, used by one or more bomber squadrons.
  • BOMBER SATELLITE STATION WATCH OFFICE — A watch office designed for bomber satellite station comprising a long, temporary brick hut with a watch office, operations room and crew briefing room.
  • BOMBER STATION CONTROL TOWER (294/45) — A control tower designed for use on Very Heavy Bomber Station Airfields. Designed to Air Ministry drawing number 294/45 they were the first to be have a Visual Control Room
  • BOMBING DECOY — A system of lights, controlled fires or dummy constructions, used during WWII to provide a counterfeit target for enemy aircraft.
  • BOMBING DECOY SITE — A site comprising a system of lights, controlled fires or dummy constructions, used during WWII to provide a counterfeit target for enemy aircraft. Use more specific type where known.
  • BOMBING RANGE — An area of land, with associated buildings and targets, used for practicing the dropping of bombs and other aspects of air warfare.
  • BOMBING RANGE MARKER — A range marker allowing bombers to locate the bombing range.
  • BOMBING RANGE OBSERVATION POST — Buildings and structures used to monitor the accuracy of bombs dropped on a bombing range
  • BOMBING RANGE TARGET — Any structure or object, used for the purpose of practice bombing.
  • BOMBING RANGE TOWER — An observation tower located on or near to a bombing range.
  • BOMBING TEACHER BUILDING — A building equipped with instruments and a flight simulator used to teach members of bomber crews how to correctly identify targets for bombing.
  • BONDED WAREHOUSE — A warehouse, usually under the charge of CUSTOM HOUSE officials, in which goods were stored before the duty had been paid. Often found in dockyards, harbours, etc.
  • BONE MILL — A mill for grinding or crushing bones, in the process of making bone china, for example.
  • BONE WORKING SITE — A site used for the production of items derived from animal bones.
  • BONHOMMES MONASTERY — A residence of the Bonhommes brethren, who followed the Augustinian rule.
  • BOOKING OFFICE — An establishment where tickets/reservations for events, journeys or entrance to a site can be purchased.
  • BOOM — A barrier, usually of wood or chain, stretched across the entrance to a harbour, port or anchorage, to control entry and/or limit the effect of the weather on the wave action.
  • BOOM TOWER — A tower at the mouth of the harbour to defend the end of the harbour boom.
  • BOOT SCRAPER — A small metal bar for the cleaning of dirty footwear before entering a house, etc.
  • BORDER — A strip of ground forming a fringe to a garden. Use more specific type where known.
  • BORING MILL — A building containing a machine tool for boring out large cylindrical holes in items such as steam engine cylinders, pump barrels, etc.
  • BORSTAL — An institution for the imprisonment and training of 16-21 year olds first established officially in 1908. Replaced by Youth Custody Centres in 1982.
  • BOSQUET — An ornamental grove, thicket or shrubbery pierced by walks.
  • BOTANIC GARDEN — A garden designed to provide living material for the study of botany and horticulture.
  • BOTHY — Small building in which labourers, such as miners and tin workers. They are also associated with gardens where they provide on-site accommodation for gardeners and estate workers.
  • BOTTLE KILN — A large, "bottle-shaped", oven of brick construction used in the baking or firing of pottery.
  • BOTTLE WORKS — A site where the manufacture of glass bottles takes place.
  • BOTTLING PLANT — A plant for bottling manufactured goods, as opposed to a BOTTLE WORKS where bottles were made.
  • BOUNDARY — The limit to an area as defined on a map or by a marker of some form, eg. BOUNDARY WALL. Use specific type where known.
  • BOUNDARY BANK — An earthen bank that indicates the limit of an area or a piece of land.
  • BOUNDARY CAIRN — A cairn used to indicate the limit of an area or a piece of land.
  • BOUNDARY CROSS — A sculpted cross, or a cross incised into stone or trees, to mark a parish boundary.
  • BOUNDARY DITCH — A ditch that indicates the limit of an area or a piece of land.
  • BOUNDARY FENCE — A fence that indicates the limit of an area or a piece of land.
  • BOUNDARY MARKER — A marker of some form used to indicate the limit of an area or a piece of land.
  • BOUNDARY MOUND — An earthwork used as a boundary marker.
  • BOUNDARY PLATE — A plate, usually of wood or metal, used to indicate the limit of an area or piece of land.
  • BOUNDARY POST — A stone or metal post that indicates the limit of an area or piece of land.
  • BOUNDARY STONE — A stone that indicates the limit of an area or piece of land.
  • BOUNDARY WALL — Any wall enclosing a building or complex of buildings, eg. prisons, dockyards, factories, etc.
  • BOUSE TEAM — Term for ore store/ore hopper, used particularly in Yorkshire and Derbyshire.
  • BOWL BARROW — A round barrow featuring a mound surrounded by a ditch, with no intervening berm. The ditch may be accompanied by an external bank.
  • BOWL FURNACE — A small, open air bowl-shaped furnace, in which the flames are fanned by bellows. Used for both ferrous and non-ferrous smelting.
  • BOWLING ALLEY — An indoor alley for playing bowls or skittles.
  • BOWLING CLUB — A site, usually consisting of a bowling green and pavilion, frequented by lawn bowlers.
  • BOWLING GREEN — A closely mown piece of ground used for the game of lawn bowling.
  • BOWLING GREEN PAVILION — A building, often located in a park, where players can change and store equipment and from where spectators can watch the game.
  • BOX FRAME HOUSE — A timber framed house comprising horizontal and vertical timbers, forming the walls of the building and directly supporting the roof.
  • BOXING ARENA — An area, often including a platform, used for boxing competitions.
  • BOXING CLUB — A venue, with a boxing ring and associated facilities, which is used to train for and undertake amateur or professional boxing.
  • BRAKE HOUSE — A building housing the brakes for an incline railway or tramway.
  • BRASS FOUNDRY — A workshop or factory where brass articles are made by casting molten material into a mould.
  • BRASS WORKS — A brass manufacturing complex incorporating battery mill furnaces, hammers, etc.
  • BREAKING DOWN HOUSE — A building within a gunpowder works complex, where the mill cake (pulverised and incorporated ingredients of gunpowder) was broken down. It was crushed or broken down by passing it between pairs of revolving gunmetal rollers in a breaking-down machine.
  • BREAKWATER — A structure which protects a beach or harbour by breaking the force of the waves.
  • BREASTSHOT WHEEL — A waterwheel in which the incoming water is directed onto the periphery below the top of the wheel.
  • BREASTWORK — A temporary fieldwork, usually a few feet in height, constructed for defence against enemy forces.
  • BRENNAN TORPEDO STATION — A land based installation armed with wire -guided and powered "Brennan torpedoes" which were in operation beween 1890 and 1906. These torpedoes were invented by Louis Philip Brennan. The stations were used to defend the coast from enemy shipping.
  • BRETHREN MEETING HOUSE — A place of meeting and worship for Brethren, a fundamentalist puritan sect founded in Ireland in the late 1820s and established in England in Plymouth in the 1830s.
  • BREWERY — A commercial building, or buildings, used for the production of beer and other alcoholic drinks. Size may range from a single room such as a microbrewery in a public house to a complex of buildings including production line machinery for bottling.
  • BREWHOUSE — An outbuilding containing brewing equipment, as opposed to a large commercial BREWERY. Often found in conjunction with public houses, country houses etc.
  • BREWING AND MALTING SITE — Buildings and structures associated with the process of brewing and malting.
  • BRICK AND TILEMAKING SITE — Sites and structures associated with the manufacture of bricks and tiles. Includes sites associated with earth extraction and preparation.
  • BRICK DRYING SHED — A building in which newly made bricks are laid out to dry.
  • BRICK KILN — A kiln or furnace for the firing of bricks.
  • BRICKEARTH PIT — A pit used for the excavation of clay suitable for making bricks.
  • BRICKFIELD — A site where clay is both extracted and fired to produce bricks.
  • BRICKWORKS — An industrial manufacturing complex producing bricks.
  • BRICKYARD — Small scale enterprise producing bricks but not at the same site as the extraction of clay.
  • BRIDGE — A structure of wood, stone, iron, brick or concrete, etc, with one or more intervals under it to span a river or other space. Use specific type where known.
  • BRIDGE CHAPEL — A place of worship situated at the end of, or built onto, the structure of a bridge. Often associated with bridge maintenance through the collection of donations, they may be endowed as a chantry for the celebration of Masses for the soul of the founder.
  • BRIDGE KEEPERS COTTAGE — The residence of a bridge keeper.
  • BRIDGETTINE DOUBLE HOUSE — An abbey of the Bridgettine double order of nuns and religious men.
  • BRIDGETTINE GRANGE — An outlying farm or estate belonging to the Bridgettine order.
  • BRIDGETTINE NUNNERY — An abbey founded in 1415 for nuns of the Bridgettine order.
  • BRIDLEWAY — A path, barred to vehicles, reserved for riding horses.
  • BRINE CISTERN — A structure for the storage of brine prior to processing, by evaporation, to extract salt.
  • BRINE KILN — A kiln used for extracting salt through the evaporation of salt water.
  • BRINE PIT — A pit dug for the extraction of brine.
  • BRINE PUMP — A pump used for moving brine (salt water).
  • BRINE SHAFT — A shaft cut to facilitate the extraction of salt from halite deposits by pumping water into the deposit and pumping out brine from which the salt is later extracted.
  • BRITANNIA METAL WORKS — An alloy of tin, antimony and copper used as a replacement for pewter.
  • BRITISH AND FOREIGN SOCIETY SCHOOL — A school founded by the British and Foreign Society to provide non-denominational education. Usually built and supported by voluntary contributions.
  • BRITISH CONCRETE FEDERATION HUT — A hut consisting of a frame of reinforced concrete posts into which panels could be slotted. Designed by the British Concrete Federation (BCF) during WWII.
  • BRITISH LEGION HALL — A place where members of the British Legion meet.
  • BRITISH RESTAURANT — A non-profit making restaurant administered by a Local Food Committee which provided customers with good quality and wholesome food which could be purchased without ration coupons.
  • BROAD RIDGE AND FURROW — Long parallel soil ridges in excess of 5 metres across separated by furrows, formed by using a heavy plough capable of turning the soil.
  • BROADCASTING RADIO STATION — A building used for broadcasting radio programmes for public entertainment. Often includes recording studios, transmitters and offices. Use RADIO STATION for non-broadcasting uses eg. Military.
  • BROADCASTING TRANSMITTER — A structure, building or site housing equipment for transmitting radio or television signals.
  • BROCH — An Iron Age round defended house, found mainly in the north and west of Scotland. Brochs have a tapering profile and thick, usually hollow dry stone walls which contain galleries, cells and a stairway, with guard cells at the entrance.
  • BRONZE FOUNDRY — A workshop or factory where bronze articles are made by casting molten metal into moulds.
  • BRONZE WORKING SITE — Use only where evidence is specific, ie. copper/tin alloy. For working of copper based alloys of unknown composition use COPPER WORKING SITE.
  • BROTHEL — An establishment in which prostitution is practiced.
  • BRUNTON CALCINER — A calciner used in arsenic production from the 1820s to the 1950s featuring a distinctive, slowly rotating hearth.
  • BRUSH FACTORY — A factory where brushes are manufactured. Use for all types of brush.
  • BRUSHMAKERS WORKSHOP — A workshop where wooden brushes are manufactured on a small scale.
  • BUDDHIST MONASTERY — A place of worship and residence for followers of Buddha.
  • BUDDHIST TEMPLE — A place of worship for the followers of Buddha.
  • BUDDLE — A stone-lined pit or tank, sometimes circular, for concentrating ores by sedimentation.
  • BUDDLE HOUSE — Building or structure housing a buddle.
  • BUFFER DEPOT — A strategic food store, directly operated by, or on behalf of, the government. The stores were used to store a variety of foodstuffs. They were in operation from the end of the Second World War until the early 1990's.
  • BUFFET — A small eating and drinking establishment or refreshment bar.
  • BUILDERS MERCHANTS — The premises of a builders merchant where building materials such as stone, cement, bricks, tiles and timber could be bought.
  • BUILDERS YARD — An area where builders keep building materials such as brick, stone, planks and cement.
  • BUILDING — A structure with a roof to provide shelter from the weather for occupants or contents. Use specific type where known.
  • BUILDING COMPONENT — A structure which can be an area within a building, a separate building within a complex or a detached architectural component of a building
  • BUILDING PLATFORM — A site where a building once stood as identified by a level area of ground, often compacted or made from man-made materials. Use only where specific function is unknown, otherwise use more specific term.
  • BULB STRIP — A small narrow rectilinear enclosure with high hedges boundaries for the cultivation and shelter of flowers, particularly Daffodils and Narcissi.
  • BULL PEN — An enclosure for the containment of a bull.
  • BULL PIT — An enclosure used for baiting bulls.
  • BULLRING — An arena for bull-baiting, not a tethering ring.
  • BULWARK — Unspecified defensive structure like a mound of earth, a rampart, an embankment or a wall-like fortification. Also used as an early term for a bastion or blockhouse. Use more specific term where known.
  • BUNGALOW — A one-storey house.
  • BUNKER — A structure, often built undergound, used for defence and co-ordination of military activity.
  • BUOY — A floating, fixed marker used to indicate to a navigator a sea area to approach or avoid.
  • BUOY STORE — A building used to store navigational buoys.
  • BURGAGE PLOT — A plot of land longer than it is wide, can include any structures on it. Typical of medieval towns.
  • BURGH — A civil and administrative area incorporating a town of medieval origin.
  • BURH — An Anglo-Saxon fortified town or other defended site, not necessarily urban.
  • BURIAL — An interment of human or animal remains. Use specific type where known. If component use with wider site type. Use FUNERARY SITE for optimum retrieval in searches.
  • BURIAL CAIRN — A stony mound containing or concealing deliberately deposited human remains. Use specific type where known.
  • BURIAL PIT — A place where dead bodies are buried together. Often unconsecrated ground.
  • BURIAL VAULT — A built structure, generally below ground, designed for the interment of several burials over a period of time. Usually constructed with a door or sealed entrance to allow reopening for further burials.
  • BURIED LAND SURFACE — A former ground surface buried beneath an earthwork or other sequence of deposits. (includes palaeosoils, turf lines)
  • BURIED SOIL HORIZON — A surface interpreted as a buried cultivation layer, for example an agriculturally cultivated field.
  • BURNT MOUND — A mound of fire-cracked stones, normally accompanied by a trough or pit which may have been lined with wood, stone or clay. Assumed to be locations where heated stones were used to boil water primarily for cooking purposes.
  • BUS DEPOT — A building, with adjacent open areas, in which buses are maintained, usually having an extensive area free from upright columns or stanchions to permit overnight storage, repair bays, stores and an office.
  • BUS SHELTER — A structure providing protection against the weather at bus stops.
  • BUS STATION — A building and open area from which buses, usually those working local or regional services, begin or end their journeys.
  • BUSINESS CENTRE — A building providing business premises to companies or individuals, sometimes for short periods, in exchange for a membership fee.
  • BUSINESS PARK — An area speciallly developed to accommodate commercial buildings.
  • BUST — A piece of sculpture usually representing the head, shoulders and breast of a person.
  • BUTCHERS SHOP — A shop where meat is sold. Often includes large cold stores for the refrigeration and storage of carcasses and a butchery where the carcass is cut up prior to sale.
  • BUTCHERY SITE — A site used for the butchery of animals.
  • BUTLER COMBAT HANGAR — A mutiple role hangar for aircraft and general storage, manufactured in the USA as a kit for on-site assembly during WWII and post-war. It comprises a steel box frame and a canvas covering.
  • BUTTER FACTORY — A group of buildings containing machinery for the production in bulk of butter or related dairy products.
  • BUTTER MARKET — An indoor or outdoor market where butter was sold.
  • BUTTER WALK — An arcade providing shelter for perishable market goods which also provides protection from the elements for the occupants of the adjoining properties.
  • BUTTER WELL — A small stone structure, usually at a spring or bog, in which dairy products were kept cool on slate shelves.
  • BUTTERFLY GARDEN — A garden in which a variety of plants are grown to encourage butterflies.
  • BUTTERY — A room used primarily for storing food and drink.
  • BUTTON MILL — A factory where buttons are manufactured.
  • BUTTRESS DAM — A dam with a watertight upstream side, which may be flat or curved, supported by a series of buttresses on the downstream side.
  • BUTTS — A mound or structure on which an archery, musketry or artillery target is erected. Use specific type where known.
  • BYPRODUCT RECOVERY OVEN — An oven used in the coal industry for the recovery of gas, tar and other by-products of the coking process. Late 19th century-20th century.

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C

  • CABARET — A club often with a dance floor or small stage and featuring entertainment generally of an improvisational, satirical, or topical nature which can be watched by the clientele whilst they drink and dine.
  • CABINET — A small garden enclosure within a BOSQUET or surrounded by clipped hedges.
  • CABINETMAKERS — A building or workshop where fine furniture, often veneered, is made.
  • CABLE FACTORY — A factory manufacturing electrical cables.
  • CABLE INSULATION FACTORY — A factory manufacturing insulation material for electrical cables.
  • CABLE REPEATER OFFICE — A cross channel telegraph office.
  • CABLE STAYED BRIDGE — A bridge whose deck is directly supported from pylons by straight cables without vertical suspenders.
  • CABLEWAY — An aerial lift in which cabins are suspended from a continuous cable between two towers which hold the winding mechanism. The cable may be supported by towers or pylons.
  • CABMENS SHELTER — A small, often weatherboarded, roadside house in which cab drivers could rest and take refreshments. Late 19th century onwards.
  • CAFE — A cheap eating and drinking establishment usually serving snacks and non-alcoholic drinks.
  • CAIRN — A monument featuring a bank or mound constructed primarily of stone. Use specific type where known.
  • CAIRN ALIGNMENT — Long alignment of cairns lying between two large cairns; first recognized as a site type on Sourton Tor, Dartmoor.
  • CAIRN CEMETERY — A group of cairns in close proximity which are predominantly funerary or ritual in nature.
  • CAIRN CIRCLE — A circle of spaced upright boulders emerging from a low, hemispherical, stony mound. The boulders may lean outwards due to pressure from the cairn material.
  • CAIRNFIELD — A group of cairns occurring within close proximity to each other. Use for instances where the majority are clearance cairns. Also index specific types where known.
  • CAISSON — Floatable vessel used as a floodgate in docks.
  • CALAMINE MILL — A mill used for the preparation and production of Calamine.
  • CALAMINE MINE — Where secondary product use with major product and MINE, eg. LEAD MINE.
  • CALCINATION CLAMP — A clamp in which alum shale was burnt in the initial stage of processing.
  • CALCINER — A kiln for roasting ore.
  • CALCINING KILN — A kiln in which the prolonged heating or roasting of materials to drive off water, volatiles and sulphur so that they may be reduced to a powder, was performed.
  • CALCITE MINE — A place where calcite is extracted using both quarrying and deeper mining techniques. Calcite/limestone is used for making glass, paper, photography, statues, building, and animal food.
  • CALENDER MILL — Finishing process for cloth, especially linen, running the cloth between heavy rollers.
  • CALF HOUSE — A building used to house calves.
  • CALICO MILL — Textile mill producing calico, ie. coarse, unbleached cotton cloth.
  • CALICO PRINTING WORKS — A factory complex consisting of PRINTING SHOPS, COLOUR HOUSES, DYE HOUSES, etc, in which patterns are printed onto calico.
  • CALLENDER HAMILTON HANGAR — Similar in design to the Callender Hangar but with a reduced height of 17ft. Built to Air Ministry drawing number 17346/40.
  • CALLENDER HANGAR — A transportable hangar designed by Callender Cable and Construction to Air Ministry drawing number 6633/37. A steel box-girder framework with corrugated iron cladding and canvas doors it had a clear door height of 25ft.
  • CALVARY — A representation of the crucifixion of Christ or related scenes as a sculpture in a churchyard, etc.
  • CALVINISTIC METHODIST CHAPEL — A place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, Welsh Methodists who split from the established church in 1811.
  • CAMBER — Traditionally a dock where cambering, the bending of beams for shipbuilding, took place. Now used for a small dock.
  • CAMEL HOUSE — A house used to accommodate camels, often found at a zoo or wildlife park.
  • CAMELLIA HOUSE — A 19th century glasshouse built specifically for the fostering of camellias.
  • CAMERA — A subsidiary form of preceptory provided with a chapel. Use specific type where known.
  • CAMERA OBSCURA — A building or room in which images of outside objects are projected on to a screen from a long-focus lens using natural light.
  • CAMOMILE LAWN — A lawn planted with camomile plants which when walked upon release a fragrant smell.
  • CAMOMILE SEAT — A garden seat covered in clipped, camomile plants which release a fragrant smell when sat upon.
  • CAMPSITE — An area of land used for camping. Often includes facilities for washing, catering and entertainment.
  • CAMPUS — The grounds of an institution for higher education eg. a university, including the educational buildings, entertainment and sports facilities and student's halls of residence.
  • CANABAE LEGIONIS — A civilian settlement outside a Roman fort.
  • CANADIAN FORESTRY CORPS CAMP — A camp providing accommodation for members of the Canadian Forestry Corps along with facilities such as saw mills for the sawing and squaring of timber to create pit props, shoring, crates etc for the war effort.
  • CANADIAN PIPE MINE — A steel pipe driven into the ground at a shallow, oblique angle and packed with explosives. They were intended to be detonated on the approach of a hostile amroured vehicle or tank in order to create an obstacle directly in its path.
  • CANAL — An artificial navigable waterway used for the transportation of goods. Nowadays also used for recreational purposes.
  • CANAL BASIN — An open area of water, usually artificial and enclosed by dock gates or locks, lined with wharves and warehouses, where barges, narrow boats and other canal vessels can load and unload goods and supplies.
  • CANAL BOAT YARD — A place where canal boats are built and maintained.
  • CANAL BRIDGE — A bridge over a canal.
  • CANAL DOCK — An artificial area of open water, situated on a canal, enclosed by masonry and fitted with dock gates in which ships can be repaired, loaded/unloaded or berthed.
  • CANAL DOCKYARD — An enclosure containing a dock, boat yard, warehouse, etc, in which canal vessels are built and repaired, and all sorts of stores and merchandise for transportation brought together.
  • CANAL FEEDER — A channel which feeds water from a reservoir into a canal when the water level gets low.
  • CANAL GATEHOUSE — A gatehouse bridging a canal.
  • CANAL INCLINED PLANE — A prepared slope with rails on which boats can be transferred from one canal to another at a higher or lower level. The boats can either be floated in a caisson or carried in a cradle or sling.
  • CANAL JUNCTION — A place where two artificial waterways meet each other.
  • CANAL LIFT — A massive structure designed to transfer canal boats between different canal or river navigations, eg. Anderton boat lift.
  • CANAL LOCK — A rectangular chamber of brick or stone with heavy wooden gates at either end equipped with sluices to let water in and out, thereby enabling a canal boat to be lowered or raised to a different level.
  • CANAL MILEPOST — A post set up alongside a canal to mark the miles to and from a place.
  • CANAL OFFICE — A building or room, where business and/or administrative activities to do with the canals was conducted.
  • CANAL PORT — An inland settlement such as Runcorn, Ellesmere Port or Stourport, that combines docks and terminal facilities at the interface between land and canal transportation systems.
  • CANAL RESERVOIR — A supply of water used to keep canals that were vulnerable to water shortage topped up.
  • CANAL SLUICE — A channel for taking a rapidly flowing stream of water away from a canal lock, or away from the canal itself.
  • CANAL TRANSPORT SITE — Buildings and structures associated with canal transport.
  • CANAL TUNNEL — A tunnel with a canal running through it.
  • CANAL TUNNEL PORTAL — An often stately and ornate entrance to a canal tunnel.
  • CANAL WAREHOUSE — A large building, situated by or near a canal, used for the temporary storage of goods or merchandise awaiting transportation to or from the canal.
  • CANAL WHARF — A large wooden structure built alongside the edge of a canal where narrow boats may lie for the loading and unloading of goods.
  • CANAL WORKERS COTTAGE — The residence of a canal worker.
  • CANCER HOSPITAL — A hospital for the medical and surgical treatment of patients with cancer or related illnesses.
  • CANDLE FACTORY — A building or buildings used for the manufacture of candles.
  • CANNING FACTORY — A factory where preserved food is canned.
  • CANNON — A large mounted gun, now disused and placed in a prominent position as a piece of street furniture or as a "feature".
  • CANNON BOLLARD — A bollard made from, or in the form of, a cannon barrel.
  • CANNON BORING MILL — A building used for drilling out the bores of cannon and other military pieces.
  • CANNON FOUNDRY — A workshop or factory where the barrels of cannon are cast.
  • CANOPIED TOMB — A tomb with a raised canopy over it.
  • CANTEEN — A self-service dining room, especially for workers/employees; also in institutions, such as schools, hospitals, etc.
  • CANTILEVER BRIDGE — A specialized form of truss bridge that extends or cantilevers from both sides of the pier, the inner 'arms' usually supporting a central span.
  • CANTILEVER CRANE — A crane consisting of a lattice girder carried on a lattice tower forming a T-shaped structure. A hoist is carried along the girder by a 'crab', enabling the crane to perform a variety of tasks eg loading/unloading of ships.
  • CANVAS WORKS — A site where canvas, coarse, unbleached cloth, made from hemp or flax, was manufactured.
  • CAPONIER — A covered passageway projecting into or across a ditch of a fortified place to provide flanking fire to the ditch in which it stands or for the purpose of sheltering communication with outworks.
  • CAPSTAN — An apparatus around which cables or hawsers are wound for hoisting anchors, lifting weights, etc.
  • CAPSTAN HOUSE — A small building housing a mechanism used for winding a cable.
  • CAR FACTORY — A factory where cars are manufactured.
  • CAR PARK — A place where cars and other road vehicles may be parked and left.
  • CAR RAMP — An inclined concrete ramp on which cars can move from one level to another.
  • CAR WASH — A facility where the exterior of a motor vehicle can be cleaned.
  • CARAVAN FACTORY — A factory manufactoring caravans.
  • CARAVAN PARK — A camping place set aside for the use of caravans.
  • CARBONISING SHED — Component part of a mungo and shoddy mill, where non-wool fibres from shredded material are destroyed by either soaking rags in an acid solution or rotating them in drums in a hot acidic gas followed by heat. The result is an all-wool product.
  • CARDBOARD BOX FACTORY — A factory where packaging products, such as cardboard boxes, are produced.
  • CARDING MILL — A small workshop, employing up to 10 men, working on hand-operated carding engines and hand jennies, spinning yarn for handloom weavers.
  • CARE CENTRE — A centre providing emotional and practical support to those living with life-threatening illnesses.
  • CARE HOME — A short or long term residential home for people not requiring medical intervention or nursing care, usually for older people.
  • CARGO — Use for the remains of a cargo which have been accidentally lost at sea, or purposefully dumped, and which consist the only physical evidence of a vessel.
  • CARMELITE FRIARY — A house of friars, originally hermits from Mount Carmel. Also known as ' white friars'.
  • CARMELITE NUNNERY — A site inhabited by a modern order of nuns, founded in 1900 at Lanherne, Cornwall, following Carmelite traditions.
  • CARPENTERS WORKSHOP — A place where products are manufactured from wood.
  • CARPET BED — A bed of low-growing foliage plants, all of an even height, arranged in patterns that resemble a carpet both in the intricacy of their design and in the uniformity of surface.
  • CARPET FACTORY — A factory where carpets are manufactured.
  • CARPET MANUFACTURING SITE — Includes any textile floor covering.
  • CARPET MILL — A factory where carpets are manufactured.
  • CARPET WEAVERS WORKSHOP — A building where carpets and other floor furnishings were woven.
  • CARRIAGE HOUSE — An outbuilding used for the storage and maintenance of horse-drawn carriages.
  • CARRIAGE RAMP — A ramp or incline between differing levels constructed to allow carriages access.
  • CARRIAGE SPLASH — Purpose built area, incorporating water supply, for the cleaning of carriages, carts, etc.
  • CARRIAGE WORKS — A building or works in which carriages were built. Use RAILWAY CARRIAGE WORKS for sites making railway carriages.
  • CARRIAGEWAY — The part of a road intended for vehicular traffic.
  • CARRIERS PREMISES — A site used by a carrier to accommodate his horses and vehicles and store goods awaiting transportation, etc.
  • CART BURIAL — A high status Iron Age grave in which a two or four wheeled vehicle accompanies a frequently richly furnished inhumation burial. A barrow may overlie the grave.
  • CART LOADING BAY — A structure, into which a cart can be drawn, to enable it to be loaded from above.
  • CART SHED — A building used for housing, and protecting from the weather, carts, waggons and farm implements, often open-fronted.
  • CARTERS YARD — Trading premises of a carter.
  • CARTHUSIAN GRANGE — An outlying farm or estate belonging to the Carthusian order.
  • CARTHUSIAN MONASTERY — An abbey or priory of Carthusian monks.
  • CARTRIDGE HOUSE — A component building of an explosives works where cartridges were filled with explosives with the aid of cartridging machines.
  • CARVED STONE — A stone (including standing stones, natural boulders and rock outcrops) decorated with carved motifs.
  • CARVING — A carved figure or design.
  • CARYATID — A column, in the form of a female figure, used to support an entablature.
  • CASCADE — An artificial fall of water often taking the form of a water staircase.
  • CASCADE HOUSE — An often ornate building housing the source of an ornamental cascade, eg. Chatsworth House.
  • CASEMATE — An explosive-proof vaulted chamber used for the storage or ordnance.
  • CASINO — A public music or dancing establishment often with facilities for gambling.
  • CASKET BURIAL — A Roman cremation burial in which the human cremated remains are placed inside or adjacent to a wooden casket, frequently decorated with lion-headed mounts and studs.
  • CASKET TOMB — A grave marker in the form of a casket.
  • CASTING FLOOR — A floor area, covered in sand, onto which hot metal from a furnace is cast.
  • CASTING HOUSE — Building or structure covering a casting floor or pit.
  • CASTLE — A fortress and dwelling, usually medieval in origin, and often consisting of a keep, curtain wall and towers etc.
  • CASUAL WARD BLOCK — A wing in a workhouse to accommodate vagrants overnight.
  • CASUALTY DEPARTMENT — A hospital department, open 24 hours a day, for the immediate reception and treatment of emergency cases.
  • CATACOMB (FUNERARY) — A funerary site, either totally or partially underground, for the depositing of the dead. Often found in cemeteries in the form of a circular or semi-circular sunken area comprising of several galleries with vault entrances built into the side.
  • CATERING COLLEGE — A training college for chefs and other catering students.
  • CATHEDRAL — The principal church of a diocese in which the cathedra or bishop's throne is to be found.
  • CATHEDRAL CLOSE — An enclosed area of ground immediately surrounding a cathedral.
  • CATHEDRAL PRECINCT — An area of ground immediately surrounding a cathedral.
  • CATHOLIC APOSTOLIC CHURCH — A nonconformist church for the followers of Edward Irving.
  • CATTLE DOCKS — Pens for housing cattle awaiting transportation.
  • CATTLE GRID — A pit in a road or trackway covered with a grid, usually of metal poles (but can be of wood or stone) with sufficient space between the poles to prevent animals from crossing, without restricting access for vehicles and people.
  • CATTLE PEN — An enclosure for cattle.
  • CATTLE SHELTER — An open sided building known to have been used for sheltering cattle.
  • CATTLE STALL — A stall, often within a cow house, where cattle are kept individually.
  • CATTLE TROUGH — A long metal or stone vessel for cattle to drink water from.
  • CAUSEWAY — A road or pathway raised above surrounding low, wet or uneven ground.
  • CAUSEWAY BRIDGE — A bridge, carrying a footpath or road, usually across marshy or waterlogged ground.
  • CAUSEWAY CHAPEL — A chapel built on, or at the end of, a causeway.
  • CAUSEWAYED ENCLOSURE — A Neolithic monument comprising an irregularly circular enclosing ditch, interrupted by frequent causeways, and often accompanied by an internal bank, also causewayed.
  • CAUSEWAYED RING DITCH — A monument comprising an irregularly circular enclosing ditch, interrupted by several causeways, surrounding a central circular area used for funerary activities, often concealed originally beneath an earthen mound. Index with barrow type where known.
  • CAVALRY BARRACKS — A barracks including stables and associated buildings housing a cavalry regiment.
  • CAVE — A subterranean feature entered from a hillside, cliff face, etc. A cave may have been used for occupation, storage, burial, refuse, or as a hide-away. Index with site type or objects where known.
  • CAVITATION TUNNEL — A tunnel used to test scale model propellers and hulls to consider the impact of caviation on wake, propulsion, vibration and noise.
  • CELESTINE WORKINGS — A site where Celestine or Celestite (a SrSO4), originally used in sugar beet refinement, is extracted from an open cast mine.
  • CELL — A monastic enclave dependent on a mother house.
  • CELL BLOCK — A building containing a number of single roomed cells used for detaining prisoners.
  • CELLAR — A room or group of rooms usually below the ground level and usually under a building, often used for storing fuel, provisions or wines.
  • CELLAR DWELLING — A basement or cellar, usually within a house, leased as a separate dwelling.
  • CELLARERS RANGE — Living and working quarters for the cellarer who was in charge of provisions and the running of the cellar.
  • CELTIC CROSS — A free-standing cross made of stone in the form of a cross with a ring surrounding the intersection. Often used as a grave marker
  • CELTIC FIELD SYSTEM — A fairly regular system of small rectangular fields. Examples may date from the middle Bronze Age to the Roman period. The word 'Celtic' carries no chronological or cultural connotations in this context.
  • CEMENT KILN — A kiln used to calcine the component parts of cement to remove excess water and other ingredients.
  • CEMENT MANUFACTURING SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the production of cement.
  • CEMENT SILO — Large storage structure for powdered cement.
  • CEMENT WORKS — A site where cement is manufactured for the building industry.
  • CEMENTATION FURNACE — Large open hearth furnace often located inside a brick cone for use in steelmaking.
  • CEMENTATION STEEL WORKS — Production of steel by reheating wrought iron in charcoal filled containers.
  • CEMENTSTONE MINE — A site where cementstone nodules are extracted under ground.
  • CEMENTSTONE QUARRY — A site where cementstone nodules are extracted.
  • CEMETERY — An area of ground, set apart for the burial of the dead.
  • CEMETERY CHAPEL — A place of worship within the grounds of a cemetery.
  • CEMETERY LODGE — A small house or cottage at the entrance to a cemetery, usually occupied by a caretaker or gardener, etc.
  • CENOTAPH — A sepulchral monument erected to commemorate a person or persons buried elsewhere.
  • CENTRE OF RESISTANCE — An area, often a village, with fixed defences such as pillboxes, anti tank ditches and gun emplacements, designed to stop the advance of an enemy force and to hold out for an agreed period of time.
  • CENTURIAL STONE — An inscribed marker stone found on Hadrian's Wall.
  • CENTURIATED AREA — An area of land which retains distinctive large-scale rectilinear land divisions characteristic of Roman agriculture. Generally aligned with the course of a Roman road.
  • CEREAL FACTORY — A factory built for the production of breakfast cereals.
  • CEREMONIAL MAST — The rigging mast of a sailing ship erected as a monument. Used for naval displays.
  • CEREMONIAL PLATFORM — A structure used for music, dance, ceremonial or civic events.
  • CESS PIT — A pit for the reception of night-soil and refuse.
  • CESS POOL — A covered pit into which raw sewage is discharged.
  • CHAFERY — Reheating of iron from a finery, for rolling or slitting.
  • CHAFF HOUSE — An area within a building (usually the barn or stable) for storing husks from the grain crop (chaff) for animal feed after it has been threshed and winnowed in the barn.
  • CHAIN HOME EXTRA LOW STATION — A radar station with sets operating on a wavelength of 10cm or less. They were highly accurate radars and gave better sea level coverage than the earlier Chain Home Low stations.
  • CHAIN HOME LOW STATION — A radar station with sets operating on a wavelength of 1.5m. Chain Home Low Stations were intended for use in locating low-flying aircraft but was also capable of detecting high-flying aircraft.
  • CHAIN HOME STATION — Part of the WWII air defence radar system, whereby in 1939 a chain of radar stations were established along the south and east coast of Britain. The equipment was based upon apparatus developed for ionospheric research.
  • CHAIN LOCKER SHOP — A building for the storage, repair and maintenance of chains for lighthouses, lightships and lightbouys.
  • CHAIN PROVING HOUSE — Building housing apparatus for testing chain links.
  • CHAIN SHOP — A building in which wrought iron or steel chains were manufactured.
  • CHAIN WORKS — A site where wrought iron or steel chains were manufactured.
  • CHALET — A Swiss-styled house, usually with steeply pitched and projecting roof.
  • CHALK MINE — A site where chalk is extracted from the ground.
  • CHALK PIT — A place from which chalk is extracted.
  • CHAMBER OF COMMERCE — A building housing a board organized to protect the interests of commerce.
  • CHAMBERED BARROW — A Neolithic burial monument comprising a stone-built chamber within an earthen mound. Use more precise term where known.
  • CHAMBERED CAIRN — A Neolithic burial monument comprising a stone-built chamber within a mound of stones. Use more precise term where known.
  • CHAMBERED GRAVE — Saxon rectangular burial chamber comprising a large sunken 'room' lined with wood. 6th and 7th century AD.
  • CHAMBERED LONG BARROW — A Neolithic burial monument comprising a stone-built chamber within a rectangular or trapezoidal earthen mound.
  • CHAMBERED LONG CAIRN — A Neolithic burial monument comprising a rectangular or trapezoidal stony mound which contains either a passage at one end with or without lateral chambers, or one or more smaller chambers entered from the side of the mound.
  • CHAMBERED ROUND BARROW — A Neolithic burial monument comprising a stone-built chamber within a circular or sub-circular earthen mound. See RELIGIOUS, RITUAL AND FUNERARY Class List for context.
  • CHAMBERED ROUND CAIRN — A Neolithic burial monument comprising an approximately circular stony mound which contains a stone-built chamber, with or without additional lateral chambers.
  • CHAMBERED TOMB — A Neolithic burial monument comprising a stone-built chamber within a mound of earth or stone. Use more specific type where known.
  • CHAMOIS LEATHER WORKS — A factory or complex where chamois leather is produced using fish oils as the tanning agent.
  • CHAMPIONS FURNACE — A zinc smelting furnace patented by William Champion of Bristol in 1738 for the reduction of zinc from zinc oxide by means of condensing.
  • CHANDLERY — Traditionally the premises of a chandler, a maker and seller of candles. Now, a shop for the retail of groceries and other provisions.
  • CHANGING ROOMS — A building within a complex, such as a leisure centre, school, industrial site etc, often containing toilet and washing facilities, where individuals can change their clothes. For a changing room within a larger building, see Components.
  • CHANTRY CHAPEL — A chapel attached to, or inside, a church, endowed for the celebration of Masses for the soul of the founder.
  • CHANTRY COLLEGE — A building used for the education of, and as a residence for, chantry priests.
  • CHAPEL — A freestanding building, or a room or recess serving as a place of Christian worship in a church or other building. Use more specific type where known.
  • CHAPEL OF EASE — A church built within the bounds of a parish for the attendance of those who cannot reach the parish church conveniently.
  • CHAPLAINCY — The residence and office of a chaplain.
  • CHAPTER HOUSE — The building attached to a cathedral or collegiate church where the dean, prebendaries or monks and canons met for the transaction of business.
  • CHARCOAL BURIAL — Inhumation rite in which charcoal is included with the buried corpse, possibly in an attempt to preserve the body. Thought to be associated with high status burials of the early medieval and medieval period.
  • CHARCOAL BURNERS HUT — A crude shelter for persons engaged in the production of pure carbon by the controlled burning of wood and other organic materials.
  • CHARCOAL BURNERS SITE — A site, often in a woodland clearing, used for the production of pure carbon by the controlled burning of wood and other organic materials.
  • CHARCOAL BURNING PLATFORM — An area of flattened or compacted ground used for charcoal burning.
  • CHARCOAL PRODUCTION SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the production of charcoal.
  • CHARCOAL RETORT — Metal cylinder for producing charcoal using the retort method
  • CHARCOAL STORE — A building, structure or site used for the storage of charcoal.
  • CHARCOAL WORKS — A works using sealed retorts to produce charcoal. Wood distillates may be produced as byproducts of this process. They may be found at separate works or comprise part of a gunpowder works.
  • CHARGE HOUSE — Workshop, as part of a gunpowder works complex, in which explosive is loaded into shells. Also used for expense magazine, where powder was stored between work processes.
  • CHARGING RAMP — An inclined ramp of earth, stone or brick used to deliver fuel to the firing hole of a kiln. Mediaeval and later.
  • CHARITY SCHOOL — A school established by a charity.
  • CHARNEL HOUSE — A building where the bones of the dead were stored.
  • CHARNEL PIT — A pit used for the re-burial of disarticulated human remains from many individuals, occasionally displaying sorting of remains, eg. grouping of skulls or long bones. Distinct from mass burials which contain articulated skeletal remains.
  • CHARTIST COLONY HOUSE — A dwelling house forming part of a Chartist Land Colony.
  • CHARTIST COLONY SCHOOL — A school used by the children of settlers at a Chartist Colony.
  • CHARTIST LAND COLONY — A model village established by the chartists.
  • CHATTRI — An umbrella-shaped pavilion, Indian in origin, constructed over a funerary site. Can also refer to a funerary monument or cenotaph constructed in this style.
  • CHAUFFEURS FLAT — The residence of a chauffeur or driver
  • CHECKPOINT — A roadblock, usually manned by the Home Guard, where the credentials of civilians and military personnel where checked before allowing them to proceed.
  • CHEESE FACTORY — A factory where cheese is produced and processed.
  • CHEESE LOFT — An area within a building used for the storage of cheese.
  • CHEESE MARKET — A market for the sale of cheeses.
  • CHEMICAL INDUSTRY SITE — Sites for the manufacture of substances or items by controlled chemical reactions.
  • CHEMICAL PRODUCT SITE — Sites where controlled chemical reactions are employed to help manufacture domestic products.
  • CHEMICAL PRODUCTION SITE — Sites used for the manufacture of chemicals used as the basis for complex chemical processes or products.
  • CHEMICAL STORE — A space used for the storage of chemicals.
  • CHEMICAL WEAPONS RESEARCH STATION — Establishments responsible for the research into and the design, development and manufacture of chemical weapons
  • CHEMICAL WEAPONS STORE — A protected building or site used for the safe storage of chemical weapons
  • CHEMICAL WORKS — An industrial complex involved in the production of chemicals.
  • CHEMISE — An outer wall of a castle or similar fortification.
  • CHEMISTS SHOP — A shop which dispenses medicinal drugs and other health-related items. Can include an area for the preparation and manufacture of medicines and other drugs.
  • CHENILLE FACTORY — Factory for making Chenille a yarn produced by placing short lengths of yarn (the pile) between two core yarns (the core) these are then heated to set the pile in place.
  • CHEST HOSPITAL — A specialist hospital treating patients with chest disorders and diseases, can be pre sanatoria.
  • CHEST TOMB — A tomb designed in the form of a cist or stone box placed over a burial. Its outward form often reproduces the features of the classical sarcophagus or medieval effigy base.
  • CHEVAUX DE FRISE — A system of stones or wooden obstacles placed close together to impede the advance of enemy forces. Do not use for HILLFORT sites.
  • CHICORY KILN — A structure used for the roasting or drying of chicory.
  • CHIEF INSTRUCTORS BLOCK (5740/36) — A central tower with a single-storey wing either side. The tower contained the watch office on the ground floor, observation room on the second with each wing containing an office for the Chief Flying Instructor or the officer commanding and their aides.
  • CHILDRENS CARE HOME — A residential home for children with physical or learning disabilities, sensory impairment and/or mental health issues but who do not necessarily need medical attention.
  • CHILDRENS HOME — A residential establishment for the care and accommodation of children and young people.
  • CHILDRENS HOSPITAL — A specialist hospital for the medical and surgical treatment of children.
  • CHILDRENS NURSING HOME — A residential home for children with physical and/or learning disabilities, sensory impairment and/or mental health issues who need medical intervention and/or care provided by registered nurses.
  • CHILDRENS PLAYGROUND — An area of ground used for children to play on, often attached to a school.
  • CHILDRENS PLAYHOUSE — Building used for children to play in.
  • CHILDRENS WARD — An area within a hospital where children are accommodated during the period of their medical or surgical treatment.
  • CHILDRENS ZOO — A garden or park, with ancilliary buildings, in which young and domesticated animals are kept for public exhibition, especially for children. Children are given the opportunity to come into close contact and handle animals.
  • CHIMNEY — Chimney used on an industrial or commercial site.
  • CHINA CLAY DRIES — Building with underfloor kiln used for drying China Clay slurry prior to packing and transportation. Central feature of China Clay Works.
  • CHINA CLAY WORKS — Works producing a refractory clay, kaolin. An essential raw material of porcelain and some types of papermaking.
  • CHINA FACTORY — A factory where china products are manufactured.
  • CHINA STONE MILL — A mill where china stone is grinded.
  • CHINESE GARDEN — An 18th century garden with a Chinese layout and ornaments.
  • CHINESE PAVILION — A light, ornamental structure in a garden, park or place of recreation built in the Chinese style.
  • CHITTING HOUSE — A building in which potatoes can sprout and germinate.
  • CHLOROPHYLL FACTORY — A factory used for the industrial manufacture of chlorophyll for medical purposes.
  • CHOCOLATE FACTORY — A factory where chocolate products are produced.
  • CHOCOLATE HOUSE — An establishment where chocolate was available as a beverage.
  • CHOIR SCHOOL — A school associated with a cathedral or college originally intended to provide a general education for their choristers.
  • CHOLERA BURIAL GROUND — A burial ground for victims of cholera.
  • CHOPWOOD KILN — A type of kiln, usually built into banking, with a stone lining that was used to produce white coal which was used as fuel in the lead smelting process.
  • CHRISTADELPHIAN CHAPEL — A place of worship for Christadelphians, a fundamentalist sect founded in America in the late 1840s who rejected the trinity and awaited the second coming of Christ.
  • CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION HOSTEL — A hostel owned by a Christian association which provides cheap accommodation for young people.
  • CHRISTIAN SCIENCE CHURCH — A place of worship for Christian Scientists, a sect founded in the mid-19th century in America who believe that God is the only reality and can bring healing to humanity.
  • CHURCH — A building used for public Christian worship. Use more specific type where known.
  • CHURCH ARMY HOUSE — A place of meeting and worship for followers of the Church Army, a body of trained lay evangelists devoted to evangelism and social work.
  • CHURCH HALL — A hall associated with a church, used for holding functions, meetings and for conducting parish business.
  • CHURCH HOUSE — House owned by the church, often used for meetings.
  • CHURCH INSTITUTE — A building used by the church to promote Christianity through lectures, study, etc.
  • CHURCH OF PECULIAR PEOPLE — An offshoot of the Wesleyan movement founded in 1838 by John Banyard at Rochford, Essex. In 1956 it changed name to the Union of Evangelical Churches. There are 17 chapels in Essex and London.
  • CHURCH SCHOOL — A school run by a Christian church.
  • CHURCHYARD — An area of ground belonging to a church, often used as a burial ground.
  • CHURN STAND — A wooden or stone plinth for depositing milk churns on.
  • CIDER FACTORY — A factory concerned with the commercial manufacture of cider, as opposed to domestic production.
  • CIDER HOUSE — A building, or part of a building, for the milling and pressing of cider apples to produce cider (or pears for perry) and for storing the drink in barrels.
  • CIDER MILL — A HORSE GIN used for domestic cider manufacture, especially on farms.
  • CIDER PRESS — A press used to extract the juice from apples, which was then used to make cider.
  • CIDER VAULT — A vault used for the storage of cider.
  • CINEMA — A building where people pay to see films and 'moving pictures'.
  • CINERARY URN — Urn containing a cremation. Where component use with wider site type.
  • CIRCULAR ENCLOSURE — A circular shaped area of land enclosed by a boundary ditch, bank, wall, palisade or similar barrier.
  • CIRCULAR KILN — A circular kiln or oven used in the manufacture of bricks. Common in Staffordshire in the 18th century.
  • CIRCULAR PLATFORM — A levelled area of ground, circular in shape, used as the base on which a monument was built.Sometimes raised, a platform is often the sole surviving evidence for a monument.
  • CIRCULAR REDOUBT — A large circular defence work surrounded by a brick revetted ditch and sunken below a glacis. Usually built out of brick with the embrasures lined with granite blocks. Armed with ten or elven guns. Early 19th century as part of coastline defence.
  • CIRCUMVALLATION — A rampart or other defensive entrenchment.
  • CIRCUS (RECREATIONAL) — A site where traditional public shows, in which the display of exotic animals, combined with feats of agility and comedy, were held.
  • CIRCUS (ROMAN) — A rectangular arena, rounded at one end designed for chariot racing. The racetrack circled a central barrier (spina) constructed between two turning posts (metae). The only known example found in Britain, so far, is in Colchester.
  • CIRCUS (URBAN) — A circular range of houses dating from the 18th century, eg. John Wood's Circus at Bath.
  • CIST — Generally rectangular structure normally used for burial purposes, and formed from stone slabs set on edge, and covered by one or more horizontal slabs or capstones. Cists may be built on the surface or sunk into the ground.
  • CIST GRAVE CEMETERY — A cemetery comprising inhumations or cremations interred in stone cists.
  • CISTERCIAN ALIEN CELL — A residence of two or three monks of the Cistercian order dependent on a foreign mother house.
  • CISTERCIAN CELL — A residence of two or three monks of the Cistercian order dependent on an English mother house.
  • CISTERCIAN GRANGE — An outlying farm or estate belonging to the Cistercian order.
  • CISTERCIAN MONASTERY — An abbey or priory of Cistercian monks.
  • CISTERCIAN NUNNERY — An abbey or a priory of Cistercian nuns.
  • CISTERN — A covered tank in which rainwater is stored for use when required.
  • CIVIC CENTRE — A building or building complex where municipal offices and other public buildings are situated.
  • CIVIL — Sites, buildings, structures etc associated with the civil administration of settlements & enforcement of the laws of the land. Includes local & central government, settlements granted by the crown or ruling administration does not manorial settlements.
  • CIVIL AIRPORT — A landing and taking off area for civil aircraft, usually with surfaced runways and aircraft maintenance and passenger facilities.
  • CIVIL DEFENCE BUILDING — A building used to coordinate civil defence in times of war. Can also be utilized as aid centres in times of national emergency.
  • CIVIL DEFENCE GARAGE — A garage for the storage and maintenance of motor vehicles, such as ambluances and fire engines, used for civil defence purposes.
  • CIVIL DEFENCE HEADQUARTERS — A building used for the daily administration of Civil Defence activities.
  • CIVIL DEFENCE SITE — Sites and buildings used in the coordination of the defence of the civilian population during times of war. Could also be used during times of national emergency.
  • CIVIL DEFENCE TRAINING CENTRE — A building or site used to train civilians and members of the services in the skills designed to protect the civilian population during times of war. Could also be used during times of national emergency.
  • CIVIL DEFENCE TRAINING GROUND — An area used for the training of personnel in civil defence procedures.
  • CIVITAS CAPITAL — A planned administrative capital for local government which provided amenities for the Roman and peregrine (non-Roman) inhabitants of the town.
  • CLAIM STONE — A marker stone erected to indicate a claim to the rights, usually mineral, of an area.
  • CLAMP — A temporary structure used for the firing of bricks or tiles. Unfired bricks or tiles were stacked upon a layer of fuel (usually wood) and then surrounded by a wall of old bricks and covered by a layer of mud or clay. The clamp was then fired.
  • CLAMP KILN — A temporary kiln, in which the pots are stacked and baked in a pit underneath a bonfire.
  • CLAMP LIME KILN — A kiln in which lime is made by calcining limestone. This type of kiln usually consists of a circular bowl surrounded by pennanular banks with a funnel exit on the lower side. They normally survive as an earthwork. Superseded by Flare Kilns.
  • CLAPPER BRIDGE — A simple form of stone slab bridge, particularly associated with South West England.
  • CLASSROOM — A room where a class of pupils is taught.
  • CLAY DRAINAGE PIPE WORKS — A site where clay pipes used for drainage are manufactured.
  • CLAY EXTRACTION SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the extraction of clay.
  • CLAY MILL — A factory containing machinery for processing clay for the manufacture of bricks, tiles or pottery.
  • CLAY MINE — A site where clay is mined from the ground.
  • CLAY PIPE KILN — For the production of clay tobacco pipes.
  • CLAY PIT — A place from which clay is extracted.
  • CLAY PUDDLING PIT — A pit used for the containment of clay whilst it is mixed to the right consistency for brickmaking.
  • CLAY STORE — Purpose-built structure with thick walls used to store clay before transportation.
  • CLAY TOBACCO PIPE FACTORY — A factory where tobacco pipes made of clay are manufactured.
  • CLAY WORKINGS — A site where clay is extracted from the surface of the ground.
  • CLAYING TRENCH — A trench dug through topsoil in an arable field in order to extract underlying clay which was then spread on the field and ploughed in to improve soil fertility. Usually found in peaty soil areas such as the Lincolnshire and Cambridgeshire fenlands.
  • CLEARANCE — An area of ground which has been cleared of plants and other obstruction.
  • CLEARANCE CAIRN — An irregularly constructed, generally unstructured, mound of stones. Often, but not necessarily, circular. Normally a by product of field clearance for agricultural purposes.
  • CLEARING HOUSE — A central office dealing with financial accounts.
  • CLERGY DAUGHTERS SCHOOL — 19th century school for the daughters of clergymen.
  • CLERGY HOUSE — A residence for all clergy having the sole or subordinate charge of a living.
  • CLERICAL DWELLING — Residences of religious people and members of the clergy.
  • CLIFF CASTLE — An enclosure created by constructing one or more lines of ramparts across a promontory which projects into the sea.
  • CLIFF RAILWAY — A railway, usually by the sea, linking the beach with the cliff top. Various mechanisms were used the most common being that the cars were attached to a cable and winding drum and were balanced so that one travelled up, as the other came down.
  • CLIMBING WALL — An artificially constructed wall with recessed and projecting grips for hands and feet and places to attach ropes. Used for practising rock climbing. If the wall is situated within a sports centre use term from Components thesaurus.
  • CLINIC — An institution, sometimes attached to a hospital, where patients may receive treatment or health checks.
  • CLINKER MILL — A mill which ground clinker in the cement production process. During cement production a mixture of lime and clay is burnt which forms a clinker which is then ground into powder. When mixed with water it solidifies to hard cement.
  • CLOCK FACTORY — A factory manufacturing timepieces, including clocks and watches.
  • CLOCK SHOP — A commercial premises where clocks are sold and repaired.
  • CLOCK TOWER — A tower built to display a large clock.
  • CLOG MILL — A factory or site where wooden clogs are manufactured.
  • CLOISTER — A covered walk, walled on one side and usually arcaded on the other, surrounding or partly surrounding an open area in a monastery or similar complex of Christian buildings.
  • CLOISTER GARTH — The open space surrounded by a cloister.
  • CLOSE DEFENCE BATTERY — A coastal battery designed for use in short range engagements with enemy vessels, minelayers, blockships ad torpedo craft.
  • CLOSED TRAINING PRISON — An institution for the detention of prisoners, surrounded by a wall and/or fence as a barrier to escape. The level of security depends on the category of inmate detained.
  • CLOTH CUTTERS COTTAGE — The residence of a cloth cutter.
  • CLOTH CUTTERS WORKSHOP — A place where processed cloth is cut for use as garments or soft furnishings, etc.
  • CLOTH DRESSING MILL — Cloth finishing process using machinery to raise the nap of the cloth before shearing.
  • CLOTH DRY HOUSE — A building or structure in which processed cloth is dried.
  • CLOTH HALL — A market hall where cloth merchants can show their wares and conduct business.
  • CLOTH MARKET — An open market where cloth and other textiles can be traded.
  • CLOTH WAREHOUSE — A large building used for the storage of finished cloth.
  • CLOTHES LINE ENCLOSURE — A small rectangular or sub circular area or areas bounded by an earthwork, ditch or similar boundary, where one side is formed by an existing linear boundary, forming a pattern reminiscent of clothes hanging from a washing line.
  • CLOTHIERS HOUSE — The residence of a clothier.
  • CLOTHING FACTORY — A large factory or series of workshops for the manufacture of clothing.
  • CLOTHING INDUSTRY SITE — Buildings and sites associated with the manufacture of clothing.
  • CLOTHING WORKSHOP — A workshop for the manufacture of clothing, eg. tailor's workshop.
  • CLUB — A building used by an association of persons for social and recreational purposes or for the promotion of some common object.
  • CLUBHOUSE — A building occupied by a club or commonly used for club activities.
  • CLUNIAC CELL — A residence of two or three monks of the Cluniac order dependent on an English mother house.
  • CLUNIAC GRANGE — An outlying farm or estate belonging to the Cluniac order.
  • CLUNIAC MONASTERY — An abbey or priory of Cluniac monks.
  • CLUNIAC NUNNERY — An abbey or priory of Cluniac nuns.
  • CLUSTER BLOCK — A multi-storey building in which individual blocks of flats cluster around a central service core.
  • CLUSTER HOUSE — A group of four houses in quadruplex form within a single block, of approximately square plan and set in a spacious garden. Such houses were usually provided for supervisory or skilled workers within a textile factory.
  • COACH HOUSE — An outbuilding where a horse-drawn carriage is kept.
  • COACH WORKS — Traditionally a building or site where stage coaches were built. Nowadays the term is applied to buildings used for the manufacturing of the body work and furnishings of motor vehicles and railway carriages.
  • COACHING INN — A public house offering lodgings to the passengers, and stabling for the horses of stage coaches.
  • COACHING INN STABLE — A stable found at a coaching inn where horses are housed.
  • COACHMANS COTTAGE — The residence of a coachman.
  • COAL BUNKER — A structure used for the storage of coal.
  • COAL CLEANING PLANT — A large building or structure where coal is washed, sized and graded before being sold.
  • COAL CRUSHER HOUSE — A structure housing machinery for crushing coal. Usually found at the pithead of a colliery or coal mine.
  • COAL DEPOT — A depot used for the unloading of coal.
  • COAL DROP — A crane for lowering loaded coal waggons onto a ship.
  • COAL DUTY BOUNDARY MARKER — A cast-iron or stone boundary post, obelisk or plate found on roads, railways, canals etc around London marking the boundary within which a duty was payable on coal.
  • COAL EXCHANGE — A stock exchange dealing in the prices for coal and shares in coal production.
  • COAL FIRED POWER STATION — A coal-burning power station where domestic electricity for an area is produced, eg. Battersea Power Station, London.
  • COAL GAS STRUCTURE — Buildings and structures associated with the production, processing and storage of coal gas.
  • COAL HOLE COVER — A circular, metal or wooden cover, covering a hole in the pavement where domestic coal deliveries were dropped into a store below.
  • COAL JETTY — A raised platform for the unloading of coal from waggons or other containers.
  • COAL MERCHANTS — The premises of a coal merchant where coal and other kinds of solid fuel can be bought.
  • COAL MINING SITE — Includes terms for components of site. See also terms in MINING INDUSTRY SITE grouping.
  • COAL PREPARATION PLANT — A building or range of buildings used for the cleaning, crushing and loading of freshly mined coal.
  • COAL SCREEN — Series of wire mesh screens used for grading lumps of coal according to size.
  • COAL SHED — A building used to store coal.
  • COAL SHUTE — An embanked shute, often stone paved, allowing carts to tip their loads of coal from the road into a storage area.
  • COAL SLURRY TOWER — A building in which coal slurry, produced in the coal washing process, is recovered.
  • COAL STAGE — A structure for adding coal to railway locomotives usually by gravity from a higher level.
  • COAL TIPPLER — Loading machinery tipping coal into railway wagons usually at a pithead.
  • COAL WORKINGS — A site where coal is processed.
  • COALING CRANE — A crane used for the refueling of coal-powered vessels.
  • COALITE PLANT — Production of smokeless domestic fuel by roasting anthracite in a type of kiln.
  • COAST ARTILLERY BATTERY — A defensive battery positioned facing out to sea enabling the guns to be brought to bear on enemy shipping and amphibious craft.
  • COAST ARTILLERY SEARCHLIGHT — A searchlight battery, which points out to sea, used to locate enemy shipping
  • COAST BATTERY GUN SITE — A gun emplacement associated with a coastal battery.
  • COAST DEFENCE CHAIN HOME LOW STATION — A radar station with sets operating on a wavelenght of 1.5m established to provide radar plotting of both shipping and aircraft movements.
  • COAST LIGHT — A beacon used for coastal navigation. Many date from the Medieval period.
  • COASTAL BATTERY — A defensive gun battery positioned to face out to sea to fire on enemy ships and amphibious craft.
  • COASTAL BATTERY COMMAND POST — A command post used to direct the guns of a coastal battery.
  • COASTAL DEFENCE SITE — Sites, buildings and structures for the defence of the coastline from sea and air invasion.
  • COASTAL FISH WEIR — A structure comprising of two walls of stone or wood with nets or fish traps attached. Located in coastal waters, on shelving coastlines or in river estuaries they form large enclosures with a V or L shaped plan. The narrow point on the seaward side.
  • COASTAL OBSERVATION POST — A building, situated on the coast, used for observing the movements of enemy shipping.
  • COASTAL SALTWORKS — A site, building or factory where seawater is used in the production of salt.
  • COASTGUARD STATION — A building or group of buildings situated close to the sea used by coastguards to enable them to monitor the coastline.
  • COASTGUARD TOWER — A tower used as a watch tower by the coastguard. Often, though not always, built as part of a Coastguard Station.
  • COASTGUARDS COTTAGE — The residence of a coastguard.
  • COAT OF ARMS — Includes crests, hatchments and supporters.
  • COAXIAL FIELD SYSTEM — A field system with one prevailing axis of orientation, in which most field boundaries are either aligned with this axis or run at right angles to it.
  • COBALT MINE — A site where cobalt is mined
  • COBBLE QUARRY — An excavation from which cobble stone is obtained.
  • COBBLED ROAD — A road or street covered with small, rounded cobble stones.
  • COBBLERS STALL — A stall where a cobbler mends shoes.
  • COBBLERS WORKSHOP — A place where shoes and boots are mended.
  • COCKLE KILN — A kiln used to reduce the shells of shellfish to calcium carbonate.
  • COCKPIT — A pit or enclosed area used for cockfighting.
  • COE — A small hut erected over a mine shaft.
  • COFFEE BAR — A small, usually inexpensive, restaurant with a limited menu of light meals served at counters or tables.
  • COFFEE HOUSE — An establishment serving coffee and other refreshments and inexpensive foods. Between the 17th and 18th centuries they were also meeting places for political discussions.
  • COFFIN — A chest made of stone, wood or lead, used to enclose a dead body.
  • COFFIN REST — A structure, often within a CHURCHYARD or LYCH GATE, on which a coffin could rest prior to burial.
  • COFFIN STONE — A stone found on route to a churchyard on which the coffin is rested during transportation.
  • COINAGE HALL — Civil building in Cornwall and Devon for assay and sale of tin ingots.
  • COKE OVEN — Oven for roasting coal to drive off chemical constituents and reduce it to almost pure carbon, ie. coke.
  • COKE QUENCHING TOWER — Water spraying tower for cooling coke after it emerges from the furnace.
  • COLD STORE — A room or small building kept at low temperatures for the storage of perishable items, particularly food.
  • COLLAR FACTORY — A factory where collars, for shirts and other garments, are manufactured.
  • COLLECTING BOX — For the collection of money by charities, churches, etc.
  • COLLEGE — An establishment, often forming part of a university, for higher or tertiary education.
  • COLLEGE GARDEN — A formal garden consisting of lawns, walks and borders belonging to a college or university, eg. Oxford or Cambridge.
  • COLLEGE LODGINGS — A place of accommodation at a college for staff and students.
  • COLLEGE OF SECULAR PRIESTS — A communal residence of secular priests and/or other clerics sometimes with the condition of learning and education attached.
  • COLLEGE OF THE VICARS CHORAL — A communal residence of secular vicars whose duties included the education of choristers attached to cathedrals and collegiate churches.
  • COLLEGIATE CHAPEL — A chapel attached to or founded by a college.
  • COLLEGIATE CHURCH — A church attached to or founded by a college.
  • COLLIERY — A place where coal is mined.
  • COLLIERY INSTITUTE — A building where miners could improve their knowledge by attending lectures and using the reading room facilities.
  • COLLIERY RAILWAY — Railway constructed specifically for the movement of coal around the pithead of a coal mine.
  • COLONIA — A town founded as an act of government by charter to house Roman or Latin citizens, usually retired legionaires who had been granted land within a territorium.
  • COLONNADE — A row of columns supporting an entablature.
  • COLOUR HOUSE — A small dye works, often associated with a CALICO PRINTING WORKS.
  • COLOUR LOFT — A naval dockyard building used for the manufacture of flags.
  • COLOUR MILL — Grinding mill for producing dyes and pigments from natural materials.
  • COLUMBARIUM — A wall with niches in a CREMATORIUM to display the urns containing ashes. Use only when related to funerary site.
  • COLUMN — Use for free standing column.
  • COMB MILL — A water-powered forge or wire mill which manufactured metal wire combs for use in the textile industry.
  • COMBINATION BARN — A threshing barn which also houses farm animals and is somethimes used to stotre grain, house carts and other functions.
  • COMBINATION FARM BUILDING — A multi-purpose farm building.
  • COMBINATION MILL — A flour mill using both stones and rollers to produce flour and, perhaps mainly from the stones, animal feed from grains other than wheat.
  • COMBINED COURT CENTRE — A law court builidng established during the 1970's accommodating offices and courtrooms fro the Crown and County Courts.
  • COMBING SHED — A textile building where the process of combing, a preparatory process for long wools, takes place.
  • COMBING WORKS — A site where the process of combing, the preparatory process for long wools, takes place.
  • COMMAND POST — A military building from which the guns of a battery were directed.
  • COMMEMORATIVE — Sites, buildings, structures, features & areas of land commemorating an historical event, person or animal.
  • COMMEMORATIVE BRASS — A brass plaque, usually on the ground rather than a wall fixture, commemorating a person or event.
  • COMMEMORATIVE GARDEN — A garden created to commemorate a person or event.
  • COMMEMORATIVE MONUMENT — A building, structure or landscape created to commemorate a person or event.
  • COMMEMORATIVE STONE — A stone commemorating a person or event.
  • COMMENTARY TOWER — A large structure, found at sports stadiums, from where television or radio broadcasts are made of the sporting events.
  • COMMERCIAL — Sites, buildings, structures & features related to the sale, exchange &/or storage of goods or services. Includes commercially operated catering establishments & lodging premises.
  • COMMERCIAL ART GALLERY — A building in which works of art are displayed for sale.
  • COMMERCIAL COLLEGE — A college where subjects relating to trade and commerce are taught.
  • COMMERCIAL OFFICE — The administrative office of a commercial concern.
  • COMMISSARY — A supermarket for American military personnel, the National Guard and the Reserves and their immediate family, usually sited on a military installation throughout the world. Use term only in conjunction with an American military base.
  • COMMON LAND — Unenclosed wasteland, forest and pasture used in common by the community.
  • COMMUNAL BAKEHOUSE — A bakehouse built in association with a group of dwellings who shared the baking facilities. Often found in model settlements.
  • COMMUNE — A place where a group of people live together sharing accomodation and goods, forming their own community based upon common ideals.
  • COMMUNICATION TRENCH — A trench, usually linking two or more rows of trenches, enabling the conveyance of messages or equipment safely from one trench to another.
  • COMMUNICATIONS — Sites, buildings, structures & features associated with the transmission & receiving of information. Includes signalling, broadcasting & telecommunications; does not include transport except where there is a specific connection with communication.
  • COMMUNICATIONS BUILDING — A building, usually housing electrical or electronic equipment, used for gathering and disseminating information. Use specific type where known.
  • COMMUNITY CENTRE — A place providing social, recreational, and educational facilities for a neighbourhood.
  • COMMUNITY GARDEN — A garden maintained by, and for the benefit of, a community.
  • COMMUNITY KITCHEN — A kitchen set up, specifically during World War Two, to serve food to members of the public, especially families whose homes had succumbed to enemy bombing.
  • COMPOSITE FRAMED BUILDING — A modern building system in which both steel and concrete are utilized together to carry the load in ways that neither material predominates over the other. There are many varieties e. g. a steel frame surrounding a concrete core.
  • COMPOUND STEAM ENGINE — A steam engine that uses the same steam successively to drive pistons in high and then low pressure cylinders.
  • COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOL — A usually large school providing courses for children of all abilities, between the ages of eleven and sixteen.
  • COMPRESSOR HOUSE — A type of engine house creating power by means of compressed air, typically associated with collieries where it is used for raising coal.
  • COMPUTER CENTRE — A building housing computers and information technology equippment e.g. for a business, factory or other instituion.
  • CONCENTRIC CASTLE — A castle surrounded by two or more lines of walled fortifications.
  • CONCERT HALL — An establishment where musical performances take place.
  • CONCRETE FRAMED BUILDING — A modern building in which the load is carried by a reinforced concrete framework. Use for reinforced concrete buildings.
  • CONCRETE WORKS — A site where concrete and concrete products are manufactured from a mixture of cement and aggregate.
  • CONDENSER — An apparatus used for the process of condensing: the conversion of vapour into a liquid.
  • CONDENSERY — A building for the manufacture of condensed milk.
  • CONDENSING CHIMNEY — A tall chimney terminating a CONDENSING FLUE, used to extract metal from the smoke produced by a lead smelter.
  • CONDENSING FLUE — A stone channel sunk into the ground, employed from the mid-19th century, to carry away gases produced during smelting.
  • CONDUIT — A pipe or channel for conveying water or other liquids.
  • CONDUIT HEAD — A head of water raised in a conduit system.
  • CONDUIT HOUSE — A small building built over the end of a water conduit or spring.
  • CONFECTIONERS SHOP — A place, often including a BAKERY, where sweetmeats and pastries are sold.
  • CONFECTIONERY WORKS — A site where products containing sugar or honey, such as cakes, sweets, crystallized fruits or jam, were manufactured.
  • CONFERENCE CENTRE — A purpose-built, or modified, building where organizations and associations meet for presentations and consultation.
  • CONGREGATIONAL CHAPEL — A place of worship for members of the Congregational Church. These churches, the first of which was founded in 1616 in Southwark, practised self government. Most of them were merged to form the United Reformed Church in 1972.
  • CONSERVATORY — A glasshouse used to grow and display tender decorative plants. May be either an extension to a house or freestanding.
  • CONSISTORY COURT — A bishop's court for ecclesiastical causes and offences, formerly having wider jurisdiction in matters of moral discipline.
  • CONSOL SHELTER — A small, steel shelter designed for use as a firewatchers post during an air raid.
  • CONSTABLES OFFICE — The premises of a police officer for a parish or township who was appointed to act as a conservator of the peace within the district.
  • CONSTRUCTION CAMP — Temporary settlement relating to the construction of railways, viaducts, dams, etc.
  • CONSTRUCTION DEBRIS — Debris consisting of excess construction material used in the building of a nearby site or structure. If unsure of whether debris is from construction or demolition, index with both terms.
  • CONSTRUCTION TRENCH — A trench dug in order to receive the foundations of a structure such as a stone wall etc.
  • CONSTRUCTION WORKS — A site associated with the large scale construction of buildings or items manufactured by the building industry.
  • CONSULATE — The residence or official premises of a consul, the official appointed by a state to protect its citizens and commercial interests in a foreign state.
  • CONTAINER BERTH — An area of a port, dock or harbour where a container vessel docks to take on or unload its containers.
  • CONTAINER TERMINAL — An area of a port, dock or harbour where cargo vessels can load and unload large storage containers. May include a rail terminal for containers which have been transported to the port by rail.
  • CONTINUOUS JETTY HOUSE — A jettied house where the overhanging upper storey runs along the entire length of one side.
  • CONTRACTED INHUMATION — A form of inhumation in which the skeleton is interred, usually on its side, with the knees brought up against the chest. This is a more extreme form of crouched inhumation.
  • CONTROL ROOM — A room or building housing the controls to a mechanized system, eg. in a power station, airport, etc.
  • CONTROL TOWER — A high building at an airport from which air traffic is controlled by radio.
  • CONTROL TOWER (3860/42) — A three-storey RNAS control tower, incorporating meteorological office on the ground floor and an air watch office on the second floor.
  • CONTROL TOWER (5223A/51) — Central two-storeyed tower surmounted by an octagonal glazed control room giving a 360 degree view. Flanked by single-storey wings.
  • CONTROL TOWER (566/42) — A four-storey RNAS control tower. The first floor contained offices for the commander flying and meteorological offices and the upper two floors, in the form of a central tower, provided offices for air traffic control.
  • CONVALESCENT HOME — An establishment where patients can rest and recover after an operation or illness.
  • CONVALESCENT HOSPITAL — A hospital where patients can rest and recover after an operation or illness. Medical facilities for treatment are also available.
  • CONVENT SCHOOL — A school conducted by members of a convent.
  • CONVEYOR — A mechanism used to transport minerals or granulated materials.
  • COOKHOUSE — A camp kitchen, usually associated with the military.
  • COOKING PIT — A pit which shows evidence for having been used for cooking. Often contains charcoal, burnt bone fragments etc.
  • COOKS FAN HOUSE — A building housing a steam driven ventilation fan used in mines
  • COOLING POND — A pond used for dissipating heat by evaporation from steam engine condensate. Mid 19th century to mid 20th century.
  • COOLING ROOM — A processing house or room in a brewery.
  • COOLING TOWER — Wooden or ferro-concrete tower for cooling waste, hot water from a power station. The water cascades from the top of the tower to a pond in the bottom.
  • COOPERAGE — A barrel-making workshop or factory, found in conjunction with a number of industries.
  • COOPERATIVE STORE — A store belonging to a cooperative society.
  • COPPER MINE — Where several minerals produced, use with other products and MINE, eg. ARSENIC MINE.
  • COPPER ROOM — A room containing copper or steel vessels in which hops are added to the basic beer mixture.
  • COPPER WORKING SITE — A site where copper or copper based alloys are produced by smelting copper ore.
  • COPPER WORKINGS — A site where copper ore is extracted directly from the surface of the ground.
  • COPPER WORKS — A site or establishment for the casting and refining of metallic copper.
  • COPPERAS WORKS — A works used for the production of copperas, a green iron sulphate which is used as a fixative in the dyeing process.
  • COPPICE — A managed small wood or thicket of underwood grown to be periodically cut to encourage new growth providing smaller timber.
  • COPPICE BARN — Open sided barn for the storage of wood produced by the periodic cutting of small trees.
  • COPROLITE WORKINGS — An open pit from which coprolites or phosphatic nodules were extracted. Commonly found in the Fens and East Anglia coprolites were ground up and used as fertilizer.
  • CORBEILLE — A flower bed, usually circular and convex in form, edged with wicker basketwork, iron hoops or terracotta.
  • CORD RIG — Narrow ridges representing the surviving surface traces of later prehistoric cultivation.
  • CORDITE DOUGH STORE — A building in which cordite dough is stored before extrusion.
  • CORDITE FACTORY — A factory principally engaged in the manufacture of the propellant explosive cordite.
  • CORDITE INCORPORATING HOUSE — A building in which cordite paste is blended with the solvent acetone and Vaseline to form a cordite dough.
  • CORK FACTORY — A building or complex where corks and stoppers are made for use in bottling.
  • CORK PROCESSING WORKS — A building or complex where cork is treated and processed to be used in various products.
  • CORN DRYING KILN — A building found in conjunction with a WATERMILL, used for the drying of corn after harvesting, with a slatted drying floor set above a kiln.
  • CORN DRYING OVEN — A heated stone, brick or iron chamber used for drying corn.
  • CORN EXCHANGE — A building where samples of corn were sold or auctioned during the early to mid 19th century. When not in use, between market days, the buildings were used as public halls.
  • CORN MILL — A mill for grinding corn. Use with power type where known.
  • CORNING HOUSE — A processing house containing equipment for sieving caked gunpowder to produce graded granules.
  • CORNISH HEDGE — A stone faced earth bank, usually with a concave batter, and with the base the same width as its height and the top half the width of the base. Vegetation usually grows out of the top. Found mainly in Cornwall, but also elsewhere in the Atlantic Arc.
  • CORONATION STONE — A stone on which a monarch traditionally sat during the coronation ceremony.
  • CORONERS COURT — A building where an officer of a county, district or municipality acting as a representative of the Crown holds inquests, including deaths through violence or accident and treasure trove.
  • CORPSE REST — A place, where a corpse could be laid whilst being carried on its way to a burial, to allow the bearers to rest.
  • CORPSE ROAD — A road, used traditionally for the transportation of a corpse to a place of burial.
  • CORRODY HOUSE — Accommodation given rent-free along with or as part of a corrody, which is a provision of an annual allowance of food and money by a religious house to an individual, usually in return for service or by purchase. Term used until mid 16th century AD.
  • COSMETICS FACTORY — A factory manufacturing personal hygiene and beauty products
  • COTTAGE FACTORY — Three storey house with a topshop; machinery powered by shafting through the upper floor.
  • COTTAGE GARDEN — An informal garden attached to a cottage where flowers, vegetables and fruit trees are grown.
  • COTTAGE HOME — Accommodation used as an alternative to the workhouse following several Poor Law Acts. Modelled on continental examples and first erected at the end of the 1860s, it is based on the idea of a "village" of small houses accommodating a small group.
  • COTTAGE HOSPITAL — Usually a rural hospital with up to 25 beds. Can include small pre-Cranleigh institutions, eg: dispensaries with in-patients.
  • COTTAGE ORNEE — A rustic building of picturesque design.
  • COTTON EXCHANGE — A building in which the buying of raw cotton and finished goods took place.
  • COTTON MANUFACTURING SITE — Buildings and sites associated with the manufacture of cotton.
  • COTTON MILL — Usually a cotton spinning factory, although some mills have weaving sheds attached, in which case the end product is completed cloth, not yarn only.
  • COTTON WASTE WORKS — A works where cotton waste is stored or processed.
  • COTTON WORKSHOP — A workshop used in the manufacture and preparation of cotton
  • COUNCIL FLAT — A council-owned single apartment.
  • COUNCIL FLATS — A council-owned block of flats.
  • COUNCIL HOUSE — A house built by a local authority.
  • COUNCIL HOUSING ESTATE — A housing estate comprised of housing stock owned and let by a local authority.
  • COUNTER BOMBARDMENT BATTERY — A coastal battery used for delivering fire at long distance thus forcing a warship threatening or bombarding shore installations to withdraw out of range.
  • COUNTERMEASURES STATION — A radio station set up to broadcast signals aimed at 'bending' or altering German navigation transmissions.
  • COUNTESS OF HUNTINGDONS CHAPEL — A place of worship for followers of the Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion, a Calvinistic Methodist sect founded in the 1740s by Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon.
  • COUNTING HOUSE — An accounts office, especially within an industrial or commercial complex.
  • COUNTRY CLUB — A building, usually in a rural setting, with a range of facilities for the use of members.
  • COUNTRY ESTATE — An area of privately owned land attached to, and incorporating, a country house and associated buildings.
  • COUNTRY HOUSE — The rural residence of a country gentleman.
  • COUNTRY PARK — An area of managed countryside designated for visitors to enjoy recreations, such as walking specified parks and trails, in a rural environment. Often provides public facilities such as parking, toilets, cafes and visitor information.
  • COUNTY BOUNDARY — The limit line of a county.
  • COUNTY COURT — A court established in England and Wales by Parliament in 1846 to decide minor civil disputes.
  • COUNTY HALL — A building from which the administration of a county is carried out by the County Council. It is also, historically, the site where the county quarter sessions and assizes were held.
  • COURERY — Subsidiary settlement of lay brothers attached to some Carthusian monasteries.
  • COURT HOUSE — A building in which a judicial court is held.
  • COURT OF REQUESTS — A local civil court first established during the 17th Century by local Acts of Parliament to deal with minor cases of debt. Based on a model established during the reign of Henry VII.
  • COURT ROOM — A hall or chamber in which justice is administered.
  • COURTIERS HOUSE — A house in which a member of the Royal Court lives.
  • COURTYARD — An uncovered area, surrounded or partially surrounded by buildings.
  • COURTYARD HOUSE — A building or buildings ranged around a courtyard on at least three sides. They occur in the Iron Age, as well as being an influential plan type of house from the 15th century onwards. Index with appropriate period.
  • COURTYARD INN — An inn, with an integral courtyard, for the lodging and entertainment of travellers. Often with open galleried wings overlooking the courtyard.
  • COURTYARD PLAN — A farmstead where the working buildings are arranged around a yard.
  • COVE — Prehistoric structure consisting of three or more standing stones in close proximity to each other, forming an unroofed approximately rectangular structure open in one direction.
  • COVER PLATE — A cover consisting of a plate for covering over or closing in a chamber or receptacle.
  • COVERED WAY — A path that is roofed over.
  • COVERED WELL — A well with a superstructure, either partially or wholly enclosed with an access door, designed to protect the water source.
  • COVERED YARD — A covered area of ground attached to a building.
  • COW HOUSE — A building in which cattle are housed overnight, normally tethered in stalls.
  • CRAFT CENTRE — A centre for the teaching of crafts.
  • CRAFT INDUSTRY SITE — Site of small scale industrial production often involving hand work and craft skills.
  • CRANE — A large, metal or wooden structure, used for raising, lowering and moving heavy objects. Use more specific type where known.
  • CRANE HOUSE — A component part of a treadmill crane, the shed is used to enclose the treadwheel.
  • CRANEWHEEL — A tread-wheel by which a crane was formerly worked.
  • CRANNOG — An island, partly or wholly artificial, built up by dumping timber, earth and stones onto a lake or river bed. Often revetted with timber piles or palisade.
  • CRATEMAKERS SHOP — Workshop for producing crates, particularly for the packing of pottery.
  • CRAZING MILL — Mill for fine grinding of tin ore between millstones.
  • CRECHE — A nursery for infants, where they are taken care of while their mothers are at work.
  • CREMATION — A funeral rite in which the human body is burnt, usually on a pyre, leaving fragmentary charred or completely combusted remains. Often found buried, occasionally in a container associated with grave goods.
  • CREMATION BURIAL — The site of the formal burial of cremated bone, sometimes 'urned' in a vessel or casket of glass, wood or, more commonly, ceramic.
  • CREMATION CEMETERY — A cemetery comprising exclusively cremated human remains, some or all of which may be contained within pottery vessels.
  • CREMATION GRAVE — An intrusive feature cut for the purpose of containing a cremation burial within it.
  • CREMATION PIT — A pit over which a corpse has been cremated on a pyre into which the remains and debris, and sometime grave goods, collapse and are buried. Generally confined to the Roman period.
  • CREMATORIUM — A building or site where bodies are burnt, and the ashes collected for burial or dispersal.
  • CREOSOTE WORKS — A factory or complex of buildings where creosote oil is produced. Creosote oil is distilled from coal tar and used as a wood preservative.
  • CREPE MILL — A textile mill where crepe is manufactured.Crepe is a fine cloth particularly silk or mixture of silk and cotton.
  • CRESCENT — A row of houses whose facade in plan follows the concave arc of a circle or ellipse, eg. The Royal Crescent, Bath.
  • CREW BRIEFING ROOM — A type of military building associated with military airfields, where air crews were briefed for missions. The room could be a seperate building or part of an operations block and are built of varying types of temporary brick or nissen hut constructions.
  • CREW YARD — Open yard for keeping cattle in during winter. Used from the mid-14th century in drier, Eastern, arable counties.
  • CRICKET CENTRE — A purpose built indoor cricket facility for training and playing matches
  • CRICKET GROUND — The entire playing area and associated buildings upon which the game of cricket is played.
  • CRICKET PAVILION — A building adjoining a cricket pitch with facilities for players and spectators.
  • CRICKET PITCH — An area of grass, marked out for use in the game of cricket.
  • CROFT — An enclosed piece of land adjoining a house.
  • CROQUET LAWN — A closely mown lawn used for the game of croquet.
  • CROQUET SHED — A small garden building used to store equipment used in the game of croquet.
  • CROSS — A free-standing structure, in the form of a cross (+), symbolizing the structure on which Jesus Christ was crucified and sacred to the Christian faith. Use specific type where known.
  • CROSS DYKE — A linear earthwork, usually a bank accompanied by a ditch, which runs across rather than along an area or ridge of higher ground.
  • CROSS INCISED STONE — A stone with a cross carved into the surface.
  • CROSS PASSAGE HOUSE — A house in which a passage runs across the building, usually adjacent to a hall, between front and back entrance doors.
  • CROSS SLAB — A slab of stone, either standing or recumbent, inscribed with a cross. Usually found in association with burials.
  • CROSS WING HOUSE — A house with a range at the end of it, at right angles to the main range.
  • CROSSING KEEPERS COTTAGE — A house for the keeper of a level crossing on a railway.
  • CROSSROADS — A road junction where two (or occasionally more) roads cross each other.
  • CROUCHED INHUMATION — A form of inhumation in which the skeleton is interred, usually on its side, with hip and knee joints bent through an angle of more than 90 degrees.
  • CROW — A multipurpose hut constructed from stone and turf, covering a square or polygonal plan. It has drystone walls and a slightly corbelled roof, usually topped with slabs. Can be either free-standing or embedded in a Cornish hedge. Particular to Cornwall.
  • CROWN COURT — A court of criminal, and limited civil, jurisdiction in England and Wales. Established in 1972 to replace the Assize Court, following legislation in 1971.
  • CRUCIBLE FACTORY — A building or buildings used for the manufacture of crucibles.
  • CRUCIBLE FURNACE — A furnace composed of two fire brick boxes: the fire was in the lower box and the upper box held the crucibles. Used in the manufacture of steel.
  • CRUCIBLE STEEL WORKS — Production of high quality steel by reheating cementation steel in a refractory crucible.
  • CRUCK BARN — A barn in which a pair of curved timbers form a bowed A-frame which supports the roof independently of the walls.
  • CRUCK HOUSE — A house in which a pair of curved timbers form a bowed A-frame which supports the roof independently of the walls.
  • CRUSHING CIRCLE — Horse powered ore crusher, consisting of a stone wheel running over a circular iron or stone bed.
  • CRUSHING FLOOR — An area used for crushing mineral ore or stone. Often includes mechanically powered ore crushers.
  • CRUSHING MILL — A building containing mechanically powered ore crushers or rollers.
  • CRYPT — A vault, often located under a chancel or chancel aisle, containing an altar and usually used for burial.
  • CTESIPHON HUT — A concrete arched military hut constructed by pouring concrete over hessian cloth that had been stretched over a temporary steel framework. Semi circular in section usually with end walls of brick. Designed by the Waller Housing Corp in 1943.
  • CUBICLE BLOCK — Block for the treatment of separate diseases.
  • CUL DE SAC — A passage or road closed to traffic at one end.
  • CULTIVATION MARKS — Manmade marks or earthworks which provide evidence for agricultural cultivation.
  • CULTIVATION TERRACE — An area of land, usually on a slope, which has been built up to provide a flat surface for the cultivation of crops.
  • CULVERT — A drainage structure that extends across and beneath roadways, canals or embankments.
  • CUP AND RING MARKED STONE — A stone, either in situ or part of a monument, bearing one or more small, roughly hemispherical depressions surrounded by a concentric arrangement of annular or pennanular grooves. More complex designs may also occur.
  • CUP MARKED STONE — A stone, either in situ or part of a monument, bearing one or more small, roughly hemispherical depressions, generally created by chipping or pecking.
  • CUPELLATION FURNACE — A furnace used for the refining of precious metals. eg. the separation of silver from argentiferous lead.
  • CUPOLA FURNACE — A furnace used for melting metals for casting or for heating shot.
  • CURFEW BELL TOWER — A tower containing a curfew bell. The bell was rung in the evening, as a signal that fires were to be extinguished.
  • CURING HOUSE — A place where meat and fruit, etc, is preserved by salting and/or drying.
  • CURLING POND — A shallow outdoor pool, usually rectangular in shape filled with water which when frozen was used for the sport of Curling.
  • CURRIERY — Place where tanned leather is dressed and coloured.
  • CURSUS — A long narrow rectangular earthwork enclosure of Neolithic date, usually defined by a bank and ditch and presumed to be of ceremonial function. Known examples range in length from less than 100m to c.10km.
  • CURTAIN WALL — A wall between two towers or pavilions, usually surrounding a building, and often forming a major part of the defences.
  • CURVILINEAR ENCLOSURE — A monument consisting of an area of land enclosed by a ditch, bank, wall, palisade or similar barrier, where the boundary follows an irregular curving course.
  • CUSTOM HOUSE — An office, particularly at a seaport, at which customs are collected.
  • CUSTOMS LOOKOUT — A building or site from which a watch can be kept to prevent the illegal import/export of goods.
  • CUTLERY WORKS — A site containing a forge for the manufacture of cutlery.
  • CUTLERY WORKSHOP — A place where metal knives and edge cutting tools were manufactured.
  • CYCLE LANE — An area of a carriageway, usually delimited by road markings, for the sole use of bicycles.
  • CYCLE PATH — A path, or marked lane, designated for use by cyclists.
  • CYLINDER HOUSE — A building in which purified charcoal was produced by distillation of wood in sealed cast-iron retorts heated in fire-boxes. Tarry by-products were sometimes recovered by condensation flues.

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D

  • D SHAPED BARROW — Not a round barrow ploughed out at one end, but a specific type, the flat edge being additionally defined by stone slabs.
  • D SHAPED ENCLOSURE — An area of land, in the shape of a D, enclosed by a boundary ditch, bank, wall, palisade or similar barrier.
  • DABBIN — Mud walled building found on the Solway Plain.
  • DAIRY — A building or group of buildings used for the making, processing, storing and selling of milk and other dairy products.
  • DAM — A barrier of concrete or earth, etc, built across a river to create a reservoir of water for domestic and/or industrial usage.
  • DAME SCHOOL — A kind of primary school kept by elderly women.
  • DANCE HALL — A public building where regular dances were held.
  • DANCE STUDIO — A building or room used for the practice and study of dance.
  • DANNERT WIRE — Barbed wire in the form of a coil which could be extended concertina-like to form a barrier to impede the movement of hostile troops.
  • DARBAR SAHIB — The main hall of worship within a Sikh Temple.
  • DARLAND FIELD SYSTEM — Medieval Fenland ditched field system where the land is divided into strips for agricultural production. The strips are separated by hand-dug wide shallow drainage ditches with the spoil thrown up to create a dryer ridge.
  • DATE STONE — A stone commemorating the date of a specific event.
  • DAY CENTRE — A non residential building providing recreational, social and other facilities, especially for the elderly and those with special needs.
  • DAY HOSPITAL — A hospital where elderly people receive medical treatment, but not overnight accommodation.
  • DAY MARK — An unlit, highly visible and distinctive feature on the coast that can be used by mariners for navigation during daylight only.
  • DAYROOM BLOCK — A hospital block where patients come for day-care medical treatment.
  • DEANERY — The official residence of a dean.
  • DEBTORS COURT — A place of law to which debtors were taken for the recovery of monies by their creditors.
  • DEBTORS PRISON — A prison for the confinement of people who owe money.
  • DECK ACCESS BLOCK — Block of flats incorporating broad, street-width balconies to give access to dwellings and connect to other blocks.
  • DECONTAMINATION BUILDING — A building used for the treatment of victims of chemical, gas or other forms of contamination.
  • DECORATING SHOP — A workshop used for the decoration of fired pottery or ceramics. Usually part of a larger complex.
  • DECORATIVE SURFACE — An area of the floor, wall or ceiling of a building, which has been painted, carved, sculpted or decorated.
  • DECOY AIRFIELD — A system of lights, controlled fires or dummy constructions, used to simulate an airfield and thus confuse enemy aircraft into bombing these counterfeit targets.
  • DECOY BATTERY — Dummy construction in the form of a battery used during WWII to provide a counterfeit target for enemy aircraft.
  • DECOY DOCKS — A system of lights, controlled fires or dummy constructions, used to simulate a dockyard and thus confuse enemy aircraft into bombing these counterfeit targets.
  • DECOY DOMESTIC SITE — A system of lights, controlled fires or dummy constructions, used to simulate a domestic site such as a city and thus confuse enemy aircraft into bombing counterfeit targets.
  • DECOY POND — A pond or pool with arms covered with nets into which wild birds, are lured and then caught. Monument type includes water feeder channels.
  • DECOY RAILWAY SITE — A system of lights, controlled fires or dummy constructions, used to simulate a railway yard or sidings and thus confuse enemy aircraft into bombing these counterfeit targets.
  • DECOY SITE SHELTER — Partly subterranean operations rooms for the lighting arrays of the various types of bombing decoys in use during the Second World War.
  • DEDICATION STONE — A commemorative stone inscribed with a dedicatory inscription to a person or event.
  • DEER COTE — A building used for the shelter and protection of deer, especially in winter.
  • DEER COURSE — Area in a deer park where a single deer was chased by dogs over a set distance, with bets made on the outcome. It usually includes a stand (for viewing) and can also include three distance markers, a finishing post and a ditch behind the last post.
  • DEER HOUSE — A building for housing deer overnight.
  • DEER LEAP — Bank to let deer cross ditches, fences or roads, into, but not out of, a deer park.
  • DEER PARK — A large park for keeping deer. In medieval times the prime purpose was for hunting.
  • DEER POUND — An enclosure used for corralling deer.
  • DEER SHED — A building used to store fodder for deer.
  • DEER SHELTER — A building used to shelter deer hunters.
  • DEER TRAP — An earthwork feature used by hunters to trap deer comprising a steep ditch into which the deer are chased with an enclosure to hold them at one end, known from the Isle of Rum and a debateable example in Cumbria.
  • DEFENCE — Sites, buildings, structures & features used in the defence of the civilian population. Includes civil defence sites, weapons stores, training sites, military signals & active defence structures such as anti-aircraft sites.
  • DEFENCE LINE — A system of defensive works such as anti-tank obstacles, ditches and pillboxes, designed to stop the advance of an enemy. Defence lines were constructed across and around strategic areas of ground and sites such as industrial towns.
  • DEFENCE OBSTRUCTION — Sites and structures, often un-manned, intended to impede or confuse enemy forces.
  • DEFENCE WORK — General term describing any defence work where no more specific term is applicable.
  • DEFENDED BUILDING — A building which has been altered to increase its defensive characteristics. Use more specific term where known.
  • DEFENDED ENCLOSURE — An enclosed area of land of varying size and shape which shows traces of defence.
  • DEFENDED HOUSE — A house which has been altered to increase its defensive characteristics.
  • DEFENDED LOCALITY — An area, with fixed defences, designed to act as a focal point for a defending force.
  • DEGAUSSING STATION — A site where the magnetic signature of ships was lowered thereby making them less susceptible to magnetic mines.
  • DEMOLITION CHAMBER — Chamber built into underside of a structure to exercise demolition.
  • DEMOLITION CHARGE SITE — A site used for the placing of an explosive, demolition charge. Many types of structures were prepared for demolition in the event of an invasion in order to cause the maximum disruption to the advance of hostile forces. Use more specifc type where known.
  • DEMOLITION DEBRIS — Debris derived from the demolition of buildings or other structures. If unsure of whether debris is resulting from construction or demolition, index with both terms.
  • DEMOLITION LAYER — A layer underneath the topsoil containing rubble or fragments of building material, e.g. mortar, tile, flint.
  • DENE HOLE — The name of a class of excavations, found in chalk formations in England, consisting of a shaft sunk to the chalk, and there widening out into one or more chambers.
  • DENTAL DEPARTMENT — A hospital department where surgical and medical dental treatment takes place.
  • DENTAL HOSPITAL — A specialist hospital where medical and surgical dental treatment takes place.
  • DENTAL SCHOOL — An educational establishment where dentistry is taught.
  • DEPARTMENT STORE — A large shop supplying many kinds of goods from various departments.
  • DEPENDENT CHAPEL — A place of worship for the sect known as 'Cokelers', formed circa 1850 by John Sirgood. Most aspects of Dependent belief are fairly orthodox within the Arminian traditions of Protestant dissent. Chapels can be found in Sussex, Surrey, London and Kent.
  • DEPOT — A building or site used as a storage and distribution centre.
  • DERRICK — A structure consisting of a vertical mast and a horizontal boom operated by cables on a separate engine or motor. Used for hoisting and moving heavy loads or objects.
  • DESERTED SETTLEMENT — An abandoned settlement, usually of the Medieval period, often visible only as earthworks or on aerial photographs.
  • DETACHED HOUSE — A free-standing house, not joined to another on either side.
  • DEVIANT BURIAL — An interment of a human body that displays unusual burial practice such as positioning of the body, decapitation, dismemberment or over-secure burial.
  • DEWPOND — A shallow pond, often artificial, fed by the condensation of water from the air, occuring on high land which has no other adequate water supply.
  • DHARMA HALL — A space in a Buddist building that is used for teaching Dharma/Dhamma - the teachings of Buddha.
  • DINGHY SHED (2900/43) — A modified Nissen hut, based on drawing number (2900/43), used for the repair packing and storage of inflatable liferafts.
  • DINGHY SHED (2901/43) — A temporary brick building, based on drawing number (2901/43), used for the repair, packing and storage of inflatable liferafts.
  • DIORAMA — A building in which a view is projected onto a wall by means of a lens.
  • DIPPING HOUSE — A building in which raw pottery is finished by dipping it in glaze.
  • DIPPING POND — A small pond, usually circular and serving as a feature at the centre of a walled garden, used for the purpose of filling watering cans.
  • DIPPING WELL — A natural spring located within a, usually small, man-made structure, such as a niche or a box. The structure is so placed to accomodate use for a specific non-religious function, such as communal bathing.
  • DIRECT BOILING SALT WORKS — A coastal site producing salt by boiling of unconcentrated seawater in a PANHOUSE, normally using coal fuel. Foreshore BRINE TANKS may also be present
  • DIRECTION ARROW — A concrete marker placed to indicate the direction of a target on a bombing range to aircraft.
  • DIRECTION STONE — A stone, situated alongside a road, providing directions to travellers.
  • DISABLED PEOPLES HOME — A residential home for adults with learning difficulties and/or physical disabilities.
  • DISC BARROW — A round barrow featuring a small mound separated from a ditch of much greater diameter by a wide berm. The ditch may be accompanied by an external (or occasionally internal) bank.
  • DISCHARGE BLOCK — A hospital block from where patients are discharged after an operation or other treatment.
  • DISCOTHEQUE — A club or cafe where popular music is played for dancing.
  • DISINFECTING STATION — A building, usually part of a hospital complex, in which contaminated clothes, bedding and utensils are disinfected.
  • DISINFECTOR HOUSE — A building where patients or inmates of a hospital or workhouse were disinfected and their clothes washed or burnt to prevent the spread of infectious diseases or other ailments.
  • DISPENSARY — A building or room for the distribution of medicines, eg. in a hospital or clinic.
  • DISPERSAL — An area of hardstanding for parking aircraft, in a state of readiness, usually around the perimeter of an airfield.
  • DISPERSAL PEN — An area of hardstanding, surrounded on three sides by a protective wall or bank, used for parking aircraft, in a state of readiness, usually around the perimeter of an airfield.
  • DISPERSAL PRISON — An institution for the detention of prisoners considered to be a major threat to public safety and/or to the security of the nation.
  • DISPERSED CLUSTER PLAN — A dispersed farmstead where the farm buildings and farmhouse are loosely grouped together within the boundary of the farmstead.
  • DISPERSED DRIFTWAY PLAN — A dispersed farmstead where buildings and yards (regular or loose courtyard in their form) are sited alongside a routeway.
  • DISPERSED MULTI YARD PLAN — A dispersed farmstead where buildings are arranged around scattered yards which can be loose or regular in their form.
  • DISPERSED PLAN — A farmstead where the buildings and yards are loosely arranged, with no focal yard. Use more specific type where known.
  • DISPERSED SITE — Accommodation and facilities for aircrew away from the main RAF airfield.
  • DISPLACED PERSONS CAMP — A camp where people who fled from danger or problem whithin their country or across international borders and who are in need of international protection are temporarily placed.
  • DISTILLATION BLOCK — A group of buildings, or part of a works, housing apparatus used in the process of distilling.
  • DISTILLATION PLANT — A building where distillation, a chemical process used in the production of a range of different chemicals, took place.
  • DISTILLERY — An establishment or works where the distilling of spirits is carried out.
  • DISTILLING SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the process of distilling.
  • DISTRIBUTION CENTRE — A short-term storage centre of goods or special parts to facilitate the rapid processing of orders and supply of goods to customers; unlike a warehouse, the emphasis is on the moving of goods rather than on a long-term storage.
  • DITCH — A long and narrow hollow or trench dug in the ground, often used to carry water though it may be dry for much of the year.
  • DITCHED ENCLOSURE — An area of land enclosed by one or several boundary ditches. Double index with a term to indicate the shape of the enclosure where known.
  • DIVER BATTERY — Heavy anti aircraft battery used from June 1944-May 1945 to combat the V-bomb threat. They are distinct from normal HAA batteries, being laid out in a V-shape, and early on were mainly for mobile 3.7-inch guns.
  • DIVING PLATFORM — A tower with one or more horizontal platforms extending out over deep water for use in diving competitions.
  • DIVING POOL — A large, deep, manmade pool, usually with accompanying diving boards/platforms and forming part of a swimming pool complex.
  • DIVING TANK — A large tank used for training divers.
  • DIVINITY SCHOOL — A school where theological subjects are taught.
  • DOCK — An artificial area of open water, enclosed by masonry and fitted with dock gates in which ships can be repaired, loaded/unloaded or berthed.
  • DOCK AND HARBOUR INSTALLATION — Excludes terms specific to MARINE CONSTRUCTION SITE.
  • DOCK BASIN — An open area of water, usually artificial and enclosed by dock gates or locks, lined with wharves, warehouses and berths to enable vessels to load and unload.
  • DOCK FLOOR — The bottom of a dock.
  • DOCK GATE — A gate used to seal the entrance to a dock to prevent water escaping from a wet dock or entering a dry dock.
  • DOCK SILL — Horizontal masonry or timber work at the entrance to a dock.
  • DOCK WORKERS COTTAGE — The residence of a dock worker.
  • DOCKMASTERS OFFICE — An administrative building used by the official in charge of a dock or harbour.
  • DOCKYARD — An enclosure in which ships are built and repaired, and all sorts of ships' stores are brought together.
  • DOCKYARD RAILWAY — A railway at a dockyard used for the transportation of goods to and from the dock side.
  • DOCTORS HOSTEL — A building, usually associated with a hospital, where doctors live. Include blocks of self-contained flats.
  • DOG RACING TRACK — A racing track, often within a permanent stadium, for racing dogs, usually greyhounds and whippets.
  • DOG TROUGH — A long stone or metal vessel for dogs to drink water from.
  • DOGS HOME — A range of buildings used to house abandoned or stray dogs.
  • DOLPHIN — A cluster of piles for mooring a vessel.
  • DOLPHINARIUM — A pool and ancilliary buildings used for the housing of dolphins.
  • DOME TRAINER — A dome shaped building, housing training apparatus, including a projector, for training ground gunners in the art of airfield defence. (WWII).
  • DOMESTIC — Sites, buildings, structures and features used for permanent, seasonal or temporary accommodation/habitation & related ancillary buildings. Includes commercial, military and religious sites used for residential purposes as well as industrial workplaces.
  • DOMESTIC CHAPEL — A chapel for a private residence.
  • DOMESTIC MILITARY BUILDING — Buildings used for the accommodation, welfare and recreation of servicemen, especially those serving in the Royal Air Force. Use only for buildings associated with military installations. For non-military, use DOMESTIC class and its narrower terms.
  • DOMESTIC SITE — Sites used for the accommodation, welfare and recreation of servicemen, especially those serving in the Royal Air Force. Use only for sites associated with military installations. For non-military sites use DOMESTIC class and its narrower terms.
  • DOMESTIC WORKSHOP — A workshop forming part of a domestic dwelling.
  • DOMINICAN FRIARY — A house of friars of the order of St Dominic. Also known as Friars Preachers or 'Black Friars'.
  • DOMINICAN NUNNERY — An abbey or priory of Dominican nuns.
  • DOMUS CONVERSORUM — House, where destitute Jews converted to Christianity after the expulsion. Latin for "House of Converts".
  • DONKEY HOUSE — A building used to accommodate donkeys.
  • DONKEY WHEEL — A treadwheel using a donkey as motive power. Usually found operating wells.
  • DOPE SHOP — An aircraft maintenance workshop deriving from the use of weather proofing varnish to aircraft canvas called "dope" in order to keep the canvas taut and airtight. From 1912 onwards.
  • DORIC TEMPLE — An 18th century garden building, designed in the form of a classical Doric temple, used for standing or sitting in.
  • DORMITORY — Use with wider site type where known.
  • DOUBLE DITCHED ENCLOSURE — An area of land enclosed by two parallel ditches. Use with specific shaped enclosure where known.
  • DOUBLE ENDED HALL HOUSE — A house consisting of a single storey open hall with a two storey domestic range attached to both ends forming an H shape.
  • DOUBLE HOUSE — Mixed house of nuns and religious men.
  • DOUBLE PILE HOUSE — A house having four rooms of equal height on each of two floors; in larger houses there are often two parallel and equal roofs.
  • DOUBLING MILL — A textile factory where the process of doubling, the twisting together of two spun yarns, takes place.
  • DOVECOTE — A building, or part of a building, used to house doves and pigeons, usually placed at a height above the ground, with openings and provision inside for roosting and breeding.
  • DOWER HOUSE — A small house, usually on the estate of a country house, forming part of a widow's dower and intended as her residence.
  • DOWNDRAUGHT KILN — A type of pottery kiln in which air rises up inside the oven to be forced back down and out through the base of the oven.
  • DRABBET FACTORY — A factory producing drabbet, a type of linen cloth.
  • DRAIN — An artificial channel for draining water or carrying it off.
  • DRAINAGE DITCH — A long, narrow ditch designed to carry water away from a waterlogged area.
  • DRAINAGE LEVEL — A horizontal tunnel dug specifically for draining, for example, a mine.
  • DRAINAGE MILL — Wind or water-powered mill for land drainage in fens or marshlands.
  • DRAINAGE SYSTEM — A system of artificial or natural drains and ditches used to drain off surplus water.
  • DRAMA SCHOOL — A building where students study theatre and the dramatic arts.
  • DRAW DOCK — An inlet in the banks of a navigable river, often lined with brick and gated, into which boats can be drawn for repair etc.
  • DRAW KILN — A lime kiln built into a low hillside or slope to facilitate top loading of the limestone.
  • DRAWBRIDGE — A movable bridge lifted at one end by chains or ropes either to stop traffic passing over it or to let traffic pass under it.
  • DRAWBRIDGE PIT — A purpose built pit, usually below a gatehouse or barbican, into which the counterweight of a drawbridge could be lowered, thus enabling the bridge to be raised.
  • DRAWING OFFICE — A commercial building used for the production of detailed, often technical, drawings.
  • DRESSING FLOOR — The place where metallic ores were crushed and washed to remove waste, forming a concentrate which could be used in a smelter.
  • DRESSING MILL — A mill used for the sizing and drying of warp threads before they were wound onto warp beams as part of the power-weaving process.
  • DRESSING SHED — A shed, often found at a quarry, in which rough stone is shaped or dressed.
  • DRESSING WASTE — Residues from ore-processing operations; intact tips and deposits may preserve considerable evidence on the processes used. A high rpoportion have been destroyed by reprocessing.
  • DRIFT — A straight mine entrance, driven on a constant downwards slope.
  • DRIFT MINE — A mine in which access is gained by a straight entrance driven on a constant downward slope. Use with product(s) extracted and MINE where known, eg. COAL MINE.
  • DRILL HALL — A building or site used for the exercise and training of military personnel.
  • DRILL TOWER — A multi-level structure designed to simulate tall buildings to allow firefighters to practice firefighting and rescue techniques
  • DRINKING FOUNTAIN — A fountain erected specifically to supply drinking water.
  • DRIVE — A road/carriage way giving access from the main road to the house, stables.
  • DROVE ROAD — A road or track specifically used by drovers or herders to drive their animals to market.
  • DROVERS HOUSE — The residence of a drover.
  • DROVERS INN — A wayside inn for livestock traders.
  • DRY DOCK — A stone-faced enclosure, with entrance closed by a floatable caisson or by gates, which can be pumped dry for inspection, maintenance, or repair of the hull or underwater fittings of a ship or ships.
  • DRYING GROUND — An open area used for drying products manufactured using an industrial process.
  • DRYING HOUSE — A building used to aid in the drying of goods, for example, by means of flowing air.
  • DRYING KILN — A furnace or oven used for drying items or materials. Use specific type where possible.
  • DRYING LOFT — A loft for the drying of thread or cloth.
  • DRYING STOVE — A type of drying house, usually circular with a conical roof.
  • DRYING TOWER — A purpose-built building with a tower used for the drying of parachutes.
  • DRYING TOWER (11595/42) — A purpose-built building with a steel framed tower, based on drawing number (11595/42). Used for the drying of parachutes.
  • DRYING TOWER (9290/42) — A brick tower, based on drawing number (9290/42), usually added to an existing building. Used for the drying of parachutes.
  • DRYING TOWER (9294/42) — A purpose-built building with a brick tower constructed on one end, based on drawing number (9294/42). Used for the drying of parachutes.
  • DUCK HOUSE — A building used to accommodate ducks.
  • DUCK POND — A pond with protection for nesting ducks and other wild fowl
  • DUCKING POND — A pond used for the punishment, by ducking in water, of offenders.
  • DUCKING STOOL — A chair fixed to the end of a plank, in which scolds or dishonest people were tied and ducked in water as a punishment.
  • DUMMY PILLBOX — A construction designed to look like a pillbox in order to deceive or confuse the enemy.
  • DUN — A building or settlement enclosure with a thick drystone wall, generally circular or oval in plan, usually sited in an elevated position.
  • DUNG PIT — A pit used for containing manure.
  • DUNGEON — An underground cell, or group of cells, used for imprisonment.
  • DUST EXTRACTION PLANT — A plant where freshly mined coal was washed down and any dust removed before loading for transport away from the colliery.
  • DUSTING HOUSE — A building within the gunpowder works complex. During the gunpowder production process, the mill cake was broken down, pressed and then corned. The remaining dust was removed from the corned powder by tumbling it in gauze-covered revolving cylinders.
  • DUTCH GARDEN — A 17th century garden in the Dutch style: usually flat and compact, with an emphasis on small canals, hedges, topiary, lead statuary and flowering shrubs and bulbs.
  • DUTY BOUNDARY MARKER — A boundary marker for the payment of tax or duty.
  • DUTY PILOTS OFFICE (2072/26) — The first standardized design for a building for the duty pilot. It took the form of a small bungalow with a bay window on the front elevation.
  • DUTY POST — A boundary post for the payment of tax or duty.
  • DWELLING — Places of residence.
  • DYE AND PIGMENT SITE — Buildings and sites used for the production of inorganic and organic dyes, pigments and paints.
  • DYE HOUSE — A building, usually one-storeyed, for dyeing cloth.
  • DYE WORKS — A site used for the production of dyes from natural ingredients.
  • DYKE (DEFENCE) — A defensive or boundary earthwork.
  • DYNAMITE FACTORY — A works or factory principally engaged in the manufacture of dynamite

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E

  • EAR HOSPITAL — A specialist hospital for the medical and surgical treatment of ear disorders and diseases.
  • EAR NOSE AND THROAT DEPARTMENT — A hospital department for the medical treatment of ear, nose and throat disorders.
  • EAR NOSE AND THROAT HOSPITAL — A specialist hospital for the medical and surgical treatment of ear, nose and throat disorders and diseases.
  • EARLY WARNING SITE — A site, building or structure used for the detection of approaching hostile aircraft, shipping or missiles early enough to allow a counterattack or defensive measures to be taken. Use more specific term.
  • EARLY WARNING STATION — A complex of buildings using Radar or satellite tracking to monitor and detect enemy missile launches early enough to allow a counterattack or defensive measures to be taken.
  • EARTHWORK — A bank or mound of earth used as a rampart or fortification.
  • EASTERN ORTHODOX CATHEDRAL — The principal Eastern Orthodox church in an area.
  • EASTERN ORTHODOX CEMETERY — A burial ground for followers of the Eastern Orthodox church.
  • EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCH — A place of worship for followers of the Eastern Orthodox churches. This family of churches separated from the Western church in the 11th century and recognizes the Patriarch of Constantinople.
  • EATING AND DRINKING ESTABLISHMENT — For commercial or non commercial use. See narrow terms in each class.
  • EATING HOUSE — A cheap restaurant.
  • ECCLESIASTICAL OFFICE — An office which administers the affairs of the church.
  • ECONOMIZER HOUSE — A building housing an economizer, a machine designed to preheat water for boilers.
  • EDGE TOOL WORKS — A factory or works used for the forging and sharpening of a variety of tools including scythes, spades, etc.
  • EDUCATION — Sites, buildings, structures & features relating to the provision of knowledge and skills.
  • EEL STALL — A stall where eels, either raw or cooked, are sold.
  • EEL TRAP — A device with a funnel-shaped entrance designed for catching eels.
  • EFFIGY — A sculptured likeness, portrait or image, often found on a tomb or other memorial.
  • EGYPTIAN GARDEN — A garden incorporating Egyptian architectural features such as sphinxes and tomb-like features, etc.
  • ELEANOR CROSS — One of 12 roadside crosses erected by Edward I in memory of his wife, Eleanor of Castile, the most famous being Charing Cross in London.
  • ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE — A refractory lined furnace in which an electric arc is struck between the electrode and the metal to be melted.
  • ELECTRIC ENGINE — An engine in which the power is provided by electricity either in the form of batteries or direct from the mains supply.
  • ELECTRIC WINCH — A hoisting mechanism powered by electricity.
  • ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING WORKS — A factory or plant used for the manufacture of electrical machinery or components.
  • ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FACTORY — A factory manufacturing electrical equipment, such as engines, transformers and generators for use in industry.
  • ELECTRICAL GOODS FACTORY — A site where small electrical goods such as radios, lamps and heaters are manufactured.
  • ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION CABINET — Usually dating from the early 20th century these cabinets, sited alongside public highways, were used for the distribution of electricity for street lighting control and later for domestic use. In Wolverhampton these boxes also serviced the tram system.
  • ELECTRICITY GENERATING HALL — A building or structure where electricity is generated.
  • ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the production of electricity.
  • ELECTRICITY PYLON — A tall, metal structure erected as a support for electric power cables.
  • ELECTRICITY SUB STATION — Building containing transformers to reduce the high voltage of the National Grid to the lower voltage of domestic supply.
  • ELECTRONICS FACTORY — A building or buildings where electronic components or devices are designed, developed, manufactured and assembled.
  • ELEMENTARY SCHOOL — A school in which elementary subjects are taught to young children.
  • ELEPHANT HOUSE — A building used to accommodate elephants at a zoo or wildlife park.
  • ELLING HEARTH — Small stone hearth set up in a shallow pit. Burns vegetation and coppiced twigs to produce potash.
  • EMBANKED AVENUE — A monument consisting of parallel banks, normally accompanied by ditches, which appears to mark out an approach to another monument or monuments.
  • EMBANKED PIT ALIGNMENT — A pit alignment accompanied by a linear bank (or banks) running parallel and adjacent to the line(s) of pits.
  • EMBANKED STONE CIRCLE — A circular arrangement of spaced stone uprights set within a high bank, often interrupted by a formal entrance gap.
  • EMBANKMENT — A long ridge of earth, rocks or gravel primarily constructed to carry a roadway.
  • EMBANKMENT CROSS — Earthworks of uncertain date and purpose, consisting of cross-shaped banks sometimes with an accompanying ditch. Their distribution is largely confined to North Yorkshire.
  • EMBARKATION BEACH — Beaches used for the departure of troops and equipment for the D-day landings.
  • EMBARKATION HARD — Special concrete loading ramps nicknamed 'hards' had been constructed along river banks, beaches and inlets to enable organised embarkation onto various types of landing craft to take place, irrespective of tides.
  • EMBARKATION POINT — A site from which troops could be embarked onto transport vessels prior to the D-Day landings can also apply to muster/departure points from which troops embarked for their journey to the Front.
  • EMBASSY — The residence and office of an ambassador.
  • EMERGENCY COAST DEFENCE BATTERY — A coastal battery constructed at short notice usually mounting a variety of artillery pieces.
  • EMERGENCY EXIT TUNNEL — A tunnel with strengthened construction, used as an emergency exit from a civil defence building.
  • EMERGENCY FOOD CENTRE — An establishment from which food is distributed to the public during wartime or similar states of emergency.
  • EMERGENCY LANDING GROUND — A prepared area of cleared ground on which an aircraft could make an emergency landing.
  • EMERGENCY PLANNING CENTRE — A structure, building or room within a building, used by a local authority for the continuance of local government in the event of a military or civil emergency.
  • EMERGENCY STORE — An establishment for the storage of food for use during wartime or similar states of emergency.
  • EMERGENCY WAR HEADQUARTERS — A site, complex or building which has been converted for use as the headquarters for the civilian authorities in the event of a nuclear attack or major natural disaster destroying the seat of government.
  • EMERGENCY WARD — A large room within a hospital set aside for emergency patients.
  • EMERGENCY WARD BLOCK — Use for blocks in Emergency Medical Scheme hospitals (WWII).
  • EMERGENCY WATER SUPPLY — A reservoir or tank used to hold a supply of water for fire-fighting purposes in the event of the main supply being damaged or cut off.
  • ENAMEL WORKS — A building or site used in the production of enamelled goods.
  • ENAMELLING KILN — A low-temperature oven for the firing of metallic-based colour onto pottery after glazing.
  • ENCLOSED CREMATION CEMETERY — A cemetery of later prehistoric date comprising exclusively cremated human remains, some or all of which may be contained within pottery vessels. The cemetery area is partly or wholly surrounded by an earthwork bank and/or ditch.
  • ENCLOSED FIELD SYSTEM — A system of individually enclosed fields.
  • ENCLOSED HUT CIRCLE SETTLEMENT — A settlement showing evidence for one or more hut circles, enclosed by a distinct boundary ditch, wall, earth rampart or similar barrier. Characteristic of the later prehistoric period.
  • ENCLOSED OPPIDUM — A site with one or more defensive earthworks, often at a river crossing incorporating natural features which define parts of the curtilage.
  • ENCLOSED SETTLEMENT — A site used primarily for domestic purposes on at least a semi-permanent or seasonal basis, and which has been surrounded by a bank and ditch, palisade, or some other form of enclosure. Use more specific type(s) where appropriate.
  • ENCLOSURE — An area of land enclosed by a boundary ditch, bank, wall, palisade or other similar barrier. Use specific type where known.
  • END GABLED HOUSE — A house with a pitched roof with a double slope and gables on the side elevations of the building.
  • END JETTY HOUSE — A jettied house where the upper storey only overhangs the end elevation of the building.
  • ENGINE — A machine, powered by steam, gas, electricity or other energy source, which produces energy of movement. Use for stationary industrial engines rather than transport use.
  • ENGINE HOUSE — A building housing an engine. Use specific type where known.
  • ENGINE SHED — A building used to house railway engines.
  • ENGINEERING INDUSTRY SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the engineering industry.
  • ENGINEERING WORKS — Any factory or site using machine tools in a manufacturing or processing capacity.
  • ENGINEERING WORKSHOP — A building or room used for any type of engineering work. Use more specific type where known.
  • ENGINEERS HOUSE — The residence of an engineer.
  • ENTRANCE GRAVE — A form of Neolithic burial monument primarily found in Cornwall and the Scilly Isles. It comprises a round cairn, usually with a retaining wall or kerb, and an entrance leading directly into a chamber.
  • ERECTING SHOP — Engineering workshop used for the final assembly of vehicles or structures from parts produced elsewhere in an engineering works.
  • ESCAPE TUNNEL — A tunnel built to allow internees (in a camp, prison etc.) to escape.
  • ESSENCE FACTORY — A factory, or group of buildings, containing apparatus used to extract specific properties, e.g flavour or scent, from natural ingredients.
  • ESTATE BUILDING — A building situated within the estate of a manor or country house.
  • ESTATE COTTAGE — A cottage for workers on a country house estate.
  • ESTATE LAUNDRY — A laundry situated within the estate of a manor or country house.
  • ESTATE OFFICE — An office for the administration of town or country estates.
  • ESTATE VILLAGE — A purpose-built model village for the workers on a country house estate.
  • ETHER PLANT — A site used for the production of anaesthetic gas.
  • EVACUEE CENTRE — Temporary accommodation for war evacuees.
  • EXAMINATION HALL — An educational building where examinations are held.
  • EXCARNATION PLATFORM — A platform on which corpses are placed and allowed to decompose in the open air, so as to leave only the bones for subsequent burial.
  • EXCHANGE — A multi-purpose commercial building, used primarily as a trading place for merchants, but also incorporating shops, public offices, guildhalls, etc.
  • EXCHEQUER — A building or a room for accounts.
  • EXCISE OFFICE — A government office used for the collecting of excise tax/duty.
  • EXCLUSIVE BRETHREN MEETING HOUSE — A place of meeting and worship for Exclusive Brethren, an exclusive fundamentalist puritan sect which was created when the Brethren split in 1847.
  • EXECUTION SITE — A place where people were put to death. Use narrower monument type where known.
  • EXEDRA — An area of a garden with a semi-circular backdrop formed by an ornamental, architectural structure or a natural feature grown to the required shape eg. a hedge
  • EXERCISE YARD — A courtyard in a prison or workhouse for the inmates to take exercise.
  • EXHAUSTER HOUSE — A building forming part of a colliery ventilation system exhausting stale air from shafts and headings.
  • EXHIBITION HALL — A hall used for housing public displays.
  • EXHIBITION PAVILION — A pavilion used for exhibitions, e.g. the exhibition pavilions at the Great Empire Exhibition, Wembley, 1925.
  • EXPERIMENTAL HOUSE — A house built using experimental building techniques and materials.
  • EXPLOSIVES FACTORY — A building or buildings where explosives are manufactured.
  • EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the production, testing and storage of explosives.
  • EXPLOSIVES STORE — A building used for the storage of explosives of a non-military function, eg. mining explosives, signal explosivres etc.
  • EXTENDED DEFENCE OFFICER POST — An observation post for a naval officer in charge of a marine minefield.
  • EXTENDED INHUMATION — A form of inhumation in which the skeleton is laid out in an approximately straight line, whether face up, face down, or on its side.
  • EXTRA MURAL SUBURB — A suburb of a town, especially Roman or Medieval, situtated or extending beyond its formal limits, usually demarked by defences.
  • EXTRACTIVE PIT — Surface workings including shallow shafts, lode workings, open-pit methods and quarrying including some mines of stone, clays, compounds, etc. See also MINERAL EXTRACTION SITE.
  • EYE AND EAR HOSPITAL — A specialist hospital for the medical and surgical treatment of eye and ear disorders and diseases.
  • EYE DEPARTMENT — A hospital department for the medical treatment of eye disorders and diseases.
  • EYE HOSPITAL — A specialist hospital for the medical and surgical treatment of eye disorders and diseases.
  • EYOT — A small island, especially within a river.

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F

  • FABRICATION SHED — Covered area for making large engineered constructions such as sections of ships or bridges.
  • FACADE — Use wider site type where known. Only use term where no other part of original building survives.
  • FACTORY — A building or complex, housing powered machinery and employing a large workforce for manufacturing purposes. Use specific monument type where known.
  • FACTORY UNIT — A modern small factory or workshop, often in the form of a prefabricated shed.
  • FACULTY BUILDING — A departmental building within a college or university where a particular subject is taught and administered.
  • FAIR — A site where a periodical gathering of buyers, sellers and entertainers, meet at a time ordained by charter or statute or by ancient custom.
  • FAIR BOOTH — A covered stall at a market or fair, etc.
  • FAIRBAIRN JIB CRANE — A dockside crane with a solid curving jib made out of rivetted iron plates.
  • FAIRGROUND RIDE — Forms of ride which are designed for entertainment.
  • FAIRLEAD — A pulley block and metal ring used to guide a line or rope and cause it to run easily without chafing.
  • FALCONRY — An establishment or building where the breeding and training of birds of prey takes place.
  • FAMILY PROCEEDINGS COURT — A distinctive magistrates court established by legislation in 1980, dealing with civil family proceedings.
  • FAMILY VAULT — A burial vault built to contain the remains of members of a single family, household or dynasty.
  • FAN HOUSE — A building housing a fan used for the ventilation of mines
  • FARM — A tract of land, often including a farmhouse and ancillary buildings, used for the purpose of cultivation and the rearing of livestock, etc. Use more specific type where known.
  • FARM BUILDING — A building or structure of unknown function found on a farm. Use more specific type where known.
  • FARM LABOURERS COTTAGE — The dwelling place of a farm worker.
  • FARMHOUSE — The main dwelling-house of a farm, it can be either detached from or attached to the working buildings.
  • FARMSTEAD — The homestead of a farm consisting of a farmhouse and working farm buildings, with yards, other working areas and usually a garden to the house.
  • FARMYARD — A yard or enclosure attached to a farmhouse, usually surrounded by other farm buildings.
  • FARMYARD CAUSEWAY — An area of hardstanding to allow movement of farm transport in all weathers.
  • FATTENING HOUSE — A building where animals are deliberately fattened before being killed for their meat.
  • FEATURE — Areas of indeterminate function.
  • FEED MILL — A building or site for the manufacture of livestock fodder.
  • FEEDER CHANNEL — A channel or pipe providing water to a canal or other body of water.
  • FELLMONGERY — A building used for the preparation of animal skins and hides prior to the tanning process.
  • FELT MILL — A textile mill where felt is produced.
  • FENCE — A construction of wood or metal used to enclose an area of land, a building, etc.
  • FENCING SCHOOL — An establishment where the art of sword fencing is taught.
  • FERME ORNEE — A rustic building of picturesque design, often associated with a model farm, country house or estate. Although ornamental in design they are intended to be functional.
  • FERMENTING BLOCK — A group of buildings, or part of a works, housing apparatus used in the process of fermentation.
  • FERNERY (GARDEN) — Area of a garden for the cultivation of ferns.
  • FERNERY (GLASSHOUSE) — A glasshouse for the cultivation of ferns.
  • FERRIS WHEEL — A large, vertical revolving wheel with passenger cars or pods on the periphery used to give a bird's eye view of the surrounding area.
  • FERRY CROSSING — A route across a river, or lake. Use only for small inland ferries and index with LANDING POINT/STAGE/STEPS or PIER where known.
  • FERRY CROSSING SHELTER — A structure providing protection from the elements to passengers waiting to board a ferry service at a dock, riverside, harbour or quay.
  • FERRY TERMINAL — An area of a port, dock or harbour, often including buildings for passport control and customs, where passengers and vehicles using ferry services can embark/disembark and where supplies can be taken on board.
  • FERRYKEEPERS COTTAGE — The residence of a ferrykeeper.
  • FERTILIZER STOREHOUSE — A building used to store fertilizers.
  • FERTILIZER WORKS — A building or site used for the production of both chemical and organic fertilizer.
  • FIBREGLASS WORKS — A factory used to manufacture fibreglass.
  • FIELD — An area of land, often enclosed, used for cultivation or the grazing of livestock.
  • FIELD BARN — An isolated barn, cow house or shelter shed with a hayloft. Typically found in areas where farmsteads and fields were sited at a long distance from each other.
  • FIELD BOUNDARY — The limit line of a field.
  • FIELD CENTRE — Building used for field studies and outdoor pursuits in the countryside and in an urban context.
  • FIELD DRAIN — An unsocketed earthenware or porous concrete pipe laid end to end unjointed so as to drain the ground.
  • FIELD KITCHEN — A temporary kitchen set up in the field providing food for troops. Use with MILITARY CAMP if existence of this is known.
  • FIELD SYSTEM — A group or complex of fields which appear to form a coherent whole. Use more specific type where known.
  • FIELDWORK — A usually temporary earthwork or fortification, the latter constructed by military forces operating in the field. Use more specific type where known.
  • FIG HOUSE — A greenhouse for the growing of figs.
  • FIGHTER COMMAND STATION — An airfield, and associated structures, used by one or more fighter squadrons.
  • FIGHTER PEN — A turf-covered mound in a curvilinear E-shape, and hard-standing to take an aircraft. There were usually an access point to an air raid shelter at the rear. In use during WW2
  • FIGHTER SATELLITE STATION WATCH OFFICE — A small single storey structure with just one room containing a pyrotechnic cupboard and built of rendered brick with a flat reinforced concrete roof
  • FIGUREHEAD — A carving, often a bust or full-length figure, originally found above a ship's cutwater. Use as an external feature only.
  • FILEMAKERS WORKSHOP — A place where metal-cutting hand files were made.
  • FILLING FACTORY — A factory where explosives and the components of munitions of all types are brought together for assembly.
  • FILM SET — Purpose built or modified structure used for scenery in a film.
  • FILM STUDIO — A building or complex of buildings where cinematographic films are produced.
  • FILTER BED — A tank or pond containing a layer of sand etc, for filtering large quantities of liquid.
  • FILTER HOUSE — A building containing apparatus for the removal of large pieces of detritus from a water supply.
  • FINDSPOT — The approximate location at which stray finds of artefacts were found. Index with object name.
  • FINERY — A building used for the decarburizing of pig iron to produce wrought iron.
  • FINGER POST — A signpost, usually placed at a juntion or crossroads, bearing a number of individual signs radiating outward from the post to indicate locations in several directions.
  • FININGS WORKS — A factory used for the processing of isinglass, a product obtained from the swim bladders of sturgeon and used in the brewing industry as part of the process for clearing wine and beer.
  • FINISHING HOUSE — A building or area where processes like bleaching, dressing, etc, are conducted under one roof.
  • FINISHING SHOP — A place where a product is given any finishing processes before being despatched to the user.
  • FINISHING WORKS — A large scale works for cloth finishing processes.
  • FIRE CLAY WORKS — A building or site used for the production of bricks and other items, from a clay with refractory properties.
  • FIRE ENGINE HOUSE — The carriage house or garage for a fire engine - especially those built by insurance companies or industrial concerns.
  • FIRE HYDRANT — A large discharge pipe with a valve for drawing water from a water main. Used to help extinguish fires.
  • FIRE PIT — A pit dug into the ground or a simple construction made of stone, brick or metal. Designed to contain a fire and prevent it from spreading, but can also be used to heat stone for breaking.
  • FIRE SERVICE HEADQUARTERS — A building, either purpose-built or modified, used for the co-ordination of the Fire Service.
  • FIRE SERVICES HEADQUARTERS — A building, either purpose-built or modified, used for the co-ordination of the Fire Service.
  • FIRE STATION — A civic building housing fire engines and a permanent fire-fighting force.
  • FIRE TENDER HOUSE — A building, on an airfield, used to house a fire engine.
  • FIRE TENDER HOUSE (12563/40) — A building, on an airfield, used to house a fire engine designed to Air Ministry drawing number 12563/40.
  • FIRE TENDER HOUSE (5342/42) — A building, on an airfield, used to house a fire engine designed to Air Ministry drawing number 5342/42.
  • FIRE TRENCH — A trench cut around a building or structure to prevent the spread of fire.
  • FIREBREAK — A natural or man-made gap in vegetation or other combustible material that acts as a barrier to slow or stop the progress of a fire.
  • FIRELIGHTER FACTORY — A factory used for the industrial manufacture of firelighters.
  • FIREPLACE FACTORY — A factory manufacturing fireplaces.
  • FIREPROOF BUILDING — A building constructed with the minimum amount of combustible materials.
  • FIREPROOF FACTORY — A factory, mill or warehouse constructed with the minimum amount of combustible materials.
  • FIREWATCHERS POST — A building or structure used to provide protection to an Air Raid Warden or firewatcher during an air raid, thus enabling the identification of the locations of fires caused by incendiary bombs in comparative safety.
  • FIRING CHAMBER — A protected chamber for investigating the controlled detonation and burning of explosive compounds, typically associated with a protected control room and high speed visual recording facilities.
  • FIRING PLATFORM — An area of a site or building providing a stable base for the firing of artillery pieces.
  • FIRING RANGE — A piece of ground over which small arms or large artillery may be fired at targets. For rocket and missile firing use ROCKET TEST FACILITY.
  • FIRING RANGE BLOCKHOUSE — A shelter on a firing range from which the wepaons testing can be viewed in safety.
  • FIRST AID POST — A building with first aid facilities to deal with accidents and other medical emergencies.
  • FIRST FLOOR HALL HOUSE — A high status building of the medieval period, consisting of a hall and attached room at first floor level with rooms below possibly for storage or living accommodation for a lower status family. The first floor was accessed by an external staircase.
  • FISH AND CHIP SHOP — A shop where fish and chips are sold.
  • FISH CELLAR — A building where fish are stored. Often taking the form of a single storey building with one room, but also may provide living accommodation for a fisherman above. Found mainly in the South West of England.
  • FISH FARM — A farm with a pond, river, lake or tanks where fish are kept and bred for commercial purposes.
  • FISH GARTH — A holding tank/pen on a river or seashore for raising and preserving fish and/or for catching them easily.
  • FISH HOUSE — A building used for the storage of fish.
  • FISH LADDER — A series of steps designed to enable fish to ascend a fall of water or a dam.
  • FISH LOCK — A lock, often containing a fish ladder, which allows fish to swim upstream bypassing a weir or other obstacle.
  • FISH MARKET — A market where fish is sold.
  • FISH PROCESSING FACTORY — A factory where fish are processed into food products.
  • FISH PROCESSING SITE — A place where fish are processed after being caught.
  • FISH STONE — A stone slab, raised on stone or wooden piers, used for the display of fresh fish. Usually found in market places.
  • FISH TANK — A small brick structure attached to a house for keeping fish prior to cooking.
  • FISH TRAP — A device for catching fish, may be a portable or permanent structure, often a fence or row stakes made in a river, harbour, etc
  • FISH WAREHOUSE — A large building where fish are stored before sale.
  • FISH WEIR — A fence or row of stakes, often with nets attached forming an enclosure within a river or harbour and used for catching, or holding, fish.
  • FISHERMANS HOUSE — A purpose-built fisherman's house, eg. a house with a first floor dwelling and ground floor fish store, or a house with a watch tower for spotting shoals.
  • FISHERMENS FASTENER — An unidentified feature on the seabed recorded by fishermen as an obstruction to trawling.
  • FISHERY — An area where fish are naturally present, eg. part of a river.
  • FISHERY MOUND — A mound used to elevate buildings associated with a fishery e.g. smoke houses, above the level of a flood plain.
  • FISHING LODGE — A garden building on an estate used by fishing parties.
  • FISHING PAVILION — A waterside building from which one could fish.
  • FISHING SHIEL — Small vernacular building used by fishermen for the preparing of nets and storage of equipment.
  • FISHING SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the farming of fish.
  • FISHMONGERS SHOP — A shop where fish is sold.
  • FISHPOND — A pond used for the rearing, breeding, sorting and storing of fish.
  • FITTERS WORKSHOP — Engineering workshop intended either for final adjustments of new machinery or the fitting of replacement parts to machinery under repair.
  • FIVES COURT — A wall and area of ground where the game of fives is played.
  • FIXED QUAY CRANE — A crane fixed to a quay, used for the unloading of ships cargoes.
  • FLAGPOLE — A freestanding staff upon which a flag is hung.
  • FLAME DEVICE — A WWII structure designed to project sheets of flame across an area such as a beach, the sea or a road, to hinder attacking forces.
  • FLAME RETARDANT MATERIAL FACTORY — A factory making flame retardant materials.
  • FLANKER — A battery mounted in the flank of a bastion from which flanking fire is directed across a curtain wall.
  • FLANKING TOWER — Small tower projecting from a castle wall, or other fortified wall. Allows defenders to fire along the length of the wall.
  • FLARE KILN — A lime kiln where the fuel is not mixed with the limestone but burnt below it.
  • FLASH LOCK — A form of lock on a river, which increased the depth upstream and had a gated opening.
  • FLATS — A purpose-built tenement. Use specific monument type where possible.
  • FLAX BEATING STONE — A stone on which flax stems were beaten with wooden mallets, a process known as beetling.
  • FLAX DRESSING SHOP — A building used for the preparatory processes in which long and short staple flax fibres were separated by passing through combs. Flax dressing or 'heckling' shops may be located both on and off mill sites.
  • FLAX DRY HOUSE — A building used to dry flax.
  • FLAX MILL — A mill where flax is processed to make linen, thread and yarn.
  • FLEA MARKET — A street market.
  • FLEECING SHOP — A workshop, associated with a tannery, in which the fleece is removed from the skin prior to the tanning process.
  • FLEXED INHUMATION — A form of inhumation in which the skeleton is interred, usually on its side, with hip and knee joints bent through an angle of less than 90 degrees.
  • FLIGHT OFFICE — Building block (often a temporary brick structure or Nissen hut) comprising office accommodation for flight commanders and flight sergeants as well as pilots' rest rooms, storerooms and locker rooms. Some flight offices have central corridors.
  • FLINT KILN — Component part of a Flint Mill where flint is calcined before it is brittle enough to be ground in the mill. Ground, burnt flint is used in the production of earthenware pottery, which whitens and strenghens the body.
  • FLINT MILL — A mill for crushing flint. Crushed flint was used in the manufacture of pottery in order to whiten and strengthen the body of earthenware pottery.
  • FLINT MINE — A site where flint seams within chalk have been exploited by digging deep vertical shafts, often with horizontal galleries radiating out from the base. Use for Neolithic examples and for Post Medieval gunflint industry.
  • FLINT SCATTER — A spatially discrete, though sometimes extensive, scatter of flint artefacts recovered from the surface, eg. by fieldwalking, rather than from a particular archaeological context.
  • FLOATING BREAKWATER — A floating structure designed to resist the force of waves.
  • FLOATING CRANE — A dockyard crane permanently mounted on a lighter.
  • FLOATING DOCK — A floating structure consisting of two walls standing on pontoon tanks, the latter of which can be flooded to receive a vessel and then pumped out until the pontoon deck and the ship are dry.
  • FLOATING HARBOUR — A harbour constructed from floating pontoons or caissons connected end to end.
  • FLOATING ROADWAY — A section of roadway attached at one end to a harbour or dockside and ending at a landing stage, rising and falling with the tide, for the loading and unloading of vehicles and pedestrians.
  • FLOCK MILL — A mill for shredding cloth, for use in flock paper, etc.
  • FLOOD DEFENCES — Manmade constructions used to prevent water flooding the surrounding area. Often taking the form of a bank or wall but may be more elaborate e.g. the Thames Barrier.
  • FLOOD LOCK — Gates that can be opened or closed, to admit or exclude water, especially flood water.
  • FLOOD MARKER — A plaque attached onto, or a line incised into, a wall face or other surface to indicate the height of flood water inundation.
  • FLOOD MARKER POST — A graduated post or pole adjacent to an area at risk of flooding to indicate the depth of water during a flood.
  • FLOOD RELIEF CANAL — A channel dug, or built up, to carry away surplus water from a river or waterway to prevent it bursting its banks and flooding.
  • FLOODLIGHT — A metal structure supporting high powered lights.
  • FLOOR — A layer of stone, brick or boards, etc, on which people tread. Use broader site type where known.
  • FLOORCLOTH FACTORY — A factory where floorcloths are manufactured.
  • FLORAL CLOCK — A 20th century feature found in public parks and seaside resorts. The face of the clock is planted with low-growing flowers and plants, while the moving hands are covered with small foliage.
  • FLOTATION UNIT — 20th century plant for separating minerals using variations in water-repellent properties under controlled chemical conditions. Survives as ruins of buildings or tanks.
  • FLOUR MILL — A factory where flour was produced for use in food products.
  • FLOWER BED — A plot of earth used for the raising of flowers and shrubs.
  • FLOWER BOX — A stone, terracotta, wooden or metal receptacle used to grow flowers in.
  • FLOWER GARDEN — A garden in which flower beds are the primary focal point.
  • FLOWER MARKET — An outdoor or indoor place where flowers were sold.
  • FLUE — A passageway, duct or pipe used for the conveyance of heat, gasses, smoke or air.
  • FLUORSPAR MINE — When a secondary mineral, use term for product type, eg. LEAD MINE.
  • FLUORSPAR WORKINGS — A site where fluorspar or fluoride of calcium, often used as a flux by copper-ore smelters, is extracted from an open cast mine.
  • FLYING BOAT STATION — A complex of buildings at a seaport, comprising of a terminal building, landing pier and hangars, used for the embarkation of passengwers and/or freight on flying boat services during the 1930's-50's.
  • FLYING CLUB — Buildings and structures associated with a private aviation club undertaken as a leisure pursuit. Usually situated on or near an airfield.
  • FLYOVER — A bridge for carrying a road or railway over another.
  • FODDER STORE — A building used to prepare and store dry food such as hay and straw for the feeding of cattle.
  • FOG BELL — A bell mounted on an anchored vessel, buoy, headland, rock etc and rung as a warning to mariners in foggy weather.
  • FOG DISPERSAL PLANT — A system of petrol burners, pipework and pump houses on an airfield used to 'burn' away fog so that aircraft may take off and land safely.
  • FOG HORN — A structure found on lighthouses, piers, etc, capable of emitting a loud noise to warn shipping in foggy weather.
  • FOGOU — Underground chambers and stone passages of Iron Age date found in South West England.
  • FOLLY — A structure, often found in 18th century landscape gardens, that demonstrates eccentricity or excess rather than practical purpose. They can take many forms - ruins, sham castles, towers, hermits' cells or grottoes.
  • FONT — A vessel, usually made of stone, which contains the consecrated water for baptism. Use a broader monument type if possible.
  • FONTEVRAULTINE DOUBLE HOUSE — A priory of double order of Fontevrault nuns and brethren.
  • FOOD AND DRINK INDUSTRY SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the large-scale production, processing and preserving of food and drink.
  • FOOD AND DRINK PROCESSING SITE — Terms included here are for small scale agricultural production. See also FOOD AND DRINK INDUSTRY SITE grouping in INDUSTRIAL class.
  • FOOD AND REST CENTRE — A building used as emergency accommodation and food distribution centre for people displaced by a natural disaster or conflict.
  • FOOD DEPOT — A building or site used for the storage and distribution of food.
  • FOOD DRYING KILN — A structure used for the drying of food using an indirect source of heat.
  • FOOD DRYING ROOM — A room with special ventilation used for the slow drying of foodstuffs.
  • FOOD PRESERVING FACTORY — A factory where food is preserved either by freezing, salting or pickling
  • FOOD PRESERVING SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the preserving of food.
  • FOOD PROCESSING PLANT — A factory or site for the manufacture of food stuffs from raw ingredients.
  • FOOD PROCESSING SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the processing of foodstuffs.
  • FOOT HOSPITAL — A specialist hospital for the medical and surgical treatment of foot disorders and diseases.
  • FOOTBALL GROUND — A site including a pitch, stands and other ancillary buildings associated with the game of football.
  • FOOTBALL PITCH — A prepared area of grass on which the game of football is played.
  • FOOTBALL TERRACE — A raised step, usually made of concrete, on which supporters stand to watch a game of football.
  • FOOTBRIDGE — A narrow bridge for people and animals to cross on foot.
  • FOOTPATH — A path for pedestrians only.
  • FOOTPRINT — An impression made in soft ground by a passing animal or human. The soft ground may have subsequently hardened.
  • FORD — A shallow place in a river or other stretch of water, where people, animals and vehicles may cross.
  • FORD KEEPERS COTTAGE — The residence of a ford keeper.
  • FORECOURT — The court or enclosed space at the front of a building or structure.
  • FOREIGN LANGUAGE INSTITUTE — A building in which an organization or society is instituted to promote foreign languages in England such as French and German, etc.
  • FOREMANS HOUSE — A purpose-built dwelling for the supervisor of a factory, mine or other industrial complex.
  • FOREST — A large tract of land covered with trees and interspersed with open areas of land. Traditionally forests were owned by the monarchy and had their own laws.
  • FOREST COURT — A medieval court established for the administration of forest law.
  • FOREST LODGE — A building associated with the legal administration of a forest, eg. Forest of Dean.
  • FORGE — A building or site where bloom iron or cast iron is forged into wrought iron.
  • FORMAL GARDEN — A garden of regular, linear or geometrical design, often associated with the traditional Italian, French and Dutch styles.
  • FORT — A permanently occupied position or building designed primarily for defence.
  • FORT ANNEXE — A small enclosure built onto the perimeter of a Roman fortress or fort.
  • FORTIFICATION — A usually permanent defensive work. Use specific type where known.
  • FORTIFIED BRIDGE — A bridge which is fortified at one or both ends.
  • FORTIFIED BUILDING — A building which has been fortified, often as a temporary measure rather than as part of the original design
  • FORTIFIED CHURCH — Any church which bears signs of fortification. Churches on the Welsh and Scottish borders were often fortified, only allowing access to the tower from a single opening in the nave.
  • FORTIFIED HOUSE — A house which bears signs of fortification. These often include crenellated battlements and narrow slit-like windows.
  • FORTIFIED MANOR HOUSE — A manor house, which was granted a royal licence to crenellate.
  • FORTLET — A fortified Roman site, usually under 1 hectare in area, strategically situated, housing small military patrols, often defended by a rampart, one or two ditches and a gate.
  • FORTRESS — A major fortified place, often a town, capable of containing a large force. If Roman use LEGIONARY FORTRESS.
  • FORUM — A large, rectangular open space at the centre of a Roman town, incorporating public spaces and a market area.
  • FOUGASSE — A pit filled with rocks and metal, designed to be fired with an explosive charge.
  • FOUNDRY — A workshop or factory for casting metals.
  • FOUNTAIN — An artificial aperture from which water springs. The water supply usually came from a lake or reservoir higher up in order to ensure the necessary flow and pressure. More recently fountains have been powered by pumps.
  • FOUNTAIN HOUSE — A building, in a garden, park or open space, either housing a fountain or the machinery which powers one.
  • FOUR POSTER STONE CIRCLE — A stone circle featuring four upright stones standing at the corners of an irregular quadrilateral. The monument may feature more than 4 stones, overall, but the corner stones are often the most prominent.
  • FOX COVERT — A small area of managed woodland, created to provide cover for foxes.
  • FRAGRANCE GARDEN — A garden specifically planted with sweet smelling, fragrant plants.
  • FRAME YARD — A small enclosure containing cold frames, often of brick and glass construction, usually situated against the exterior of a walled garden's south-facing garden.
  • FRAMEWORK KNITTERS COTTAGE — The dwelling and workshop of a framework knitter.
  • FRAMEWORK KNITTERS WORKSHOP — A room or building for hand knitting garments on simple hand frames.
  • FRANCISCAN FRIARY — A friary belonging to the Franciscan order. Includes houses of both Friars Minor and Friars Observant or Capuchins.
  • FRANCISCAN NUNNERY — An abbey of Franciscan nuns also known as Minoresses or Poor Clares.
  • FREE SCHOOL — A school where no fees were charged.
  • FREEMASONS HALL — A meeting place for freemasons.
  • FRIARY — Houses specifically for men and of chiefly mendicant religious orders. The status of priory is represented in several friaries. Use with PRIORY if required.
  • FRIARY OF CRUTCHED FRIARS — A friary belonging to the Crutched Friars also known as Crosiers or Fratres.
  • FRIARY OF FRIARS OF THE SACK — A friary belonging to the Friars of the Sack also known as Friars of Penance or Penitentia.
  • FRIARY OF PIED FRIARS — A friary belonging to the Pied Friars also known as Friars of Blessed Mary or St Mary de Arens.
  • FRIENDS BURIAL GROUND — A place of burial for members of the Religious Society of Friends, often known as Quakers.
  • FRIENDS MEETING HOUSE — A place of worship for members of the Religious Society of Friends, often known as Quakers. The Religious Society of Friends is a denomination founded by George Fox in c.1650 who believed in passivist principles and a rejection of the sacrament.
  • FRITTING FURNACE — A furnace for the calcining and roasting of a mixture of sand and fluxes as a preparatory stage in glass-making.
  • FROMSON HANGAR — A small arched hangar built by the Canadian company Fromson of Byfleet to drawing number 3971/43. Used only as storage sheds on RNASs.
  • FROMSON MASSILLON HANGAR — Similar in design to the FROMSON HANGAR but designed to drawing number 3752/43 and used for storing aircraft with small wingspans.
  • FRONT GABLED HOUSE — A house with a pitched roof with a double slope and gables on the front and rear elevations of the building.
  • FRONTIER DEFENCE — A system of fortifications constructed along a national frontier to contain the local population, as well as keep out undesirable raiders eg. Offa's Dyke. Use with more specific monument type where known.
  • FRUIT AND VEGETABLE MARKET — An indoor or outdoor market where fruit and vegetables are sold.
  • FRUIT AND VEGETABLE WAREHOUSE — A warehouse used for the storage of fruit and/or vegetables.
  • FRUIT GROWING WALL — A usually south-facing wall used for the cultivation of fruit plants.
  • FRUIT STORE — A building used for the storage of picked fruit.
  • FUEL DEPOT — A building or site used for the storage and distribution of fuel.
  • FUEL PRODUCTION SITE — Includes sites associated with extraction.
  • FUEL STORE — A place where material used for burning is stored.
  • FUEL TANK — A large, usually metal, container used for the storage of liquid fuels.
  • FUELLING STATION — A facility used for the storage and distribution of fuel for transportation. Often associated with dockyards and railways.
  • FULLERS EARTH PIT — A pit for the extraction of fullers earth (a hydrous silicate of alumina), which was used for cleansing, and finishing, cloth and wool.
  • FULLING MILL — A mill for beating and cleaning cloth, using soap or fullers earth.
  • FULLING STOCKS — Large wooden hammer beams pounding cloth in a fulling solution.
  • FUN HOUSE — Fairground attraction designed to create optical illusions to give a sense of unbalance and unease.
  • FUNCTION ROOM — A place where social and other functions such as parties, presentations and meetings can be held.
  • FUNDAMENTAL BENCH MARK — Used by Ordnance Survey to record high accuracy height above Ordnance Datum Newlyn. Marked by a low concrete pillar, and maybe surrounded by railings, they comprise an underground chamber protecting the reference point, built directly onto stable bedrock.
  • FUNERAL CHAPEL — A chapel within a parish church containing an altar and one or more tombs.
  • FUNERAL DIRECTORS — The establishment of an undertaker who is responsible for the management of the ceremony connected with the burial or cremation of a dead body.
  • FUNERAL PYRE — A structure consisting of combustible material, typically wood, on which a body is placed and then cremated, sometimes with accompanying grave goods. Use only when evidence of structure exists.
  • FUNERARY BUILDING — A building associated with funerary rites and burials.
  • FUNERARY ENCLOSURE — An enclosure, usually private, used for burial. Often found within a cemetery.
  • FUNERARY SITE — Site types normally or frequently associated with burials which in some instances may have had solely religious or ritual functions.
  • FUNICULAR RAILWAY — A cable railway with ascending and descending cars counterbalanced.
  • FUR FACTORY — A building or complex where skins are prepared, with their hair still on, to make fur products.
  • FURLONG BOUNDARY — Linear earthwork boundary denoting furlongs
  • FURNACE — A chamber in which minerals, metals, etc, are subjected to the continuous action of intense heat. Use specific type where known.
  • FURNACE POND — A pond used as a water supply for the operation of a furnace or blast furnace.
  • FURNITURE FACTORY — A factory where furniture is manufactured.
  • FURNITURE SHOP — A shop selling household furniture.
  • FURNITURE SHOWROOM — A room specifically used for the display of furniture and other related materials
  • FURNITURE WAREHOUSE — A building or part of a building used for the storage of furniture or furniture related materials.
  • FURNITURE WORKSHOP — A workshop for the manufacturing of furniture.
  • FURRIERS SHOP — A place where furs are made into finished products.
  • FURTHER EDUCATION COLLEGE — An educational establishment primarily for children aged 16-18 years old but can provide education for more mature students.

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G

  • GABLED HOUSE — A house with a pitched or gabled roof with a double slope and gables on two or more sides.
  • GALILEE — A chapel in a church for penitents.
  • GALLERIED ROW — A row of houses linked at first floor level by an open continuous gallery which runs through the front of the buildings. Access to the gallery was gained by flights of steps. Commonly found in the city of Chester.
  • GALLERIED ROW HOUSE — A house within a row. At first floor level a gallery which runs through the front of the building. Access to the gallery was gained by steps set at intervals along the row. Commonly found in the city of Chester.
  • GALLOWS — A structure used for execution by hanging. Usually two uprights and a cross-piece, from which the offender is suspended by the neck.
  • GALLOWS MOUND — A natural or man-made earth mound on which a gallows was erected.
  • GALVANIZING WORKSHOP — A place where an anti-corrosion coating of zinc is added to iron and steel products to prevent them from rusting.
  • GAMBLING SITE — Buildings where gambling takes place.
  • GAME COVERT — A small area of managed woodland, created to provide cover for deer and other game.
  • GAME LARDER — A small building in which game is hung up and kept cool.
  • GAMING HOUSE — An establishment used for gambling.
  • GANGWAY — A raised platform or walkway connecting two buildings or a ship with the quay, etc.
  • GANTRY — A framework, often made of steel, supporting a crane or similar structure, or for supporting a platform or stage.
  • GANTRY CRANE — A crane mounted on a large metal gantry, used for the lifting of large-scale building materials, etc.
  • GAOL — An institution for the imprisonment of felons and debtors.
  • GARAGE — Use only for buildings which house motor vehicles. Includes garages for vehicle repair. For petrol sales use PETROL STATION.
  • GARDEN — An enclosed piece of ground devoted to the cultivation of flowers, fruit or vegetables and/or recreational purposes. Use more specific type where known.
  • GARDEN ARCADE — A series of arches, linked together, often made out of clipped hedges or trees with the trunks forming the uprights
  • GARDEN BASIN — A decorative garden ornament, usually of stone, in the form of a wide, shallow dish.
  • GARDEN BUILDING — Includes some structures that are not strictly buildings. Use a more specific term where possible.
  • GARDEN CENTRE — A place where gardening tools, plants, etc, are sold.
  • GARDEN CITY — A planned, self-contained, community incorporating green open spaces and containing housing, industrial and agricultural zones.
  • GARDEN FEATURE — Unspecified landscape feature. Use more specific type where known.
  • GARDEN HOUSE — A small ornamental building in a garden, usually one-storeyed and consisting of one room. Use a more specific term where known.
  • GARDEN OF REST — Garden associated with a crematorium where the ashes of the deceased are scattered or buried.
  • GARDEN ORNAMENT — A decorative or ornamental structure purposefully situated in a garden. Such as sculptures, sundials, bird baths, gnomes etc.
  • GARDEN PATH — A path in a garden.
  • GARDEN PORCH — A roofed, lightweight structure, usually attached to a house, provdiing access from and to the garden.
  • GARDEN RETREAT — A structure or building, often within a secluded area of a garden, where people could go for quiet reflection.
  • GARDEN SCREEN — Ornamental wrought iron screen associated with gate lodges or entrance lodges.
  • GARDEN SEAT — A type of GARDEN HOUSE, usually in the form of an open-fronted shelter with seat.
  • GARDEN SHED — A structure in a garden used to house gardening implements, etc.
  • GARDEN STEPS — Stone, brick or wooden steps or stairs found in a garden.
  • GARDEN SUBURB — A town laid out systematically with spacious and garden-like surroundings.
  • GARDEN TABLE — A table found in a garden, often made of stone.
  • GARDEN TEMPLE — A garden building, usually in the Gothic or classical style. The term can be applied to many types of garden building with an interior space in which to stand or sit. Use specific type where known.
  • GARDEN TERRACE — A flat, level area of ground within a garden. Often raised and accessed by steps.
  • GARDEN VILLAGE — A village laid out systematically with spacious and garden-like surroundings.
  • GARDEN WALL — A stone or brick wall either in, or enclosing, a garden.
  • GARDENS PARKS AND URBAN SPACES — Planned &/or landscaped areas designed for aesthetic or recreational purposes. Includes all sites, buildings, structures & features normally associated with parks & urban spaces including street furniture.
  • GARDEROBE — A small latrine or toilet, usually built into the thickness of the wall of a castle or great house, with the waste dropping into a cess pit or straight to the outside.
  • GAS CHAMBER — A C20th military building used to test the efficiency of gas protection equipment provided for drivers of all forms of vehicles.
  • GAS COMPRESSOR STATION — A facility where natural gas is made smaller in volume, to facilitate its distribution through the National Transmission System. Term can also be used for a station, which recompresses the gas to the required pressure.
  • GAS ENGINE — A machine producing mechanical power by the internal combustion of gas.
  • GAS ENGINE HOUSE — A building housing a gas engine, used as a power source for driving other machinery.
  • GAS FIRED POWER STATION — A power station used to produce electricity, fired by coal gas.
  • GAS HOLDER — Expanding storage tank for gas, often includes a meter for measuring the amount used.
  • GAS HOUSE — An ancilliary building, usually to provide gas for lighting a particular building (eg. railway stations, factories, etc) as opposed to public GAS WORKS.
  • GAS LAMP — A street lamp in which the light is produced by the burning of coal gas. More recently natural gas has been used.
  • GAS MASK FACTORY — Building or buildings used for the production of Gas Masks. Consider double-indexing with the term WAR PRODUCTION FACTORY if appropriate.
  • GAS METER HOUSE — A building in which apparatus registering the amount of gas consumed is housed.
  • GAS PLANT — A factory, works or structure used for the manufacture and purification of gas.
  • GAS PURIFIER — A mechanism through which crude coal gas is passed to remove any impurities eg Ammonia and Sulphur.
  • GAS STORAGE TANK — Storage tank for coal gas and possibly other types of gas .
  • GAS TESTING TRENCH — A purpose-built trench used to test chemical warfare weapons.
  • GAS TURBINE — A turbine driven by gas flow or the gas from combustion.
  • GAS WORKS — An industrial complex concerned with the manufacture of gas for domestic use from coal and oil.
  • GATE — A movable stucture which enables or prevents entrance to be gained. Usually situated in a wall or similar barrier and supported by gate posts.
  • GATE GUARDIAN — A vehicle or aircraft placed at the entrance to a site as a symbolic guardian.
  • GATE LODGE — A dwelling, located at the entrance, or gates, to an estate or park, etc.
  • GATE PIER — A pier of brick, masonry, etc, to which the hinges of a gate are attached.
  • GATE TOWER — A tower, containing a gate, built into the walls of a town, castle or similar fortification.
  • GATEHOUSE — A gateway with one or more chambers over the entrance arch; the flanking towers housing stairs and additional rooms. Use with wider site type where known.
  • GATEMANS HUT — A small building used by a gatekeeper.
  • GATEWAY — A substantial structure supporting or surrounding a gate. May be ornate or monumental, and have associated structures such as lodges, tollbooths, guard houses etc.
  • GAUGE HOUSE — A building on a river or canal in which the water levels are controlled.
  • GAUGING STATION — Canal docks where the freeboard of a boat was marked. By placing increasing ton weights at 4 points around the boat, its displacement could be marked for toll purposes.
  • GAZEBO — A garden house situated to provide a commanding view.
  • GELATINE WORKS (ANIMAL PRODUCT) — A works producing gelatine from animal products for use as a culinary setting agent and in the photography, dyeing, brewing and glue industries. For explosives use GELATINE WORKS (EXPLOSIVE)
  • GELATINE WORKS (EXPLOSIVE) — A factory or works principally engaged in the manufacture of blasing or explosive gelatine.
  • GELIGNITE WORKS — A factory or works principally engaged in the manufacture of the explosive Gelignite.
  • GENERAL BAPTIST CHAPEL — A place of worship for General Baptists, a movement established by John Smyth in 1603 and which grew out of the original Baptist church. They believed in free will and are often referred to simply as Baptists.
  • GENERAL HOSPITAL — A non-specialist hospital dealing in general medical and surgical treatment.
  • GENERAL SERVICE AEROPLANE REPAIR SHED — 1st World War end-opening aeroplane hangar.
  • GENERAL SERVICE AEROPLANE SHED — 1st World War end-opening aeroplane hangar.
  • GENERAL SERVICE FLIGHT SHED — 1st World War end-opening aeroplane hangar.
  • GENERAL SERVICE SHED — 1st World War end-opening aeroplane hangar.
  • GENERAL STORE — A shop selling a variety of goods and merchandise.
  • GENERATOR HOUSE — A building housing a generator.
  • GENTLEMENS CLUB — A building with a range of facilities for the exclusive use of its all-male membership. Rooms were often provided as offices or short term accommodation, and the club could be used for business or social gatherings.
  • GEOLOGICAL MARKS — Soil marks and other features of natural origin, including periglacial frost wedging, solifluction deposits, abandoned water courses, etc, recorded to avoid future confusion with features of human origin.
  • GERIATRIC HOSPITAL — A specialist hospital where the elderly receive medical treatment.
  • GIBBET — An upright post with projecting arm from which the body of a criminal would be hung in chains after execution.
  • GIG MILL — A woollen mill in which the cloth was passed over rollers covered in short spikes to raise the nap in one direction only.
  • GILBERTINE CELL — A residence of two or three monks of the Gilbertine order dependent on an English mother house.
  • GILBERTINE DOUBLE HOUSE — A priory of Gilbertine double order of nuns and canons.
  • GILBERTINE GRANGE — An outlying farm or estate belonging to the Gilbertine order.
  • GILBERTINE MONASTERY — An abbey or priory of Gilbertine monks.
  • GILBERTINE NUNNERY — An abbey or priory of Gilbertine Nuns.
  • GIN PALACE — An ornate public house that developed in the 1830s after the passing of a law to encourage the drinking of beer in alehouses licensed for the sale of beer only.
  • GIOCHI D'ACQUA — A water feature intended to play a trick on a visitor by drenching them unexpectedly. The device would be triggered by the visitors foot or remotely. Italian for 'water jokes'.
  • GIRAFFE HOUSE — A building in a zoo or wildlife park used to accommodate giraffes.
  • GIRDER BRIDGE — A bridge supported by large beams or girders, originally of wood or iron, now usually of steel or reinforced concrete.
  • GLACIS — An artificial mound of earth outside a ditch or wall intended to deflect or absorb cannon fire.
  • GLASS CONE — A conical brick structure in which glass articles were made.
  • GLASS FURNACE — A furnace for the manufacture of glass. Includes glass cones, open hearth and oil-fired furnaces.
  • GLASS WORKING SITE — A site used for the production and/or working of glass.
  • GLASS WORKS — A site where all the processes for the production of glass and objects made from glass are carried out.
  • GLASSHOUSE — A building made chiefly of glass, used to grow plants and fruit in. Use more specific type where possible.
  • GLASSMAKING SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the production of glass.
  • GLAZE AND REEL HOUSE — A building containing equipment used for the polishing of grains of gunpowder and extraction of the resulting dust.
  • GLOVE FACTORY — A factory where gloves are manufactured.
  • GLOVERS COTTAGE — The residence of a glover.
  • GLUE FACTORY — A factory where glue is produced.
  • GOAL POST ENCLOSURE — A single ditched 3-sided rectilinear enclosure.
  • GOLD MINE — A place where gold ore is extracted.
  • GOLDSMITHS WORKSHOP — A place where gold is worked into articles or products.
  • GOLF BUNKER — An obstacle on a golf course constituting a hazard. Usually taking the form of a sand trap or dirt mound.
  • GOLF CLUB — A golf course, clubhouse and ancilliary buildings.
  • GOLF COURSE — A prepared area of ground used to play the game of golf on.
  • GOLF LINKS — A golf course, usually situated on or near the coast, consisting of sand dunes with few trees or water obstacles.
  • GOODS CLEARING HOUSE — A building in which goods were kept prior to being cleared by customs officers.
  • GOODS SHED — A building in which railway wagons can unload local goods.
  • GOODS STATION — A railway station or platform built specifically for the loading and unloading of goods.
  • GOODS YARD — A site where merchandise and goods are temporarily stored before or after transportation by rail.
  • GOOSE PEN — An enclosure or pen for confining geese.
  • GOOSEHOLE — A type of goose pen with stone-clad compartments, built into the base of a Cornish hedge near the periphery of a farmstead. Aspect is often towards entrance track or driveway since geese were used in similar role to guard dogs. Particular to Cornwall.
  • GOVERNMENT OFFICE — The offices of a Government Department responsible for the administration of the country.
  • GRADUATE HOUSE — A place where students live, sometimes on a college campus.
  • GRAFFITI — Casual scribbles or pictographs on ancient walls, stones or other surfaces. In more recent times applied to humourous, satiric or obscene writings or drawings executed anonymously in public places.
  • GRAIN DRIER — A building or room within a granary used to dry grain. Often consisting of an oven with a refractory-brick drying floor above, on which the grain was placed.
  • GRAIN ELEVATOR — A machine used for the loading and unloading of grain to and from a warehouse
  • GRAIN SILO — A tower used to store grain in.
  • GRAIN STORAGE PIT — A pit where grain is stored.
  • GRAIN WAREHOUSE — A large building used for the storage of grain.
  • GRAMMAR SCHOOL — A school founded in or before the 16th century, for teaching Latin, later becoming a secondary school teaching languages, history, science, etc.
  • GRANARY — A building, or first-floor room in a building, for the dry and secure storage of grain after it has been threshed and winnowed.
  • GRAND HOTEL — A large, luxuriously appointed hotel.
  • GRANDMONTINE MONASTERY — An abbey or priory of Grandmontine monks.
  • GRANDSTAND — The principal stand at a sporting ground, eg. at a racecourse.
  • GRANGE — An outlying farm or estate, usually belonging to a religious order or feudal lord. Specifically related to core buildings and structures associated with monastic land holding. Use specific term where known.
  • GRANGE BARN — A barn belonging to, or associated with, a grange.
  • GRANITE QUARRY — A site where granite is excavated.
  • GRAPHITE MINE — A place where graphite is extracted.
  • GRASS DRYING SHED — A modern fodder store on a farm.
  • GRAVE — A place of burial. Use more specific type where known.
  • GRAVE LINING — Material, stone or wood, lining the inside of a grave.
  • GRAVE MARKER — A stone, slate, iron or wooden structure used to mark the site of a grave. Use only where evidence of the form is uncertain otherwise use more specific type.
  • GRAVE SLAB — A stone used to cover a grave.
  • GRAVEBOARD — Wooden board marking a grave.
  • GRAVEL PATH — A path covered in a layer of water-worn or pounded stones.
  • GRAVEL PIT — A steep-sided pit formed by, and for, the extraction of gravel.
  • GRAVESIDE SHELTER — A shelter for the parson during the burial service.
  • GRAVESTONE — A stone placed over or at the head or foot of a grave, or at the entrance of a tomb.
  • GREASE WORKS — Recovery and removal of grease (lanolin) from raw wool.
  • GREAT HALL — A large communal room often occupying the full height of the building, used for functions such as meetings, entertainments etc. Traditionally found in medieval buildings but also found in later buildings emulating medieval architecture.
  • GREAT HOUSE — A large house dating from the 16th century onwards, built as a symbol of the wealth and status of the owner but not intended to be defensible unlike the castles and manor houses it replaced.
  • GREAT ROOM — A roomspace within an abode which combines the specific functions of several of the more traditional roomspaces into a singular unified space.
  • GREEK ORTHODOX CHURCH — A place of worship for members of the Greek Orthodox Church, the national church of Greece.
  • GREENGROCERS SHOP — A shop which sells vegetables and fruit.
  • GRENADE RANGE — An area of ground where training in the use of grenades can be carried out.
  • GREYHOUND STADIUM — Stadium housing a track and associated buildings and structures for the public racing of greyhounds.
  • GRIDIRON — A heavy framework of parallel beams used to support a ship in dock.
  • GRILLE — An open grating of wrought iron, bronze or wood, forming a screen to a door, window or other opening, or used as a divider.
  • GRINDERY — A place for sharpening metal objects like tools and weapons.
  • GRINDERY DEALERS SHOP — A shop housing the business of a grindery dealer. Grindery are the tools and materials used by shoemakers and other leather-workers.
  • GRINDING HOUSE — A building for the crushing of stones and minerals.
  • GRINDSTONE — A large disc of stone revolving on an axis, used for grinding, sharpening and polishing.
  • GROCERS SHOP — A shop selling tea, butter, flour, sugar, spices, tinned foods and miscellaneous household stores.
  • GROTTO — A shady cavern built as a garden feature. In the 18th century it usually took the form of an artificial rocky cave or apartment decorated with stalactites and shells in a wild part of the grounds.
  • GROUP FILTER ROOM — A building, often with underground rooms, used to receive all reports of aircraft locations, to assimilate and assess this information in order to provide the most accurate possible picture to the Operations Room of a fighter or bomber Group.
  • GROUP HEADQUARTERS — A building used as a headquarters and reporting centre for an Army, Navy or Air Force Group.
  • GROYNE — A structure extending into the sea for the purpose of preventing further movement of washed up sand and shingle.
  • GRUBENHAUS — A timber building based around a sunken hollow, the floor of which may have been suspended above the hollow to counteract dampness. Grubenhauser are believed to date from the 5th to 8th centuries AD but may be earlier. Use Grubenhauser as plural.
  • GUARD TOWER — A watchtower used to guard prisons, camps or other facilities.
  • GUARDHOUSE — A building used for the accommodation of a military guard and/or the detainment of prisoners.
  • GUEST COTTAGE — Cottage provided for guests to a country house.
  • GUEST HOUSE — A separate residence for guests, a house on a private estate or a monastery building specifically for receiving visitors.
  • GUEST WING — A seperate wing of a large house provide accommodation for guests.
  • GUIBAL FAN HOUSE — A ventilating fan house with an expanding chimney.
  • GUILD CHAPEL — A place of worship for members of a guild.
  • GUILDHALL — Traditionally, the hall of a crafts, trade, or merchants' guild. Nowadays, often used to describe a TOWN HALL.
  • GUILLOTINE LOCK — A lock where the gates rise vertically. Rarely found on canals but common on navgable rivers in the Fens, particularly the river Nene.
  • GULLY — A deep gutter, drain or sink.
  • GUN EMPLACEMENT — A fortified site in which a gun, mortar or cannon is positioned.
  • GUN EMPLACEMENT (TYPE 55414) — A gun emplacement which conforms to Department of Fortification and Works drawing number 55414.
  • GUN EMPLACEMENT (TYPE 55415) — A gun emplacement which conforms to Department of Fortification and Works drawing number 55415.
  • GUN EMPLACEMENT (TYPE 55422) — A gun emplacement which conforms to Department of Fortification and Works drawing number 55422.
  • GUN EMPLACEMENT (TYPE 55483) — A gun emplacement which conforms to Department of Fortification and Works drawing number 55483.
  • GUN EMPLACEMENT (TYPE 55491) — A gun emplacement which conforms to Department of Fortification and Works drawing number 55491.
  • GUN EMPLACEMENT (TYPE 55503) — A gun emplacment which conforms to Department of Fortification and Works drawing number 55503
  • GUN LAYING RADAR PLATFORM — A platform, usually in concrete, on which radar equipment was mounted to assist the targetting of artillery guns. The platform is often the only evidence surviving in the landscape.
  • GUN STORE — A building used for the storage of artillery pieces.
  • GUN TESTING SHOP — A workshop for testing guns, incorporating louvred sheds to serve as firing ranges.
  • GUN WHARF — A large, level structure, usually of stone or timber, built alongside water to allow warships to moor for the loading and unloading of guns.
  • GUNCOTTON FACTORY — A factory or works engaged in the manufacture of the explosive guncotton. They may be found as separate factories or form part of a cordite factory.
  • GUNCOTTON STOVE — A building in which moist guncotton is dried by warm air for use in nitroglycerine manufacture.
  • GUNPOST — Term used by the RAF to describe an open walled structure built of concrete, brick or sandbags which enclosed one or more machine-guns mounted on pintels for light anti-aircraft and ground defence.
  • GUNPOWDER DRYING HOUSE — A processing house where surplus water is removed from gunpowder after incorporating.
  • GUNPOWDER MANUFACTURING SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the production, testing and storage of gunpowder.
  • GUNPOWDER WORKS — A site used for the manufacture of gunpowder.
  • GYMNASIUM (SPORTS) — A building or room, originally equipped for gymnastics or indoor sports but also, more recently, equipped with cross-training machines and free-weights for members to improve their physical fitness.
  • GYPSUM BURIAL — An inhumation burial in which the body is covered by a shroud, placed in a coffin of stone, wood or lead and covered with gypsum, plaster or lime. Roman and early Medieval.
  • GYPSUM DRYING KILN — A kiln where gypsum was dried to a state where it could be used as plaster of Paris or for the production of cement.
  • GYPSUM MINE — A site where gypsum and anhydrate is mined.
  • GYPSUM QUARRY — A place where gypsum is extracted.
  • GYRUS — A sunken arena used by the Romans for training cavalry horses and recruits.

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H

  • HA HA — A dry ditch or sunken fence which divided the formal garden from the landscaped park without interrupting the view.
  • HACKNEY STABLE — A stable used for riding horses or those used to pull coaches, gigs, etc.
  • HAIRDRESSERS SALON — An establishment where people get their hair dressed and cut.
  • HALF BRICK HUT — A type of temporary military hutting used throughout WWII constructed of brick in 'stretcher bond' 4.5 inches thick with a light steel truss roof usually covered with corrugated asbestos sheeting. Used for accommodation, as gyms, training huts etc.
  • HALF THROUGH BRIDGE — A bridge whose trusses or girders form parapets on either side of the deck.
  • HALF TIDE DOCK — A dock with gates which open for access for some hours before and after high water.
  • HALL HOUSE — A house consisting of a public hall with private living accommodation attached. Built from the medieval period onwards.
  • HALL OF RESIDENCE — A university or college building set apart for residence or instruction of students. They can be located either on or off campus.
  • HAMLET — Small settlement with no ecclesiastical or lay administrative function.
  • HAMMER — A machine in which a heavy block of metal is used for beating, breaking or driving something.
  • HAMMER MILL — A mill, including a forge and powered hammers where hot metal is shaped by hammering and rolling.
  • HAMMER POND — Pond, created specifically for providing power to water-powered forges, blast furnaces, helve or other hammers.
  • HAND CRANE — A mechanism used for lifting and lowering weights, operated by hand.
  • HAND PUMP — A hand operated mechanism used to raise and move water, liquids, compressed gases etc.
  • HANDBALL WALL — A wall used in the game of handball.
  • HANDCRAFT HUT — A prefabricated structure consisting of trough shaped asbestos sheets bolted together to form a seven sided building in section with end walls of rendered brick. Manufactured from 1942 by the Universal Asbestos Company for use as airfield accommodation.
  • HANDLING HOUSE — Workshop for placing handles on mugs, teapots, etc.
  • HANGAR — A large shed for the housing of aircraft, etc.
  • HARBOUR — A sheltered port for ships.
  • HARD — A firm beach or foreshore used for landing and loading of ships and other vessels. In more recent times hards have been reinforced with concrete.
  • HARD STANDING — A purpose-built area of hard material of indeterminate use.
  • HARDENED AIRCRAFT SHELTER — A type of military aircraft hangar of the Cold War, hardened and therefore protected against the effects of nuclear weapons. It comprises a semi-circular structure built of corrugated-steel supporting a reinforced-concrete skin. Three NATO designs.
  • HARDWARE FACTORY — A factory where general hardware, fittings, items of ironmongery are produced.
  • HARDWARE SHOP — A shop selling ironmonger's goods, household tools and utensils.
  • HARDWARE SHOWROOM — A room to display various items of hardware and ironmongery.
  • HARDWARE WAREHOUSE — A building or part of a building used specifically to store items of hardware and ironmongery.
  • HARE WARREN — An area of land, usually enclosed, set aside for the breeding of hares.
  • HAT FACTORY — A factory where hats are manufactured.
  • HATCHELLING HOUSE — A workshop for combining flax or hemp as a preparatory stage of rope making.
  • HATTERS WORKSHOP — A place where hats are made and sold.
  • HAULAGE ENGINE HOUSE — Engine driving a continuous wire rope for the haulage of tubs in a mine and at the heapstead.
  • HAUNTED HOUSE — Fairground attraction containing a number of ghoulish displays designed to scare visitors.
  • HAY AND STRAW MARKET — An indoor or outdoor market where hay and straw is sold.
  • HAY BARN — A special type of barn, lacking a threshing floor, usually with open walls, intended for the dry and well ventilated storage of hay only.
  • HAYLOFT — A loft over a stable or barn used for storing hay.
  • HEAD RACE — Water channel leading to water wheel.
  • HEADSTOCK — Machinery for raising and lowering men and equipment to and from the surface of a mine.
  • HEADSTOCK SUPPORT — Platform, usually stone-built, which holds the winding gear of a mine shaft.
  • HEALTH AND WELFARE — Sites, buildings, structures & features associated with health (for example, treatment of the sick) &/or social welfare (for example, alleviation of poverty), including all charitable foundations & all forms of state defined social welfare.
  • HEALTH ESTABLISHMENT — Buildings and structures associated with good health and recreation.
  • HEALTH FARM — A place where people can recover from illnesses or health problems through controlled eating and programmes of exercise, etc.
  • HEALTH WORKERS HOUSE — The residence of health workers. Includes single dwellings of doctors, nurses etc. but not multiple dwellings eg.NURSES HOSTEL
  • HEAPSTEAD — Buildings and works around a mine shaft with an artificial embankment on which the winding gear etc, is located.
  • HEARSE HOUSE — A type of carriage house, usually in a churchyard, for storing a hearse.
  • HEART HOSPITAL — A specialist hospital for the medical and surgical treatment of heart disorders and diseases.
  • HEARTH — The slab or place on which a fire is made.
  • HEATED WALL — A wall in a flower or kitchen garden, containing conduits or pipes for heating the wall.
  • HEATHER GARDEN — A peat-based garden where various types of heather are grown.
  • HEATING PLANT — Building or buildings housing equipment for generating heat for a building complex.
  • HEAVY ANTI AIRCRAFT BATTERY — An anti aircraft battery usually mounting weapons with a larger calibre ammunition such as the QF 3.75 inch (94mm) gun.
  • HEDGE — Usually a row of bushes or small trees planted closely together to form a boundary between pieces of land or at the sides of a road.
  • HEDGE BANK — A bank, often faced with stone, with a hedge planted on top.
  • HEDGE MAZE — A complex maze incorporating tall hedges. A popular feature of 16th and 17th century gardens.
  • HEEL FACTORY — A factory for the manufacture of heels for the shoe making trade.
  • HELICOPTER LANDING PLATFORM — An artificial, sometimes temporary, platform on which helicopters can take off and land.
  • HELICOPTER TEST RIG — A purpose built apparatus for the testing of helicopters.
  • HELICOPTER TEST SITE — A site on which rigs, towers and other associated structures and buildings used for the testing of helicopters and helicopter parts are located.
  • HELIOCHRONOMETER — A sundial capable of giving an accurate reading of standard time to the minute.
  • HELTER SKELTER — A fairground ride, often a permanent structure, consisting of a tower with an internal staircase and an external spiral shaped slide.
  • HELVE HAMMER — A cast iron hammer used for shingling iron or making heavy forgings.
  • HEMMEL — A small roofed shelter for cattle without tethering point or stalls, but with a small yard attached. It is often detached from the main range of farm buildings.
  • HEMP MILL — A factory where hemp, the woody stalk of the hemp plant, used for the making of coarse cloth and cordage, was processed.
  • HEMP STORE — A building used for the storage of rope made from the fibrous stems of the hemp plant.
  • HEN BATTERY — A series of cages in which hens are confined for intensive egg laying.
  • HENGE — Circular or sub-circular enclosure defined by a bank and (usually internal) ditch, with one or two (rarely more) entrances. Of ceremonial/ritual function, they contain a variety of internal features including timber or stone circles.
  • HENGE ENCLOSURE — A late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age earthwork enclosure distinguished from a henge primarily by its larger size, irregular shape, and greater complexity of internal features.
  • HENGIFORM MONUMENT — A small, circular Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age enclosure which bears a morphological resemblance to henges, but may belong to another category of circular earthwork-defined monuments, or is enclosed by something other than a bank and ditch.
  • HERB DISTILLERY — A distillery for the manufacture of perfumes from herbs.
  • HERB GARDEN — A garden for the cultivation of herbs used for medicinal or culinary purposes.
  • HERBACEOUS BORDER — A long bed planted with perennial flowers and plants.
  • HERBAL BREWERY — A plsce were herbal beers are brewed.
  • HERBARIUM — A building or room containing a collection of preserved plants (usually pressed and dried specimens).
  • HERDERS HOUSE — The residence of a herder.
  • HERM — A pedestal terminating in a head or bust of Hermes or some other deity.
  • HERMITAGE (GARDEN) — A garden building usually in a secluded spot, resembling a hermit's dwelling and built as a resting place, retreat or viewing point.
  • HERMITAGE (RELIGIOUS) — A small hut, dwelling or cave, usually in a secluded spot, in which a hermit lived. Hermits chose to live solitary lives often due to religious motives.
  • HIDE — A shelter, sometimes camouflaged, for the observation of birds and animals at close quarters.
  • HIDING PLACE — A place used to hide something or someone.
  • HIGH BREASTSHOT WHEEL — A waterwheel where the water enters below the top of the wheel but above the axle.
  • HIGH CROSS — A churchyard or memorial cross set on a long shaft.
  • HIGH LIGHT — A lighthouse whose lantern is sufficiently high to be seen at a long range and above low lying cloud or fog. In locations where varying weather conditions occur a High Light is usually accompanied by a LOW LIGHT built alongside or nearby.
  • HIGH SECURITY PRISON — An establishment where offenders who have committed the most serious crimes, e.g. serial killers, are confined.
  • HILL FIGURE — A giant figure of a man, animal or symbol carved on chalk hillsides mainly in southern England.
  • HILLFORT — A hilltop enclosure bounded by one or more substantial banks, ramparts and ditches. Use more specific type where known.
  • HILLSLOPE ENCLOSURE — An enclosure defined by a single bank and entrance. They occur on every type of ground, although they favour sheltered, valley side locations. Smaller and usually less well defended than hillforts they are thought to be settlements of Iron Age date.
  • HILLTOP ENCLOSURE — A substantial area of ground surrounded by slight univallate earthwork often interpreted as stock enclosures or as sites where agricultural produce was stored.
  • HINAIDI AIRCRAFT SHED — A semi-permanent ahed designed to Air Ministry specification 1136/27 as a quick and cheap hangar for stations overseas
  • HINDU TEMPLE — A place of worship for followers of Hinduism.
  • HIPPOPOTAMUS HOUSE — A building used to accommodate hippopotami.
  • HISTOLOGY DEPARTMENT — A hospital department for the identification and treatment of skin tissue disorders.
  • HISTORICAL SITE — Site with important historical association.
  • HOARDING (FENCING) — A temporary fence of boards, often enclosing a building on which posters and bills are attached.
  • HOARDING (FORTIFICATION) — A temporary, usually roofed, wooden structure placed on the ramparts or walls of a castle to improve the defenders field of fire along the length of a wall.
  • HOCKEY PITCH — A playing area for the game of hockey. May be a grass or artificial surface.
  • HOFFMANN KILN — A kiln principally used in brick making which gives a continuous operation.
  • HOGBACK STONE — A North country memorial imitating a wattled hut decorated with formalized bears or snakes.
  • HOGGERY — A yard for pigs.
  • HOIST — A mechanical lift or elevator, used to lift goods, etc.
  • HOLDFAST — A plinth or pedestal, usually of concrete, to which an anti aircraft or coastal battery gun was fitted. Holdfasts are often the only evidence for a weapon which survive.
  • HOLDING SHED — A building where merchandise and goods are temporarily stored before or after transportation by rail.
  • HOLED STONE — An upright, or originally upright, stone featuring a hole which is often large enough in diameter for a person to pass through, eg. Men an Tol, Cornwall. Do not use for perforated portable stone artefacts.
  • HOLIDAY ACCOMMODATION — A building used as a temporary form of accommodation during a holiday, which includes self-catering.
  • HOLIDAY CAMP — Purposely built camp with recreational facilities and individual chalets for accommodation.
  • HOLIDAY CENTRE — A place with organized amusements for people on holiday.
  • HOLLOW — A hollow, concave formation or place, which has sometimes been dug out.
  • HOLLOW POST MILL — A post mill in which the drive is taken down to the base of the mill by putting an upright shaft in the hollowed post.
  • HOLLOW WAY — A way, path or road through a cutting.
  • HOLY WELL — A well or spring, possessing religious or otherwise ritualistic significance, around which a structure, such as a niche, wall or shelter, has been constructed. In the case of the water source being a natural spring, double-index with SPRING.
  • HOME GUARD HEADQUARTERS — A building used as the headquarters for the Home Guard during the Second World War.
  • HOME GUARD OBSERVATION POST — An observation post used by members of the Home Guard.
  • HOME GUARD SHELTER — A structure, often concrete or brick, used as a shelter by members of the British citizen army during watch or patrol duties, or air raids, in wartime.
  • HOME GUARD STORE — Place for the Home Guard to store equipment and amunition, either structural or subterranean during the defence of Britain.
  • HOMELESS HOSTEL — A place where the homeless are accommodated, permanently or temporarily.
  • HOMESTEAD — A small settlement, usually consisting of one dwelling with ancillary buildings.
  • HOMOEOPATHIC HOSPITAL — A hospital where more 'natural' means of treatment are used rather than conventional methods.
  • HOOP HOUSE — A building in which hoops (for masts) were heated.
  • HOOTER — A steam whistle or siren used for signalling purposes.
  • HOP BARN — A barn used to store hops.
  • HOP EXCHANGE — A commercial building used primarily as a trading place for breweries and hop merchants.
  • HOP GARDEN — A piece of land used for the cultivation of hops.
  • HOP KILN — A kiln for drying hops in a brewery or maltings complex, as distinct from the OASTHOUSES found on farms.
  • HOP STORE — A place where hops are stored.
  • HOPPERS HUT — A hut provided as accommodation for hop pickers and may also be know as a Hop Pickers' Hut
  • HOPSCOTCH COURT — A specially marked ground used by children for the game of hopscotch.
  • HORIZONTAL AIR MILL — A type of tower mill, either with turbine-type sails able to take wind from any direction, or with sails working with shrouds to direct wind from one direction. The sails directly drove millstones set beneath them.
  • HORIZONTAL KILN — A non-vertical kiln where the shaft and burning zone is horizontal to the ground thereby allowing material to be fed in.
  • HORIZONTAL STEAM ENGINE — A piston mounted horizontally supplying power via a valve gear directly to a crankshaft or flywheel.
  • HORIZONTAL WATERMILL — A water mill where the waterwheel directly drives a vertical shaft with grindstones on.
  • HORN WORKING SITE — A site used for the production of items derived from animal horns.
  • HORNCORE PIT — A pit lined with the bony cores of animal horns. Thought to date from the 17th/18th centuries and believed to have been used in the tanning industry although some may have been used for casting cannon.
  • HORNWORK — An outwork joined to the mainwork by two parallel wings.
  • HORSE ENGINE — A wheel which is turned by a horse in order to provide power. Used in mines, manufacturing and farming.
  • HORSE ENGINE HOUSE — A round or polygonal building containing a HORSE ENGINE. Commonly found on farms next to the threshing barn, where it is used to power the machinery.
  • HORSE EXERCISE RING — An area of ground in which horses can be exercised.
  • HORSE HOSPITAL — A specialist veterinary hospital for the medical and surgical treatment of horses.
  • HORSE ISOLATION HOSPITAL
  • HORSE MEASURING SLAB — A flat slab of stone used to provide a level surface from which to measure the height of racehorses at a meeting, as part of the handicapping and anti fraud systems.
  • HORSE PATH — A purpose built section of path linking two sections of a canal enabling a horse to be led over or around an obstacle such as a hill. Horse paths predate towpath tunnels.
  • HORSE RECOVERY STEP — A step or ramp in the bank of a canal to enable horses to climb out of the water.
  • HORSE RUBBING HOUSE — A building where horses are rubbed down after training.
  • HORSE STOCK — A frame used to lift unco-operative horses off the ground during shoeing.
  • HORSE TROUGH — A long, wooden, metal or stone vessel holding drinking water for horses.
  • HORSE TUNNEL — A tunnel built alongside a canal tunnel to enable a horse to be unhitched and led through the hillside to meet the barge when it emerged from the tunnel. Mainly built prior to the development of the towpath tunnel.
  • HORSE WHEEL — A simple machine, worked by horses, to provide a power take-off for driving agricultural machinery.
  • HORSE WHIM — A horse-powered winding engine used at mining sites.
  • HORSEHAIR FACTORY — The cleaning and sorting of horse hair mainly for use in the upholstery trade.
  • HORTICULTURAL COLLEGE — An educational establishment where the art of garden cultivation is taught.
  • HORTICULTURAL HALL — A hall used for the promotion and selling of horticultural produce and practice.
  • HOSE TOWER — A structure sited within the grounds of a fire station used for drying hoses.
  • HOSIERS COTTAGE — The residence and small-scale workshop of a hosier.
  • HOSIERY FACTORY — A factory or works housing machinery used to produce stockings and socks, using mechanized knitting processes.
  • HOSIERY WORKSHOP — A place where knitted fabrics and legware garments were manufactured.
  • HOSPICE — An establishment providing care for the terminally ill.
  • HOSPITAL — An establishment providing medical or surgical treatment for the ill or wounded. Use narrower term where possible.
  • HOSPITAL BLOCK — A specialist unit within a hospital complex. It may be a separate building or sometimes linked by a corridor or covered walkway to a main building.
  • HOSPITAL BUILDING — A hospital building of uncertain function. Use more specific type if known.
  • HOSPITAL DEPARTMENT — A separate functional unit of a hospital not necessarily on the same site.
  • HOSPITAL FOR EPILEPTICS — A specialist hospital for the medical treatment of patients suffering from epilepsy. Originally epilepsy was seen as a mental illness.
  • HOSPITAL FOR FISTULA AND RECTAL DISEASES — A specialist hospital for the medical and surgical treatment of fistular and rectal disorders and diseases.
  • HOSPITAL FOR PEOPLE WITH LEARNING DIFFICULTIES — A hospital where people with learning difficulties receive medical treatment.
  • HOSPITAL FOR URINARY DISEASES — A specialist hospital for the medical and surgical treatment of urinary disorders and diseases.
  • HOSPITAL LAUNDRY — A laundry attached to a hospital.
  • HOSPITAL SCHOOL — A charity school, usually housed in an almshouse.
  • HOSPITAL WARD — A large room, similar to a dormitory, within a hospital, and used for the temporary or permanent accommodation of patients, either waiting for or recovering from operations or undergoing long term treatment.
  • HOSPITALLERS CAMERA — A residence used during short visits by an official and attendants of the Knights Hospitallers for administrative purposes on their estates.
  • HOSPITALLERS CHURCH — A place of worship for the Knights of the Order of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem, a military order dedicated to the provision of hospitality for pilgrims, to the care of the sick and to the protection of the Holy Land.
  • HOSPITALLERS PRECEPTORY — An estate or manor of a subordinate community of the Knights of the Order of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem. Includes the mother house, the Priory of St. John, Clerkenwell.
  • HOSTEL — A building, usually containing several dormitories, used as a cheap, short term residence. Use more specific term if known.
  • HOTEL — A large building used for the accommodation of paying travellers and guests.
  • HOTHOUSE — A glasshouse used for the cultivation of tropical plants.
  • HOUSE — A building for human habitation, especially a dwelling place. Use more specific type where known.
  • HOUSE OF CORRECTION — An institution for the imprisonment of vagrants and misdemeanants.
  • HOUSE OF DETENTION — A building in which people are held in a state of imprisonment or confinement as punishment. Usually associated with military and political offenders.
  • HOUSE OVER HOUSE — A house in a terrace built on top of another, with access at high and low level to either side.
  • HOUSE PLATFORM — An area of ground on which a house is built. A platform is often the sole surviving evidence for a house.
  • HOUSEBOAT — A boat roofed over and fitted up as a home for living in permanently or temporarily.
  • HOUSING ESTATE — A residential district planned as a unit.
  • HOVEL — A rough shelter or dwelling, sometimes used to house cattle.
  • HOVERCRAFT TERMINAL — An area of a port, dock or harbour, often including buildings for passport control and customs, where passengers and vehicles using hovercraft services can embark/disembark and where supplies can be taken on board.
  • HUERS HUT — Hut along the coast, which provided shelter for lookouts known as "huers", who kept watch for the pilchard shoals that passed by the coast. Built of stone or wood. Particular common to Cornwall.
  • HUGUENOT BURIAL GROUND — A place of burial for members of the French Protestant Church.
  • HUGUENOT CHURCH — A place of worship for members of the French Protestant church of the 16th and 17th centuries.
  • HULL — Underground passage with storage chambers found in South West England.
  • HUMAN REMAINS — The unarticulated remains of the body of a human being. If articulated use inhumation.
  • HUNDRED BOUNDARY — The limit line of a medieval local administrative unit of a hundred.
  • HUNGER HOUSE — A farm building in which cattle are housed before slaughter.
  • HUNT STANDING — Structure used for viewing deer hunt.
  • HUNTING CLUB — A building used as a social venue by people interested in, and involved with, the sport of hunting.
  • HUNTING FOREST — An area of land, heavily though not totally covered with trees, set aside for the royal hunt by Norman and Plantagenet kings.
  • HUNTING LODGE — A weekend retreat for Royal parties and others, when hunting in the Royal forests, or as a viewing station for the chase.
  • HUNTING PARK — An enclosed area of parkland used almost exclusively for the hunting of deer.
  • HUNTING SITE — A building, site or structure associated with the hunting of animals.
  • HUSH — A ravine formed by using water to reveal or exploit a vein.
  • HUT — A building of basic construction, usually smaller in size than a house and constructed from a variety of materials such as mud, turf, branches, wood, brick, concrete or metal. Use more specific type where known.
  • HUT CIRCLE — A round house indicated by the presence of a low, roughly circular bank of turf, earth or stone, which formed the base of the walls. Characteristic of the later prehistoric period. Where several occur together use HUT CIRCLE SETTLEMENT.
  • HUT CIRCLE SETTLEMENT — A settlement consisting of several hut circles, either grouped together or dispersed. Characteristic of the later prehistoric period. Use specific forms where supported by the available evidence. For isolated hut circles use HUT CIRCLE.
  • HUT PLATFORM — Levelled or terraced area of ground presumed to have been the site of a house or hut.
  • HYDRATING PLANT — Series of machines for mechanically slaking lime. 20th century.
  • HYDRAULIC ACCUMULATOR TOWER — A structure used for the production of hydraulic power. A head of water was raised at the top of the tower by means of pumps. Used for powering machinery.
  • HYDRAULIC BOX CRANE — A hydraulically-powered crane constructed from open box girders.
  • HYDRAULIC CRANE — A crane whose winding mechanism was operated by hydraulic jiggers.
  • HYDRAULIC ENGINE — An engine powered by high pressure water, originally used in mine drainage.
  • HYDRAULIC ENGINE HOUSE — An engine house used to pump water to the top of an ACCUMULATOR TOWER.
  • HYDRAULIC JIGGER — A hydraulic machine used to magnify the stroke of a hydraulic piston. The pulleys and chains of a crane or other device are attached to the jigger.
  • HYDRAULIC LIFT — A lift powered by an hydraulic system.
  • HYDRAULIC PILLAR CRANE — A hydraulically-powered crane where the jib and windlass are mounted on a central pillar.
  • HYDRAULIC PIPEWORK — Pipes used to carry water or hydraulic fluid for power transmission within a hydraulic system.
  • HYDRAULIC POWER SITE — Buildings and structures associated with the creation and use of hydraulic power.
  • HYDRAULIC PUMPING STATION — A pumping station used in the production of hydraulic power, eg. in warehouse complexes, goods depots on railways, etc.
  • HYDRAULIC RAM — Large piston used to operate lifting bridges, lock gates, etc.
  • HYDRAULIC TIPPLER — A tippler, a machine for loading wagons at a pithead, operated by hydraulic power.
  • HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATION — Power generation by releasing stored water through a turbine driving a generator.
  • HYDROPATHIC INSTITUTE — A 19th century spa building, usually consisting of a hotel with baths used for water treatment.
  • HYPOCAUST — A Roman under-floor heating system in which hot air heated by a stoked furnace, flowed through channels, created by either raising the floor on pillars of brick and tile or cutting channels into the concrete floor and tiling over them.

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I

  • ICE CREAM PARLOUR — An establishment used to serve ice cream to the general public.
  • ICE POND — A shallow pond, often located near an ICEHOUSE, built to provide ice during the winter.
  • ICE WORKS — A factory or plant for the manufacture of ice using mechanized refrigeration techniques.
  • ICEHOUSE — A structure, partly underground, for the preservation of ice for use during warmer weather.
  • IMMERSION BATH — A structure, often sunk into the ground, for the purpose of allowing total bodily immersion in mineral sprinwater or similarly beneficial substances.
  • IMMIGRATION CENTRE — A building or complex used for the temporary detention of people with no legal right to be in the UK who have refused to leave voluntarily.
  • IMPACT CRATER — A depression in the ground caused by the impact of a falling object, such as a crashed aircraft.
  • IN SITU BURNT DEPOSIT — A deposit that has been burnt and not subsequently disturbed. Refer to Archaeological Science thesaurus for terminology relating to those redeposited from their original location.
  • INCINERATOR — An apparatus for burning refuse to ashes.
  • INCLINE KEEPERS COTTAGE — The residence of the supervisor of an inclined plane.
  • INCLINE WINDING ENGINE — A winch powered by a small steam engine used to drag barges, boats and other vehicles up an inclined plane.
  • INCLINED PLANE — A prepared slope on which rails are laid to enable early tramroads and railways to negotiate a steep gradient.
  • INCORPORATING MILL — A stone edge-runner grinding machine or mill used for mechanically grinding and mixing the ingredients of gunpowder.
  • INCURABLES HOSPITAL — A hospital for the care of patients with incurable illnesses.
  • INDEPENDENT METHODIST CHAPEL — A place of worship for Primitive Methodists, a group founded in Manchester who broke away from the Methodists in 1806.
  • INDIAN PAVILION — A structure, often ornamental, in a garden, park or area of recreation, designed to reflect the style of Indian architecture. The most famous example of which is the Royal Pavilion in Brighton.
  • INDOOR SWIMMING POOL — An enclosed feature, usually sub-terranean, constructed to contain water for public or private recreation and sporting activities. Often part of a larger SPORTS CENTRE. Use OUTDOOR SWIMMING POOL for unenclosed pools.
  • INDUSTRIAL — Sites, buildings, structures & features related to the extraction, processing & manufacture of finished goods. Includes structures associated with the supply, storage &/or transmission of power.
  • INDUSTRIAL BUILDING — Any building designed or adapted to accommodate trades and manufacturing activity. Use more specific site where known.
  • INDUSTRIAL ESTATE — An area of land owned by a developer, whether a private entrepreneur or a public authority, and divided into plots for leasing or sale to manufacturing or commercial concerns which may share some common services.
  • INDUSTRIAL HOUSE — The residence and sometimes workplace of industrial workers.
  • INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL — A boarding or day school for children who had committed minor crimes or who lived in circumstances where they were likely to commit crime.
  • INDUSTRIAL SITE — An area or defined space believed to have been used for trades and/or manufacturing activity. Only use when evidence for more specific site type is lacking.
  • INEBRIATE REFORMATORY — Reformatory established under the Inebriates Acts 1879-1900 for repeat alcohol related offenders
  • INFANT SCHOOL — A school where young children, usually under the age of seven, are taught.
  • INFANTRY BARRACKS — A building, or buildings, providing accommodation for an infantry regiment.
  • INFANTRY POST — A defensive position, often constructed from sandbags, designed to protect a group of infantry.
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASES HOSPITAL — An isolation hospital for infectious diseases and leprosy, sometimes known as a Pest House; commonly situated on the edge of a town.
  • INFIRMARY — A building used for the care of the sick. Only to be used where part of a complex, eg. a workhouse. In such cases use with appropriate monument type.
  • INFORMATION CENTRE — A building used for the dissemination to the public of such items like tourist brochures, travel maps, guide books and other documents, etc.
  • INGHAMITE CHAPEL — A chapel for followers of Benjamin Ingham after he left the Moravians prior to joining the Sandamanians.
  • INHABITED BRIDGE — A bridge on which dwellings or commercial premises have been built.
  • INHUMATION — An interment of unburnt, articulated human remains. Use specific type where known.
  • INHUMATION CEMETERY — An area used for the deposition of human remains where the principal funeral rite is the burial of the corpse complete. Generally indicated by the discovery of articulated human skeletal remains, occasionally with evidence of coffins and/or grave goods.
  • INK FACTORY — A factory in which is ink is prepared from pigments and additives.
  • INLAND SALTWORKS — A site, building or factory where geologically-derived brine is used for the production of salt.
  • INLAND SORTING DEPOT — Sorting offices constructed during the Second World War designed to rapidly move goods from the vulnerable docks and ports via the rail network.
  • INN — A public house for the lodging and entertainment of travellers, etc.
  • INN SIGN — A decorated, hanging sign, bearing the name and also often a pictorial representation of the inn or public house to which it is attached.
  • INN THEATRE — An inn temporarily used for the performance of plays and other public entertainment.
  • INNS OF CHANCERY — Buildings in London formerly used as hostels for law students.
  • INNS OF COURT — A building in London belonging to one of four legal societies having exclusive right of admitting persons to practise at the English bar.
  • INSCRIBED STONE — An early Medieval commemorative monument in the form of a stone which has been inscribed with symbols.
  • INSECT HOUSE — A building designed to house insects.
  • INSTITUTE — A building in which a society or organization is instituted to promote science, art, literature, education, etc. Use more specific type where known.
  • INSTITUTE FOR THE BLIND — A building used by an organization instituted to promote the needs and rights of the blind.
  • INSTITUTE FOR THE DEAF — An establishment where deaf people receive education, training and social support.
  • INSTRUMENT ENGINEERING WORKS — A site where scientific and technical instruments such as microscopes are assembled.
  • INSULA — In Roman architecture either 1. A block of buildings enclosed by four streets or 2. A large tenement house or apartment block.
  • INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS BLOCK — A building or group of buildings in which communications signals, usually intercepted fro military purposes, are analysed.
  • INTERNET CAFE — An establishment originally providing terminals to allow the public to access the internet, usually for a fee. They originally provided snacks and drinks to customers although now this is not always the case.
  • INTERNMENT CAMP — An enclosed encampment, often featuring temporary or semi-permanent structures, used for the detention of prisoners of war, refugees or other civilians detained on political or social grounds.
  • INTERPRETATION CENTRE — A building housing material used to explain the significance of a site or landscape to the public e. g. an archaeological site or nature reserve.
  • INTERRUPTED DITCH SYSTEM — Ditches interrupted by wide, regular causeways. Each section of ditch is about 30-40m long, and each causeway is 10-15m wide. In some cases, a network of fields has been created. Found mainly in the South East of England.
  • INTERVAL TOWER — A tower situated above the rampart walkway and in between the angle towers along a defensive structure, such as a castle wall. They were used as lookout towers, roofed strongpoints or platforms from which missiles could be discharged or artillery fired.
  • INVERTED SYPHON — A sewer or irrigation channel designed to avoid blockage.
  • IONIC TEMPLE — An 18th century garden building, designed in the style of a classical Ionic temple, used for standing or sitting in.
  • IRON FOUNDRY — A workshop or foundry where iron articles are made by casting molten material into moulds.
  • IRON FURNACE — A furnace used for smelting or re-heating of iron, either for casting or for further working.
  • IRON ORE CALCINER — A type of calcining kiln used in the processing of iron ore.
  • IRON WAREHOUSE — A large building where iron is stored.
  • IRON WORKING SITE — A site used for the production and/or working of metallic iron.
  • IRON WORKS — A site where iron is smelted or iron goods made.
  • IRONSTONE LEVEL — A working tunnel or gallery in a mine used for the extraction of ironstone.
  • IRONSTONE MINE — A mine for the extraction of iron ore.
  • IRONSTONE PIT — A large pit formed by, and for, the extraction of iron ore.
  • IRONSTONE WORKINGS — A site where iron ore is extracted.
  • ISLAMIC SCHOOL — A school in which students are taught according to the beliefs of the muslim faith.
  • ISLAND — A piece of land, sometimes man-made, completely surrounded by water.
  • ISOLATION BLOCK — An area within a hospital used for the isolation of patients. Patients were isolated if they had an infectious disease or suffered from a psychiatric illness.
  • ISOLATION WARD — An area within a hospital where patients with contagious diseases are isolated from the rest of the hospital.
  • ITALIAN GARDEN — A garden designed in the style of the elaborate gardens of the Renaissance, eg. formal, geometrical layouts of lawn and paths, stone steps, balustrades and statuary and fountains.

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J

  • JACKABLE TIMBER FRAMED BUILDING — A light timber framed building usually with brick panels which rests on a timber frame with jacking points; should ground subsidence occur the structure could be jacked to a level position. Usually found in the Cheshire Salt Field.
  • JACQUARD AND DOBBY WORKS — An establishment used for the manufacture of jacquards and dobbys, which are textile loom components that control the weaving of complicated or figured patterns.
  • JAGGERS HOSTEL — A hostel for packhorse teamsters.
  • JAIN TEMPLE — A place of worship for the followers of Jainism
  • JAM FACTORY — A factory, where preserves such as jam and marmalade, are manufactured.
  • JANAZGAH — Muslim funeral mosque.
  • JANE CORRUGATED IRON HUT — A prefabricated temporary structure made of lightweight timber framed panels clad externally with corrugated iron sheets. Used during WWII as officers quarters. Possibly manufactured by Boulton and Paul Limited.
  • JAPANESE GARDEN — A garden incorporating features of traditional Japanese gardens - a pool, an island, stepping stones or a bridge, cherry trees and other shrubs and flowering plants grown with the emphasis on line.
  • JAPANNING WORKS — A building or site used in the production of japanned goods. Japanning was the process of covering a material with a hard, black lacquer in imitation of Japanese lacquer work.
  • JAZZ CLUB — A building where jazz music is performed. Often situated in small venues to afford the intimacy of the musicians performing in close proximity to the audience.
  • JEHOVAHS WITNESSES MEETING HOUSE — A place of meeting and worship for Jehovahs Witnesses.
  • JET WORKING SITE — A site where artefacts are manufactured from jet.
  • JET WORKINGS — A site where jet is extracted from the surface of the ground.
  • JETTIED BUILDING — A building where the upper storeys rest on projecting floor joists and so create the effect of an overhang.
  • JETTIED HOUSE — A house where the upper storeys rest on projecting floor joists and so create the effect of an overhang.
  • JETTY — A mole or pier-like structure situated at the entrance of a harbour, or running out into a lake or the sea, usually used for the landing of craft.
  • JEWEL HOUSE — A building used for the safe storage and public display of jewellery, eg. the Jewel House at the Tower of London.
  • JEWELLERY SHOP — A building or other establishment used for the retail, making and repairing of jewellery.
  • JEWELLERY WORKSHOP — A workshop used for the manufacture of items of jewellery and/or timepieces from precious metals and precious or semi-precious stones.
  • JEWISH CEMETERY — A burial ground for followers of the Jewish faith.
  • JEWISH CLEANING ROOM — A room used for the ritual cleaning of the body prior to burial
  • JEWISH RITUAL BATH — A large bath used for Jewish ritual ceremonies.
  • JEWISH SCHOOL — A school where Jewish children are educated.
  • JIB CRANE — A crane with a projecting arm, usually one that can be raised and lowered.
  • JIGGING MILL — A mill used to dress ore by means of a jigging machine.
  • JOBCENTRE — A government employment agency for those out of work offering advice on jobs, training and retraining.
  • JOCKEYS QUARTERS — A place where jockeys are accomodated.
  • JOINERS SHOP — A workshop used by a joiner; a craftsman working with wood and producing more ornate work than that of a carpenter.
  • JUDGES LODGINGS — Purpose-built lodgings for assize court judges. Early 19th century.
  • JUNCTION BOX — Casing for electrical connections: an enclosed and protected box inside which electrical circuits are interconnected or branched for distribution.
  • JUNCTION LOCK — A lock at the point where two waterways join together.
  • JUNIOR SCHOOL — A school attended by children between the ages of seven and eleven.
  • JUTE MILL — A factory where jute (plant fibres), was used to make products such as hessian, sacking, cordage and backing materials for carpet and linoleum.
  • JUVENILE COURT — A court of summary jurisdiction established, following legislation, in 1908 for the trial of offenders below the age of legal reponsibility.
  • JUVENILE PRISON — A custodial institution for offenders below the legal age of responsibility.
  • JUVENILE WARD — A section of a psychiatric hospital or psychiatric ward set aside for children and/or adolescents with mental illness.

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K

  • K SITE — A decoy site designed to replicate the layout of an RAF satellite airfield, complete with dummy aircraft, simulated runways and simple structures intended to fool enemy aircraft during daylight raids.
  • KEEL BLOCK — One of a line of blocks on the floor of a building slip on which the keel of the ship to be constructed is laid. Also used in dry docks to rest a ship when a dock is pumped dry.
  • KEEP — The major tower of a fortification, often acting as its last defence.
  • KEEP AND BAILEY CASTLE — A castle without a motte.
  • KEITH BLACKMAN FAN HOUSE — A building housing an electric powered mine ventilation fan.
  • KELP PIT — A stone-lined pit in which seaweed was burnt. The calcined ashes were used in the manufacture of soap and glass, amongst other things.
  • KENNELS — A house or range of buildings in which dogs are kept, eg. hunting hounds.
  • KERB CAIRN — A cairn featuring a mound of small diameter (normally less than 6m), which is surrounded by a kerb of stones which are considerably taller than the mound.
  • KERB CIRCLE — A low, hemispherical cairn surrounded by a freestanding, continuous circle of boulders.
  • KERBED BOULDER — A Prehistoric monument type in South West England in which a natural boulder is surrounded by a man-made kerb of stones.
  • KERBED MOUND — A mound kerbed with wooden stakes or boulders.
  • KERBSTONE — An edging of stone forming the kerb of a path.
  • KILL SITE — A Palaeolithic or Mesolithic temporary site where there is evidence to suggest animal butchery. Evidence may include animal remains and a specialized tool assemblage.
  • KILN — A furnace or oven for burning, baking or drying. Use specific type where known.
  • KIOSK — A light, open structure for the sale of newspapers, tickets, etc.
  • KISSING GATE — A small gate swinging in a U or V-shaped enclosure, which allows only one person to pass through at a time.
  • KITCHEN — A building or room where food is prepared and cooked.
  • KITCHEN GARDEN — A private garden established primarily for growing vegetables and herbs for domestic consumption.
  • KNACKERS YARD — A slaughterhouse for horses.
  • KNITTING FACTORY — A factory where knitted fabrics are manufacterd using knitting machines.
  • KNOCK STONE — A stone or platform on which lumps of ore are manually broken up.
  • KNOCKING SLATE — A slate situated at the end of a terrace for a coal company employee to wake the miners for their shift. The slate had the time of the shifts written on it.
  • KNOT GARDEN — An intricately designed garden in which ground coves, low shrubs or coloured earths are arranged in interlacing patterns resembling knots
  • KURSAAL — A building used by visitors at a health resort.

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L

  • L PLAN (HOUSE ATTACHED) — A farmstead where the farmhouse and working buildings are attached and in-line. They can comprise the extension of linear farmsteads.
  • LABORATORY — A group of buildings or rooms equipped with apparatus for scientific experiments or other research, testing and investigations.
  • LABOUR EXCHANGE — An employment exchange for unemployed labourers, servicemen, etc.
  • LABOURERS SHELTER — A simple, lean-to structure, such as those built by the dock companies to provide shelter for dock workers waiting for work.
  • LACE DRYING HOUSE — A building where lace was laid out to dry.
  • LACE FACTORY — A factory where lace is manufactured.
  • LACE MANUFACTURING SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the manufacture of lace.
  • LACE WAREHOUSE — A building used for the finishing, drying and storage of lace.
  • LACEMAKERS COTTAGE — The residence of a lacemaker.
  • LADIES CLUB — A building with a range of educational and recreational facilities for the exclusive use of its all-female membership.
  • LADIES COLLEGE — An educational establishment, often privately funded, for young women.
  • LADY CHAPEL — A chapel dedicated to our Blessed Lady, often placed to the east of the High Altar, sometimes in other positions.
  • LAGER BREWERY — Brewery which produces lager
  • LAING HUT — A prefabricated structure of standard lightweight timber wall sections bolted together. Externally the walls were clad with plasterboard covered with felt. Designed in 1940 for use as barrack accommodation.
  • LAIRDS HOUSE — Residence of a leading land-holding family within the district.
  • LAITERIE — A decorative building in the form of a dairy, used for recreation.
  • LAITHE — A building combining a cow-house with crop storage space.
  • LAITHE HOUSE — A laithe with an attached house.
  • LAKE — A large body of water surrounded by land.
  • LAKE VILLAGE — A settlement located on or near to the shores of a lake. Buildings associated with lake villages are usually raised on piles to prevent them from being flooded.
  • LAMBING PEN — An enclosure where ewes are kept at the time of lambing.
  • LAMELLA AIRCRAFT HANGAR — A steel aircraft hangar evolved from the German "Lamellendach", a segmental roof design of the 1920s using a diamond shaped web of pressed steel producing a hangar with a shallow curving profile. Used for both military and civil purposes.
  • LAMINATE FLOOR FACTORY — A factory making laminate flooring.
  • LAMP BOX — A post box mounted on a lamp post.
  • LAMP BRACKET — An often ornate wrought-iron bracket used to hang lamps outside public houses, shops, hotels and restaurants, etc.
  • LAMP POST — A post, usually of iron or concrete, used to support a street lamp.
  • LAMPHOUSE — For the storage and recharging of battery-powered miners lamps.
  • LAMSON PNEUMATIC TUBE SYSTEM — A communication system in which cylindrical containers are propelled through a network of tubes either by compressed air or partial vacuum. They are used for transporting solid objects, as opposed to conventional pipelines, which transport fluids.
  • LAND ARMY HOSTEL — A building, often converted from its original use, for use as a temporary accommodation by members of the Women's Land Army during the First and Second World Wars.
  • LAND IMPROVEMENT DRAIN — A large drainage channel used for improving the land.
  • LAND RECLAMATION — An area of land which has been drained or cleared for habitation and/or cultivation.
  • LAND USE SITE — Areas of land used primarily for agriculture. See also GARDENS, PARKS AND URBAN SPACES.
  • LANDING CIRCLE — A landing circle marked out in white used as the airfield symbol.
  • LANDING HOUSE — A house to receive boat landings.
  • LANDING PIER — A pier where passsengers can embark and disembark and goods can be transferred to and from vessels.
  • LANDING POINT — A place where vessels can land passengers and goods.
  • LANDING STAGE — A platform, sometimes floating, for the landing of passengers and goods from vessels.
  • LANDING STEPS — Steps found at a landing point.
  • LANDMARK TOWER — A prominent structure situated on land specifically as a guide to navigation for travellers or as an aid/warning to sailors out at sea.
  • LANDSCAPE PARK — Grounds, usually associated with a country house, laid out so as to produce the effect of natural scenery.
  • LARDER — A store for keeping undressed meat.
  • LAST WORKS — A site used for the manufacture of lasts, shoemaker's models of the foot for shaping and repairing footwear. Lasts can be from a variety of materials, such as wood or iron.
  • LATRINE PIT — A hole dug in the ground to act as a, usually temporary, communal toilet facility.
  • LAUNDER — A trough or gutter for conveying liquids such as water or molten metal. It can be cut in the surface or formed of wood or other materials.
  • LAUNDRETTE — An establishment with automatic washing machines available for public use.
  • LAUNDRY — A room or building where clothing and other fabrics are washed, mangled, steamed and ironed.
  • LAVATORIUM — A wash room. Use with wider site type where known.
  • LAW COURT — A place, hall or chamber in which justice is administered.
  • LAW SCHOOL — An educational establishment where law is taught.
  • LAWN — A flat, and usually level area of mown and cultivated grass, attached to a house.
  • LAY BROTHERS RANGE — Accommodation in a monastery for new monks.
  • LAY SISTERS HOUSE — A building in which the lay sisters resided. Lay sisters were not nuns and as such weren't bound by any vows. They could leave the convent and even marry if they wished.
  • LAYER — An archaeological unit of soil in a horizontal plane which may seal features or be cut through by other features.
  • LAZY BEDS — Areas used for potato-growing.
  • LEAD FURNACE — A furnace used for the smelting or reheating of lead.
  • LEAD MINE — Use with form of extraction where known. Also use MINE and other ores extracted where relevant, eg. SILVER MINE.
  • LEAD SMELTER — A building or site where lead is obtained from ore.
  • LEAD WORKING SITE — A site used for the production and/or working of metallic lead.
  • LEAD WORKINGS — A place where lead ore is extracted from an open cast mine.
  • LEAD WORKS — A factory used for the production of red lead used in glass manufacture, or white lead used as the pigment in white paint.
  • LEARNED SOCIETY BUILDING — A building for a society formed for the promotion of some branch of learning or science.
  • LEARNING DISABILITY HOSPITAL — A hospital where people with learning disabilities receive medical treatment.
  • LEAT — Artificial water channel, usually leading to a mill.
  • LEATHER DRYING SHED — A covered area used for the drying of animal hides.
  • LEATHER FACTORY — A factory for the manufacture of leather goods, such as shoes, saddles, etc. Use TANNERY for the manufacture of leather.
  • LEATHER INDUSTRY SITE — Buildings or sites used in the preparation, treatment and working of raw animal hide into leather products such as gloves or saddles, etc.
  • LEATHER MARKET — An indoor or outdoor market where leather and untreated animal hides are sold.
  • LEATHER WAREHOUSE — A large building used for the storage of leather goods or processed animal skins.
  • LEATHER WORKERS SHOP — A workshop used for the small-scale production of leather goods.
  • LEATHER WORKING SITE — A site used for the manufacture of leather products.
  • LECTURE THEATRE — A large room with fixed seating, designed for lectures.
  • LEECH HOUSE — A small house in which leeches were bred for medical purposes.
  • LEET HALL — A place where a yearly or half-yearly court of record is held by lords of certain manors.
  • LEGAL CHAMBERS — A room in which a judge sits to hear cases and undertake other official proceedings which are not of a sufficient importance to be brought into court.
  • LEGAL OFFICE — A building housing the services of professionals with an expert knowledge of the law such as the offices of solicitors, barristers and lawyers.
  • LEGAL SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the enactment and enforcement of public law.
  • LEGIONARY FORTRESS — A large, fortified permanent Roman military base, made of timber and stone, surrounded by a rampart and ditches.
  • LEMUR ENCLOSURE — An enclosure, usually within a zoo, designed to represent the natural environment for Lemurs, including shelter.
  • LENDING LIBRARY — A library which lends books (and sometimes other materials) to its members.
  • LENGTHMANS COTTAGE — The residence of an employee with the duty of maintaining a section of a railway or road.
  • LEPER HOSPITAL — A medieval hospital for lepers, usually consisting of a church and individual shelters for the lepers.
  • LETTER BOX — A box in which letters are deposited on delivery.
  • LEVEL CROSSING — A controlled point with warning lights and gates or barriers where a road crosses a railway line.
  • LEVEL CROSSING GATE — A mechanized gate or barrier at a level crossing used to prevent road vehicles crossing a railway line when a train is approaching.
  • LEVEL CROSSING GATE HUT — Hut for use at Level Crossings that were not adjacent to Signal Boxes.
  • LIBRARY — A building, room or suite of rooms where books, or other materials, are classified by subject and stored for use by the library's members.
  • LICENSED PREMISES — Establishments authorized to sell or allow the consumption of alcoholic liquors on their premises.
  • LIDO — A public recreational complex centred around an open-air swimming pool. Use SWIMMING POOL as a component of LIDO.
  • LIFEBOAT STATION — A building designed to house a lifeboat, usually with a stone ramp to launch the boat into the sea.
  • LIFEBOATMANS COTTAGE — The residence of a lifeboatman.
  • LIFT — A structure consisting of a box or platform for carrying goods or passengers from one level to another. Use specific type where known.
  • LIFT BRIDGE — A bridge that incorporates a span that moves upwards vertically to provide a passageway for navigation.
  • LIFT TESTING TOWER — A tower, consisting of one or several testing shafts, for testing lifts and for training personnel.
  • LIFTING AND WINDING STRUCTURE — Structures used for the lifting or hoisting of goods, machinery, vehicles, people and livestock.
  • LIGHT ANTI AIRCRAFT (DIVER) BATTERY — WW2 LAA battery consisting of two or four 40m guns or Bofors guns. Associated structures included tented accommodation, ammunition shelters, a 100 gallon water tank, latrines, wash-house and kitchen.
  • LIGHT ANTI AIRCRAFT BATTERY — An anti aircraft battery usually mounting smaller, faster weapons such as Bofors guns or a single anti-aircraft machine gun, intended to engage fast low flying aircraft.
  • LIGHT ENGINEERING WORKS — A group of buildings where consumer goods, such as small machines and electrical components, are manufactured.
  • LIGHT INDUSTRIAL UNIT — A workshop or factory unit where small or light goods are manufacture without the need for large-scale industrial machinery.
  • LIGHTHOUSE — A tower or structure, with a powerful light or lights at the top, usually erected at an important or dangerous point on or near the sea-coast for the warning and guidance of mariners, but can also be erected inland for the guidance of travellers.
  • LIGHTKEEPERS HOUSE — The residence of a lightkeeper.
  • LILY POND — A water pond in which lilies are grown.
  • LIME KILN — A kiln in which lime is made by calcining limestone or in some areas chalk.
  • LIME SLAKING PIT — A pit where calcium oxide (Quicklime) has been hydrated to produce calcium hydroxide, known as slaked lime.
  • LIME WALK — A walk or path lined with lime trees.
  • LIME WORKS — A site where lime (calcium carbonate) is made.
  • LIMEHOUSE — A crude, stone-built shelter for persons involved in lime production and the processing of lime burning.
  • LIMESTONE QUARRY — A site where limestone is extracted.
  • LINEAR CLEARANCE CAIRN — A long, narrow, irregularly constructed and generally unstructured mound of stones. Normally a by-product of field clearance for agricultural purposes, though prehistoric examples may include burials and other deposits.
  • LINEAR EARTHWORK — A substantial bank and ditch forming a major boundary between two adjacent landholdings. Most date from the late Bronze Age and Iron Age.
  • LINEAR FEATURE — A length of straight, curved or angled earthwork or cropmark of uncertain date or function.
  • LINEAR PLAN — A farmstead where the house and working buildings are attached and in-line. Can include Bastles, Longhouses and Laithe houses.
  • LINEAR SETTLEMENT — A group of related buildings, primarily with a domestic function, which is arranged along a principle axis such as a main road or routeway.
  • LINEAR SYSTEM — A complex or network of earthwork or cropmark linear ditches, banks or other features. Use specific type where known.
  • LINEN MILL — A mill where flax fibres were woven into linen cloth.
  • LINEN OR FLAX MANUFACTURING SITE — Buildings, sites or structures used for the manufacture of linen and/or flax.
  • LINHAY — A two storied open fronted structure comprising a cattle or cart shelter on the ground floor with a hayloft above. Most common in South West England.
  • LINK TRAINER — A building containing a flight siumlator used to provide safe training for pilots.
  • LINK TRAINER (10040/41) — A building housing a flight simulator designed to air ministry drawing number 10040/41.
  • LINK TRAINER (1762/39) — A building housing a flight simulator designed to air ministry drawing number 1762/39.
  • LINK TRAINER (4188/42) — A building housing a flight simulator designed to air ministry drawing number 4188/42.
  • LINK TRAINER (7790/40) — A building housing a flight simulator designed to air ministry drawing number 7790/40.
  • LINKMANS HUT — A small shelter used by a man employed to carry links (torches) to light people along a street.
  • LINOLEUM FACTORY — A factory where linoleum is manufactured.
  • LINTEL GRAVE — A grave lined with slabs of stone or slate and covered by a large slab of stone. Commonly found on the Isle of Man.
  • LIQUOR TROUGH — A channel which carried processed alum as liquid from the alum quarry/works to the alum house
  • LISTENING POST
  • LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTE — A subscription club, usually with a library and newspaper room, established from c.1815-1860, their educational function gradually taken over by the public libraries in the later 19th century.
  • LITERARY INSTITUTE — A building in which an organization or society is instituted to promote literature through lectures, study and research, etc.
  • LITHIC SCATTER — A spatially discrete, though sometimes extensive, scatter of lithic artefacts recovered from the surface, eg. by fieldwalking, rather than from a particular archaeological context. Use particular types where appropriate.
  • LITHIC WORKING SITE — A site which has produced evidence of in situ working of stone for the manufacture of tools, weapons or other objects. Such sites will usually, but not always, be of prehistoric date. Use object material where known.
  • LIVERY HALL — A type of guildhall belonging primarily to the London livery companies, but also found elsewhere in the country, so called because of the livery worn by members of the guild.
  • LIVERY STABLE — A stable where horses are kept at livery, or are let out for hire.
  • LIVESTOCK MARKET — A market where cattle, pigs, sheep and poultry are bought and sold.
  • LLAMA HOUSE — A house used to accommodate Llamas at a zoo or wildlife park.
  • LOBBY ENTRY HOUSE — A late 17th - early 18th century house with a central chimney and fireplaces and a central door on the front; this door opened closely against the fireplaces, leaving a small lobby for access to the rooms.
  • LOCAL GOVERNMENT DEPOT — A depot for the depositing, storage and dispatch of plant or other resources associated with the delivery of local government public services.
  • LOCAL GOVERNMENT OFFICE — A building which houses the administrative functions of a local authority.
  • LOCAL PRISON — An institution created with the merging of Gaols and Houses of Correction in 1865. Nowadays term used for a prison to which people are sent whilst remanded in custody before trial or direct from court after conviction.
  • LOCK — A section of the water channel on a canal or river shut off above and below by lock gates provided with sluices to let the water out and in, and thus raise or lower boats from one level to another. Use more specific type where known.
  • LOCK CHAMBER — The space enclosed between the gates and side-walls of a lock.
  • LOCK FACTORY — A building or site for the industrial manufacture of locks.
  • LOCK FLIGHT — A series of locks usually with short reaches between them allowing boats to travel up and down a steep incline.
  • LOCK GATE — A large wooden gate, positioned at either end of a canal or river lock, equipped with sluices to let water through.
  • LOCK HOSPITAL — A hospital for the treatment of venereal disease.
  • LOCK KEEPERS COTTAGE — The residence of a lock-keeper.
  • LOCK SILL — The masonry beneath a lock gate, sometimes projecting several feet from the gate.
  • LOCK UP — A prison used for temporary detention. The typical village lock-up was a one-storeyed, one-celled building, sometimes of round or polygonal plan.
  • LOCKSMITHS WORKSHOP — A place where padlocks and rim locks for doors are made from iron and brass.
  • LOCOMOTIVE DEPOT — A place where railway engines are kept.
  • LODGE — A small building, often inhabited by a gatekeeper, gamekeeper or similar. Use specific type where known.
  • LODGING HOUSE — Purpose built workers' accommodation comprising single rooms with communal eating and washing facilities. Usually for short stay accommodation only.
  • LODGINGS — Accommodation in hired rooms or a lodging house.
  • LOG CABIN — A small house built out of rough logs.
  • LOGGIA — A covered arcade, often attached to a building, open on one or more sides.
  • LOGWOOD MILL — A mill used to process logwood, the inner red wood of a South American tree used widely in dyeing. Imported in the form of logs and cut and ground into dye by a mechanical process.
  • LONG BARROW — A rectangular or trapezoidal earthen mound of Neolithic date, usually accompanied by flanking or encircling ditches, and normally associated with human remains. Mound construction and associated features vary considerably in type and complexity.
  • LONG CAIRN — A rectangular or trapezoidal non-megalithic stony mound of Neolithic date, with human remains in cists rather than a large chamber. Mound construction and associated features vary considerably in type and complexity.
  • LONG MOUND — A long, narrow mound of earth or stone and of uncertain date and function. Use more appropriate term where possible.
  • LONGHOUSE — A building that housed humans and cattle under one roof, with a shared entrance providing access to the cattle housing (usually downslope) and the dwelling area.
  • LOOKOUT — A building or site from which a lookout can be kept.
  • LOOMSHOP — The room housing the looms in a domestic handloom weavers cottage. In general, wool loomshops were above the living quarters, whereas cotton loomshops were often below in a cellar, since the floor was usually kept damp to aid the weaving of the cotton.
  • LOOPHOLED WALL — A wall containing apertures to allow a weapon to be fired through it.
  • LOOSE BOX — A separate compartment for livestock in which they are free to move about.
  • LOOSE COURTYARD PLAN — A farmstead where mostly detached buildings have developed around one or more sides of an open cattle yard.
  • LOOSE COURTYARD PLAN (FOUR SIDED) — A farmstead where mostly detached buildings have developed around four sides of an open cattle yard.
  • LOOSE COURTYARD PLAN (ONE SIDED) — A farmstead where mostly detached buildings have developed around one side of an open cattle yard.
  • LOOSE COURTYARD PLAN (THREE SIDED) — A farmstead where mostly detached buildings have developed around three sides of an open cattle yard.
  • LOOSE COURTYARD PLAN (TWO SIDED) — A farmstead where mostly detached buildings have developed around two sides of an open cattle yard.
  • LORDS CHAPEL — A chapel within a parish church or other religious building for use by the lord of the manor and his family
  • LORINERY — Factory or workshop making bits, spurs and other small metal objects associated with horse harness.
  • LORRY FACTORY — A factory used for the manufacture and assembly of lorries.
  • LOW BREASTSHOT WHEEL — A waterwheel where water enters below the axle but above the bottom of the wheel.
  • LOW HOUSE — A storehouse in 16th and 17th century houses.
  • LOW LIGHT — A lighthouse whose lantern is sufficiently low to be seen below low lying cloud. In locations where varying weather conditions occur a Low Light is usually accompanied by a HIGH LIGHT built alongside or nearby.
  • LUFFING CRANE — A crane in which, during any alteration of radius, an automatic device causes the load to move horizontally.
  • LUTHERAN CHURCH — A place of worship for followers of the teachings of Martin Luther.
  • LYCH GATE — A covered gateway, at the entrance to a churchyard, where during a funeral a coffin could be set down until the vicar arrived.
  • LYE PIT — A pit in which lye is used to clean hides/bones/etc. generally as part of the tanning process to remove excess fat, flesh, hair, etc. from the raw hide. The residue from these pits formed a crude soap which could be used for various cleaning purposes.
  • LYNCHET — A bank formed at the end of a field by soil which, loosened by the plough, gradually moves down slope through a combination of gravity and erosion.
  • LYON LIGHT EMPLACEMENT — An emplacement mounting a small, portable electrically-powered searchlight.

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M

  • MACELLUM — A Roman market hall principally selling meat and poultry but also other provisions.
  • MACHINE BED — A solid concrete or stone base on which a machine (often an engine and therefore called the engine bed, forming part of an engine house) was mounted to power an industrial process. Dates from the 19th century.
  • MACHINE GUN EMPLACEMENT — A structure, usually or concrete or sandbags, in which a machine gun was emplaced.
  • MACHINE GUN POST — Fixed or hardened installation for machine guns. Temporary soft installations are possible as well.
  • MACHINE HOUSE — A building housing machinery.
  • MACHINE SHOP — Engineering workshop housing specialized machinery such as lathes, presses, etc., for making machines.
  • MACHINE TOOL ENGINEERING WORKS — A site where machine tools, machines designed to remove surplus material from a work piece by accurately guided cutting tools, are manufactured.
  • MACHINERY — Apparatus used for applying a mechanical force, or to perform a particular function. Use more specific type where known.
  • MACULA — Area feature visible as an earthwork or cropmark with no known function.
  • MAGAZINE — A building in which a supply of arms, ammunition and provisions for an army is stored.
  • MAGISTRATES COURT — A law court exercising summary criminal jurisdiction, preliminary hearings and some civil jurisdiction. Formally established by name following legislation of 1949.
  • MAGNESIUM FACTORY — An industrial facility concerned with the manufacture of magnesium from magnesium hydroxide derived from sea water. Magnesium was used in the manufacture of aircraft.
  • MAGNETOMETER — An instrument for measuring magnetic forces, especially the strength of terrestrial magnetism.
  • MAIL BAG NET — A structure to which a net filled with mail bags is attached. Situated next to railway lines, it allows mail to be collected by a train without it stopping, the bag being 'caught' by the train as it passed. Can also be used to 'catch' mail.
  • MAIN HANGAR — A transportable hangar designed by A & J Main of Glasgow.
  • MAINTENANCE WORKSHOP — A building or room used for the repair and maintenance of machinery in a large complex, such as a hospital, school or factory.
  • MAISONETTE — A small house or a portion of a house used as a self-contained apartment.
  • MALT HOUSE — A building with malt kilns for the malting of grains and with other similar equipment for brewing work.
  • MALT KILN — A kiln with a pyramid roof and capped vent in which barley is dried. Found on the site of a malt house.
  • MALTINGS — A type of malt house.
  • MAN ENGINE — A machine used to raise and lower miners to and from the pit bottom.
  • MANAGED WOODLAND — An area of cultivated, managed woodland producing wood which is used for a variety of purposes.
  • MANAGERS HOUSE — A purpose-built dwelling for the manager of a factory, works, textile mill, etc, often found within the complex itself.
  • MANGANESE MILL — An mill in which manganese was ground to a powder between two horizontal millstones.
  • MANGANESE MINE — A place where manganese ore is extracted. Use with other ores extracted and MINE where relevant.
  • MANHOLE — A vertical shaft, usually with an internal ladder, allowing access to a sewer or underground counduit for inspection and maintenance.
  • MANHOLE COVER — An iron cover for a manhole
  • MANOR — An area of land consisting of the lord's demesne and of lands from whose holders he may exact certain fees, etc.
  • MANOR FARM — A farm on the estate of a manor.
  • MANOR HOUSE — The principal house of a manor or village.
  • MANORIAL BOUNDARY — The limit line of an area pertaining to a medieval manor.
  • MANORIAL CHAPEL — A chapel situated within the demesnes of a manor. Can be a separate building or an integral part of a manor house.
  • MANORIAL FARM — A medieval high status farmstead, acting as the centre of the estate, directly controlled by the lord and used for the benefit of his household and dependents.
  • MANSE — A non-conformist minister's house.
  • MANSIO — A type of Roman lodging house, frequently sited near the town gate.
  • MANSION FLATS — A type of late 19th century tenement block for tenants of a higher social status - usually reflected in the more ornate facades.
  • MANSION HOUSE — Traditionally the chief residence of a land owner. Now used specifically to describe the residence of the Lord Mayor of London.
  • MANURE SHED — A building used in the preparation of manure.
  • MARBLE QUARRY — A place where marble is extracted from the ground.
  • MARINA — A dock or basin, often inland, used for mooring yachts and other small pleasure craft.
  • MARINE CONSTRUCTION SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the construction and repair of ships and boats.
  • MARINE ENGINEERING WORKS — Specialized engineering workshop particularly for the production of marine engines or other large components of ships.
  • MARINE LABORATORY — A scientific laboratory where marine life is studied and researched.
  • MARINE LAKE — Seaside structure, usually consisting of a manmade retaining wall that keeps a relatively large area of the tidal water partitioned off for controlled boating or swimming.
  • MARINE WORKSHOP — A craft or repair workshop in a boat yard, harbour or naval dockyard.
  • MARINERS COTTAGE — The residence of a sailor.
  • MARITIME — Sites, building, structures & features associated with the construction, maintenance & supply of maritime craft. Includes associated ancillary structures such as navigation aids, dockyards, wharves, etc; does not include vessels.
  • MARITIME HOUSE — The residences of people associated with the sea.
  • MARITIME OFFICE — A building from where marine operations are directed.
  • MARKER CAIRN — A cairn erected to mark a particular spot in the landscape. Can be used for various reasons.
  • MARKER POST — A post, made of wood, metal or other material, erected to mark a particular spot in the landscape. Can be used for various reasons such as measurement, calibration etc.
  • MARKER STONE — A stone erected to mark a particular spot in the landscape. Can be used for various reasons.
  • MARKET — An open space or covered building in which cattle, goods, etc, are displayed for sale.
  • MARKET CROSS — A cross found in a market place.
  • MARKET GARDEN — A piece of land used to grow vegetables to be sold at markets.
  • MARKET HALL — A purpose built covered market hall, usually 19th century, although earlier examples do exist, eg. that at Abingdon, Oxfordshire c.1680.
  • MARKET HOUSE — A market building, pre-19th century, incorporating other function rooms, eg. theatres, courtrooms, schoolrooms.
  • MARKET PLACE — An area, often consisting of widened streets or a town square, where booths and stalls may be erected for public sales.
  • MARKET STALL — A structure, often movable, used as a platform for the display of a traders goods in a market.
  • MARL PIT — A pit from which marl, a mixture of clay and carbonate of lime, is excavated. Marl is used as a fertilizer.
  • MARQUEE — A large tent which can be used as accommodation for parties and exhibitions.
  • MARRIAGE FEAST HOUSE — A building, often close to a churchyard, used for the entertainment of poor people on their wedding day.
  • MARRIED QUARTERS — Purpose built accommodation for members of the armed forces and their families.
  • MARSH — A low lying area of land that is usually waterlogged at all times and is flooded in wet weather.
  • MARSHALLING YARD — A series of parallel railway sidings on which goods wagons originating from different locations can be sorted or re-sorted into new trains before being despatched to their next destination or sorting points.
  • MARSHMANS COTTAGE — The residence of a marsh keeper.
  • MARTELLO TOWER — A coastal gun/watch tower built as part of the anti-invasion defences during the Napoleonic Wars.
  • MASH HOUSE — A brewery building where malt is mixed with hot water to form wort.
  • MASONS MARK — A device, monogram or symbol incised in stonework by a mason as a means of identifying his work. Particularly common in Romanesque and Gothic buildings.
  • MASS GRAVE — A pit used to bury a large number of people who have died, or been killed, either as a result of warfare, epidemics or natural disasters.
  • MAST HOUSE — A building where masts are made and stored.
  • MAST POND — A pond with underwater arches where the poles for masts were stored to prevent them from drying and splitting.
  • MASTER ROPEMAKERS HOUSE — The residence of a master ropemaker.
  • MASTER SHIPWRIGHTS HOUSE — The residence of a master shipwright.
  • MASTING SHEERS — A pair of SHEER LEGS mounted on shore or on a SHEER HULK, used as a crane to hoist a mast and lower it into place on a ship.
  • MATCH FACTORY — A building where matches are manufactured.
  • MATCH LODGE — A building at the entrance to an factory manufacturing explosives where a person was searched for matches, prior to entering the workplace.
  • MATERNITY BLOCK — A hospital block where pregnant women are accommodated and receive medical treatment before and after child birth.
  • MATERNITY CLINIC — A self-contained establishment (out-patients) where pregnant women receive check-ups, counselling and medical treatment.
  • MATERNITY HOSPITAL — A hospital for the reception of women during their confinement.
  • MATHEMATICAL INSTITUTE — A building used by an organization or society instituted to promote the study of mathematics through lectures, research, etc.
  • MATTRESS FACTORY — A factory where matresses are made.
  • MATZEVAH — A Jewish graveyard headstone.
  • MAUSOLEUM — A monumental burial place, usually for a single person or family.
  • MAYCRETE HUT — A prefabricated structure of reinforced concrete posts supporting a pitched roof frame with an infilling of sawdust concrete panels. Produced by Maycrete Ltd during WWII.
  • MAYORS RESIDENCE — The official residence of the chief officer of the municipal corporation of a city or borough in England.
  • MAYPOLE — A high pole, painted with spiral stripes of different colours and decked with flowers, erected on an open space, often the village green, for merrymakers to dance around on May Day.
  • MAZE — A confusing and baffling network of winding and intercommunicating paths, often bordered by high hedges or walls. Some early examples are believed to have had ritual uses. Use more specific type where known.
  • MEADOW — A piece of grassland, often near a river, permanently covered with grass which is mown for use as hay.
  • MEAT CELLAR — A building or subterranean structure used for the storage of meat.
  • MEAT MARKET — A place where meat is displayed for sale.
  • MECHANICS INSTITUTE — A building where artisans could learn more about their craft, and the scientific and theoretical principles behind it, by attending lectures and the use of the reading room facilities.
  • MEDICAL BLOCK — A building, usually part of a complex, where medical treatment and hospital facilities are provided.
  • MEDICAL CENTRE — A building where advice, counselling and medical treatment is available.
  • MEDICAL COLLEGE — An establishment where the theory and practice of medicine is taught.
  • MEDITATION CENTRE — A building where people congregate to undertake sustained mental contemplation or religious or spiritual reflection.
  • MEERSTONE — A marker stone showing the extent of a measure of land containing a vein of ore.
  • MEETING HALL — A place where people meet for entertainment, discussion or assembly. Use more specific type where known.
  • MEMORIAL HALL — A hall built as a memorial to a particular person or event.
  • MERCHANTS HOUSE — Originally, a house of higher social status in a town or port, often with a storage cellar.
  • MESS — A military dining room where members of the armed forces eat and take recreation.
  • MESSUAGE — A dwelling-house with outbuildings and land assigned to its use.
  • METAL BOX FACTORY — A building or buildings used for the manufacture of metal boxes or cases.
  • METAL EXTRACTION SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the extraction of metal ores.
  • METAL FRAMED BUILDING — A modern building in which the load is carried by a metal girder framework and infilled with a light curtain wall.
  • METAL INDUSTRY SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the metal industry.
  • METAL PROCESSING SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the processing of non ferrous metal ores.
  • METAL PRODUCT SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the manufacture of products from metals.
  • METAL PRODUCTION FURNACE — A furnace where metal is manufactured from ore.
  • METAL SMELTING SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the smelting of metals.
  • METAL WORKERS WORKSHOP — A workshop used by a craftsman who works in base or precious metals.
  • METAL WORKING SITE — A site where metal is worked. Use specific type where known.
  • METAL WORKS — A complex of buildings used for the processing of metals. Use more specific type where known.
  • METHANE PLANT — A site where methane gas, released by coal mining, is collected and processed.
  • METHODIST CHAPEL — A place of worship for Methodists, a movement founded by John Wesley. Following his death in 1791 there were many secessions.
  • METHODIST NEW CONNEXION CHAPEL — A place of worship for followers of the Methodist New Connexion, a movement founded in 1791 when Alexander Kilham led the first group to split from the Methodists.
  • METHODIST REFORM CHAPEL — A place of worship for members of the Methodist Reform Church. This group was the result of a secession from the Methodists in 1849. They remained until joining with the Wesleyan Association in 1857.
  • MEWS — Traditionally a mew was a building housing hawks when they were moulting, however since the C16th the term has been used for a series of stables grouped around an open yard or alley, often with rooms above. Use only for stables otherwise use FALCONRY.
  • MICRARIUM — A building where artefacts, scientific specimens, antiquities and similar objects of interest could be examined through microscopes by members of the public.
  • MICROBREWERY — A small brewery, often situated in a public house, producing limited quantities of beer, for consumption locally and/or on the premises.
  • MID BREASTSHOT WHEEL — A waterwheel where the water enters at the same level as the axle.
  • MIDDEN — A refuse heap.
  • MIGRATED VILLAGE — The site of a deserted settlement in cases where there is evidence that it has deliberately been relocated in a single planned action, eg. to remove a settlement from an enclosed park, or to create a model community, as opposed to gradual abandonment.
  • MILE PLATE — A plate, usually of wood or metal, set up on a road, canal or railway to mark the miles from or to a place.
  • MILECASTLE — A small, walled fortlet, situated every Roman mile along the length of Hadrian's Wall to defend a gateway allowing the passage of people and as a garrison to accommodate patrol troops.
  • MILEFORTLET — A free standing small turf and timber fortlet, situated every Roman mile along Hadrian's Wall.
  • MILEPOST — A post or pillar set up alongside a road to mark the miles from or to a place.
  • MILESTONE — A stone set up on a road or path to mark the miles from or to a place.
  • MILITARY AIRFIELD — A landing and taking-off area for military aircraft. Often includes ancilliary structures and buildings for the maintenance and storage of aircraft, etc.
  • MILITARY AIRFIELD SITE — Buildings, structures and sites directly associated with the operation of military airfields. See also AIR TRANSPORT SITE in the TRANSPORT Class.
  • MILITARY BASE — A building or group of buildings, often surrounded by a system of fortifications, used as a residential and training site by members of an armed force.
  • MILITARY BUILDING — A building of unknown purpose found at a military site. Use more specific type where known.
  • MILITARY CAMP — A site where a body of troops is temporarily or permanently lodged, with or without entrenchments and fortifications.
  • MILITARY CANAL — A canal built as a military obstacle, but also used for the transport of military stores, equipment and personnel.
  • MILITARY CEMETERY — A burial ground for military personnel.
  • MILITARY CHAPEL — A place of worship for military personnel.
  • MILITARY COASTAL DEFENCES — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the defence of the coastline from foreign invasion.
  • MILITARY COLLEGE — A training college for the instruction of military trainees in the theory and practice of warfare.
  • MILITARY DEPOT — A building or group of buildings, often enclosed by a system of fortifications, used by an armed force for the storage and distribution of military equipment.
  • MILITARY HEADQUARTERS — A building used as the command centre of a military operation.
  • MILITARY HOSPITAL — A hospital for the medical and surgical treatment of military personnel and/or their families.
  • MILITARY INSTALLATION — A site and associated buildings used by the military for various purposes. Use only where exact function is unknown otherwise use more specific term.
  • MILITARY OBSERVATION SITE — Buildings, structures and sites for the detection of encroaching enemy forces.
  • MILITARY OFFICE — An administrative building used to organize and co-ordinate the activities of members of the armed forces.
  • MILITARY POLICE SECTION HOUSE — A building occupied by the corps responsible for police and disciplinary duties in the armed forces.
  • MILITARY PRISON — An institution for the imprisonment of military personnel convicted under military law by a military court.
  • MILITARY RESIDENCE — A residence for military personnel.
  • MILITARY ROAD — A road used primarily, but not exclusively, for the rapid transport of military vehicles, equipment and personnel.
  • MILITARY SIGNALLING SITE — Buildings and structures used for sending and receiving signals.
  • MILITARY SUPPORT BUILDING — An ancilliary building or structure associated with a military base. Use only where exact function is unknown otherwise use more specific term.
  • MILITARY TRAINING SITE — Buildings, structures and sites for the training of military personnel.
  • MILITARY TRANSPORT SITE — Sites and structures for the transport of military personnel, vehicles and armaments.
  • MILK DEPOT — A building where milk is deposited and stored before it is despatched to the consumer.
  • MILKING PARLOUR — A place used for the milking of cows.
  • MILKING SHED — A building in which cows are milked.
  • MILL — A factory used for processing raw materials. Use more specific mill type where known. See also TEXTILE MILL, for more narrow terms.
  • MILL DAM — A dam constructed across a stream to raise its water-level and make it available to power a mill wheel.
  • MILL HOUSE — The residence of a miller, often attached to a mill.
  • MILL LODGE — A northern term for water reservoirs at steam powered industrial sites that are part of the steam raising plant and are used for recirculating condenser cooling water. The lodge had to be large enough to supply the condenser with cool water for a day.
  • MILL POND — The area of water retained above a mill dam for driving a mill.
  • MILL RACE — The channel of water that provides a current of water to drive a millwheel.
  • MILLSTONE — One of a pair of large circular stones used for grinding corn in a mill.
  • MILLSTONE WORKING SITE — A site where millstones have been cut to shape and/or fabricated from smaller pieces of stone.
  • MINE — An excavation made in the earth for the purpose of digging out metallic ores, coal, salt, or precious stones etc. Use specific type where known.
  • MINE BUILDING — A building found at the site of a mine. Use specific type where known.
  • MINE DRAINAGE AND VENTILATION SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the drainage and/or ventilation of mines.
  • MINE LIFTING AND WINDING STRUCTURE — Buildings and structures associated with lifting and winding at the site of a mine.
  • MINE PUMPING SHAFT — A shaft, separate to the main working shaft, used to pump water out of the mine workings.
  • MINE PUMPING WORKS — A pumping station for draining a mine or colliery.
  • MINE SHAFT — A vertical or inclined excavation giving access to an underground mine.
  • MINED BRIDGE — A bridge which has had mines placed within its structure to enable it to be destroyed in the event of an invasion.
  • MINED ROAD — A road which has had mines placed within its structure to enable it to be destroyed in the event of an invasion.
  • MINEFIELD — An area of ground or water containing explosive mines.
  • MINERAL BATHS — Baths containing water impregnated with mineral substances in which patients bathe for medicinal purposes.
  • MINERAL DEPOT — A depot for the storage of various minerals.
  • MINERAL EXTRACTION SITE — Sites where minerals are extracted from the ground.
  • MINERAL JELLY STORE — A building where mineral jelly was stored. Mineral jelly was used as a stabilizer in the manufacture of the explosive, cordite.
  • MINERAL PIT — A pit in the ground from where minerals are dug.
  • MINERAL PRODUCT SITE — Buildings and sites associated with the production of materials made from minerals.
  • MINERAL RAILWAY — A railway used for the conveyance of coal and other minerals.
  • MINERAL WATER FACTORY — A factory which produces artificial imitations of mineral water, such as soda water.
  • MINERAL WATER HOSPITAL — A specialist hospital where water treatment is given to patients suffering from muscular-skeletal complaints, etc.
  • MINERS CHANGING HOUSE — A building for miners to change their clothes.
  • MINERS READING ROOM — An area of a building providing reading materials for the benefit of colliery workers.
  • MINES RESCUE STATION — A rescue station serving a number of mines in the immediate area.
  • MINEWATCHERS POST — A building with small observation ports used for plotting mines dropped by parachute.
  • MINIATURE GARDEN — A small-scale garden.
  • MINIATURE GOLF COURSE — A prepared area of ground, featuring a 'mini' golf course with obstacles, used to undertake the leisure pursuit of miniature golf or 'crazy golf'. Often popular at seaside resorts.
  • MINIATURE RAILWAY — A small-scale railway, often for the transportation of children at a place of recreation.
  • MINING EXCHANGE — A type of stock exchange for tin which replaced the stannary courts in the mid 19th century.
  • MINING INDUSTRY SITE — Buildings and structures associated with the mining industry.
  • MINISTRY OF SUPPLY LIVING HUT — A prefabricated structure of cant sided lightweight timber wall sections bolted together. Externally the walls were clad with plasterboard covered with felt. Designed for use as barrack accommodation during WWII.
  • MINISTRY OF SUPPLY TIMBER HUT — A prefabricated structure of a light timber frame with external weather boarded walls and a timber felt covered roof. They were used as barrack blocks during WWII. Manufactured by Magnet Limited.
  • MINISTRY OF WORKS HALL HUT — A prefabricated structure of lightweight timber wall sections bolted together. Externally the walls were clad with plasterboard covered with felt. Designed for use as officers accomodation during WWII.
  • MINISTRY OF WORKS STANDARD HUT — A concrete hut produced by the Ministry of Works as a cheaper alternative to the BCF Hut as any suitable wall cladding could be employed in its construction. Usually used to form barrack blocks on airfields from 1944 onwards.
  • MINK FARM — A building or group of buildings used for the raising of mink, a semi-aquatic mammal which is farmed for its fur.
  • MINKA — Standard dwelling of the non-ruling classes of Japan until the mid twentieth century. Minkas are timber-framed houses with mud-plastered panels and thatched roofs. The design varies from region to region. Minkas served as home as well as workplace.
  • MINSTER — A complex of buildings, often within an enclosure, housing a pre-Benedictine Reform secular religious community. Now commonly used to describe the main church within such a complex, which over time attained higher status.
  • MINT — A place where money is coined under public authority.
  • MISSILE BASE — A site for the storage, preparation and launching of missiles.
  • MISSILE FACTORY — A factory for the production of missiles
  • MISSILE SILO — An underground vertical cylindrical structure for the storage and launching of ballistic missiles.
  • MISSILE TEST SITE — An area for the testing of guided missiles.
  • MISSILE UNDERGROUND LAUNCHER — A prototype semi-underground silo based launch system specifically designed to hold and fire the Blue Streak Missile. The silo was constructed at RAF Spadeadam in c1959 and abandoned in April 1960.
  • MISSION — A building or compound housing a permanent establishment of members of a religious organization to do missionary work.
  • MISSION CHURCH — A church established by a religious community to propogate its faith.
  • MISSION HALL — A building used for meetings and worship by a religious community trying to propogate its faith in an area.
  • MITHRAEUM — A Roman sanctuary, devoted to the Graeco-Roman cult of Mithras.
  • MIXED BORDER — A bed or border in which different species and colours are mixed.
  • MIXED CEMETERY — A cemetery containing more than one burial type eg cremations and inhumations.
  • MIXING HOUSE — A building in which the ingredients of an explosive charge are weighed into their correct proportions and mixed prior to incorporation.
  • MIXING HOUSE BARN — A barn with steam powered threshing.
  • MOAT — A wide ditch surrounding a building, usually filled with water. Use for moated sites, not defensive moats. Use with relevant site type where known, eg. MANOR HOUSE, GARDEN, etc.
  • MOBILE SOUND LOCATOR — A mobile piece of equipment used by the Royal Observer Corps to track the movements of enemy aircraft.
  • MOBILIZATION CENTRE — An installation used to store ammunition and equipment ready for the mobilization of armed forces in the event of a war.
  • MODEL — Use for miniaturized monument type. Index with actual monument type where possible.
  • MODEL DWELLING — Flats or houses first built by 19th century philanthropic societies as a model to encourage the development of approved working class housing.
  • MODEL FACTORY — A factory built as a pattern for improved design.
  • MODEL FARM — A farm building erected in the 18th and 19th century which were architect-designed rather than built in the local vernacular style.
  • MODEL SETTLEMENT — A planned village or settlement, usually developed by a philanthropic industrialist , to house workers. Most include facilities for the education and betterment of the workers and their families.
  • MOLE — A massive structure, usually of stone, serving as a pier or breakwater, or joining two places separated by water.
  • MONASTERY — Houses specifically of monks, canons or religious men but not friars.
  • MONASTIC DWELLING — A residence for a member of a religious community eg. Abbot, Prior, Manciple etc. For multiple occupancy use more specific term eg. DORMITORY.
  • MONASTIC PRECINCT — The area surrounding a monastic house including conventual buildings, outbuildings, cemetery, fishponds, etc, usually marked out by a bank and/or ditch or precinct wall.
  • MONUMENT — Sites, buildings, structures & features categorized by their form rather than their function, where this has been deemed to be useful for retrieval purposes. Careful consideration will be given to the inclusion of new terms within this class.
  • MONUMENTAL CHAMBER — Building used for the display of inscription panels and memorials to those buried in the underlying catacomb.
  • MONUMENTAL MOUND — A mound in excess of 150 metres in diameter, of Late Neolithic date and presumed ritual function, eg. Silbury Hill.
  • MOORING BLOCK — Block, often made of concrete, to secure smaller maritime craft. Many were made during the Second Wold War to secure craft which were to be used in the D-Day landings.
  • MOORING BOLLARD — A post to which ropes are attached to secure vessels at a landing place.
  • MOORISH GARDEN — A garden incorporating features of Moorish-influenced Spanish gardens - water features, patios, benches, walls and compartments, evergreens, etc.
  • MOORISH PAVILION — An often light and airy garden building in the Moorish style used for recreational purposes.
  • MOOT — An outdoor meeting place.
  • MOOT HALL — A meeting hall, sometimes equivalent to a GUILDHALL, but also associated with some early mining industries.
  • MORAVIAN CHAPEL — A place of worship for Protestant followers of Hussite doctrines which accept the Bible as the only source of faith.
  • MORAVIAN SETTLEMENT — A community of Protestant followers of Hussite doctrines, first founded by Moravian emigrants in Saxony, Germany.
  • MORDANT WORKS — A chemical works producing mordants for the dying industry.
  • MORMON TEMPLE — A place of worship for the followers of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
  • MORRISON SHELTER — A portable indoor air raid shelter in the form of a steel topped table, often with wire meshing around the sides.
  • MORT SAFE — An iron frame placed over a coffin or at the entrance to a grave to act as a deterrent against resurrectionists.
  • MORTAR CRATER — A depression in the ground caused by the explosion of a mortar shell.
  • MORTAR MILL — A mill used for the production of mortar; a combination of sand, lime and water, used to make the joints between courses of bricks in buildings. In more recent times cement has replaced lime to create a quicker drying mortar.
  • MORTUARY — A building or room used for holding, viewing, identifying or examining dead bodies prior to burial or cremation.
  • MORTUARY CHAPEL — A place of worship at the site of a mortuary.
  • MORTUARY ENCLOSURE — A subrectangular earthen enclosure defined by a ditch, usually with an internal bank, assumed to have been used for the primary exposure or burial of human remains in the Neolithic period prior to secondary burial elsewhere.
  • MORTUARY HOUSE — Timber or stone built structure, traces of which are found within some long and round barrows, in which human remains were interred prior to mound construction.
  • MOSAIC — A picture or pattern produced by cementing together small pieces of stone or glass of various colours. May be in the form of a floor.
  • MOSQUE — A Muslim temple or place of worship.
  • MOSS HOUSE — A rustic garden building made of wood with moss pressed between the wall slats. The mosses could be of different types, forming a mossery.
  • MOTEL — A long, low-rise building consisting of rows of attached individual suites of rooms used for overnight accommodation by motorists.
  • MOTOR CYCLE FACTORY — A building where motor cycles are assembled.
  • MOTOR HOUSE — A building for housing, maintaining and repairing motor cars. Dating to the 1890s.
  • MOTOR TRANSPORT BUILDING — A building, on an airfield or military base, used for the maintenance and storage of motor vehicles.
  • MOTOR TRANSPORT PARK — A site, usually including hardstandings and associated buildings, used for the storage of military vehicles.
  • MOTOR TRANSPORT SHED — A building, on a military airfield or base, in which motor vehicles are housed.
  • MOTOR VEHICLE ENGINEERING SITE — Buildings and sites associated with the manufacture of motor vehicles.
  • MOTOR VEHICLE SHOWROOM — A building or room where motor vehicles are exhibited for sale.
  • MOTOR VEHICLE TESTING TRACK — A ground used for the performance testing of motor vehicles, for example prototype vehicles.
  • MOTORING TELEPHONE BOX — A roadside telephone box for use by motorists in need of assistance.
  • MOTORWAY — Fast arterial road with separate carriageways limited to motor vehicles
  • MOTTE — An artificial steep-sided earthen mound on, or in, which is set the principal tower of a castle.
  • MOTTE AND BAILEY — An early form of castle consisting of a flat-top steep-sided earthen mound, supporting a wooden tower, and a bailey.
  • MOULD LOFT — Used for the laying out and marking of the smaller parts of a ship prior to construction.
  • MOULD STORE — A building or room used for the storage of pottery moulds.
  • MOULDING HOUSE — A building or structure in which bricks are made.
  • MOULDMAKERS SHOP — A workshop used for the production of pottery moulds.
  • MOUND — A natural or artificial elevation of earth or stones, such as the earth heaped upon a grave. Use more specific type where known.
  • MOUNTING BLOCK — A block for mounting a horse.
  • MOVABLE BRIDGE — A type of bridge which has machinery and movable elements, eg. to allow vessels to pass.
  • MOVING CRANE — A crane which is driven by a petrol or diesel engine and travels on either crawler tracks or rubber tyres.
  • MOVING QUAY CRANE — A crane mounted on wheels and/or rails, used for the unloading of ships' cargoes.
  • MUFFLE KILN — A kiln in which the contents are protected from the fire, usually by a lining of tiles or refractory bricks.
  • MUG HOUSE — An 18th century cottage with a pottery kiln attached.
  • MULTI LEVEL BRIDGE — A bridge with two or more decks allowing it to carry various modes of transport at the same time.
  • MULTI STOREY CAR PARK — A car park, on two or more levels.
  • MULTI STOREY MILL — A mill, on two or more levels.
  • MULTI STOREY STABLE — A stable, on two or more levels.
  • MULTIPLE DITCH SYSTEM — A multiple, parallel arrangement of linear earthwork ditches, usually accompanied by banks, and often of considerable territorial extent. Usually of later prehistoric or Roman date.
  • MULTIPLE DWELLING — Buildings designed for the accommodation of large numbers of people, rather than single families, etc.
  • MULTIPLE ENCLOSURE FORT — Hillslope forts with wide spaced ramparts.
  • MULTIVALLATE HILLFORT — A hillfort enclosure with defences composed of more than one bank and ditch.
  • MULTIVALLATE RAMPART — A defensive embankment with three or more ditches.
  • MUNGO MILL — A mill for the manufacture of low grade cloth made from ground-up heavy woollen rags.
  • MUNICIPIUM — A town for citizens of Roman or Latin status with a constitution governed by charter, which if possessing only Latin rights could be promoted to the status of a colonia.
  • MUNIMENT HOUSE — A building where documents such as title-deeds, charters, etc, were kept as evidence of rights or privileges.
  • MUNITION HOUSE — A building for the storage of ammunition and other military stores.
  • MUNITIONS FACTORY — A building or site used for the manufacture of weapons, ammunition and military supplies. Use more specific type where known.
  • MURAL — A picture or pattern produced by either by cementing together small pieces of stone or glass of various colours or by painting directly onto a wall.
  • MUSEUM — A building, group of buildings or space within a building, where objects of value such as works of art, antiquities, scientific specimens, or other artefacts are housed and displayed.
  • MUSEUM SHIP — Permanently moored historic maritime craft preserved and converted into a museum and open to the public.
  • MUSIC HALL — A hall licensed for musical performances, singing, dancing and other entertainments, exclusive of dramatic performance.
  • MUSIC ROOM — A building or room, purpose built for the teaching, rehearsing and playing of music.
  • MUSIC SCHOOL — A building or school where music is taught.
  • MUSIC SPEECH AND DANCE VENUE — Buildings and structures associated with the performance of musical, oratory and dance events.
  • MUSICAL INSTRUMENT FACTORY — A factory where musical instruments are manufactured.
  • MUSLIM CEMETERY — A burial ground for followers of the Islamic faith.
  • MUSTARD MILL — A mill where mustard is produced.

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N

  • NAAFI BUILDING — A building, administered by the Navy, Army and Air Force Institutes, providing retail and leisure services to members of the armed forces.
  • NAIL FACTORY — A factory where nails are manufactured.
  • NAIL SHOP — A small work shop for nail manufacture, most commonly situated at the back of a nailer's dwelling.
  • NAILERS ROW — A terrace or row of dwellings, with a NAIL SHOP attached to each house.
  • NAMED TREE — A tree named after a person or event associated with it, e.g. Byron's Oak at Newstead.
  • NAPHTHA WORKS — A building or site used for the production of naphtha, a volatile petroleum-derived product used in the manufacture of solvents, cleaning fluids etc.
  • NARROW RIDGE AND FURROW — Long parallel soil ridges less than 5 metres across separated by furrows, formed by using a heavy plough capable of turning the soil.
  • NASHCRETE HUT — A prefabricated structure of reinforced concrete posts supporting a pitched roof frame with an infilling of concrete panels. Produced by during WWII as barrack accommodation and as emergency housing. Similar in style to Maycrete huts.
  • NATIONAL PARK — Areas of land that have been designated as national property where habitation and commercial activities are restricted to preserve their outstanding landscapes.
  • NATIONAL SCHOOL — A school established by the National Society which was founded in 1811 to promote the education of the poor.
  • NATURAL FEATURE — Use only for natural features mistakenly assumed to be archaeological or natural features with archaeological significance.
  • NATURAL GAS STRUCTURE — Buildings and structures associated with the processing and storage of natural gas.
  • NATURE RESERVE — Area of land set aside and managed for the preservation of flora, fauna, their natural habitats and physical features.
  • NAVAL BATTLEFIELD — Area or zone of sea where a battle, skirmish or action was fought between naval ships or warships and privateers. Not to be used for enemy action upon mercantile ships or a sudden strike by mine/torpedo against an enemy warship.
  • NAVAL COLLEGE — A shore establishment for the teaching of maritime theory and practical skills.
  • NAVAL DOCKYARD — A naval base that builds, repairs, docks or converts warships, and is manned by civilian engineers and workers and administered by engineer duty officers.
  • NAVAL GUNNERY RANGE — Range used by the Navy with reinforced observation huts which housed quadrant equipment to record accuracy and damage.
  • NAVAL HEADQUARTERS — A building used for the daily administration of the Royal Navy.
  • NAVAL OFFICE — A building used for a variety of administrative purposes, usually at a naval dockyard.
  • NAVAL OFFICERS HOUSE — The residence of a Royal Navy or Merchant Navy officer.
  • NAVAL OFFICERS MESS — A building providing accommodation, dining and recreational facilities for commissioned naval officers.
  • NAVAL STOREHOUSE — A building for the storage of all stores supplied for naval service other than victualling and armament.
  • NAVIGATION AID — Buildings, sites and structures used by mariners for purposes of navigation.
  • NEEDLE MILL — A mill or works where needles were manufactured.
  • NEPHROLOGY HOSPITAL — A specialist hospital for the medical and surgical treatment of kidney disorders and diseases.
  • NET HOUSE — A free-standing building with enough space to hang and dry nets.
  • NET LOFT — A component of another building, often a house, used for storing nets.
  • NET MAKING SITE — A building or room where nets are made
  • NETBALL COURT — A prepared area used for the game of netball.
  • NEUROLOGY HOSPITAL — A hospital for the treatment of diseases of the nerves and nervous system.
  • NEW CONNEXION OF GENERAL BAPTISTS CHAPEL — A place of worship for members of the New Connexion of General Baptists,an orthodox Baptist church which broke away from the General Baptists in 1770 when the latter became influenced by Unitarianism.
  • NEW TOWN — A settlement carefully planned from its inception and usually constructed in an area which was previously undeveloped. Many new towns were developed following the New Towns Act 1946.
  • NEWSPAPER OFFICE — A building or set of rooms where a newspaper is compiled and produced, before being printed. May include facilities for printing.
  • NICKEL MINE — Also use with other metal ores extracted and MINE where relevant.
  • NIGHT FIGHTER STATION WATCH OFFICE — A two storey building with a watch office on the ground floor and a control room above. Originally based on drawing number 12096/4.
  • NIGHTCLUB — An establishment open at night for refreshment and entertainment.
  • NISSEN HUT — A prefabricated structure of a steel frame clad in corrugated iron. Semi-circular in section they were used as accommodation for the armed forces and, during WWII, as emergency housing for bombed out civilians. Also used for storage.
  • NITRATE WORKS — A building or site producing nitrogen-rich fertilizer.
  • NITRE BED — A large bed surrounded by an earthwork and filled with composing vegetable matter and animal waste. This was used to produce Nitre, a constituent of gunpowder.
  • NITROCELLULOSE POWDER FACTORY — A factory or works principally engaged in the production of a single base propellant, using nitrocellulose without the addition of nitroglycerine.
  • NITROGLYCERINE WORKS — A works or factory where nitroglycerine is manufactured.
  • NODAL POINT — A designated area, usually sited at a strategic crossroads, with fixed defences such as pillboxes, anti tank ditches and gun emplacements, designed to act as a rallying point for defenders.
  • NON ANTIQUITY — Use to identify a feature, previously thought to be a monument but now disproved, or to avoid erroneous identification as a monument in future. Where a feature is regarded as an antiquity, but is unclassified, use SITE.
  • NONCONFORMIST CEMETERY — A burial ground for Nonconformists. Use more specific term where known.
  • NONCONFORMIST CHAPEL — A place of worship for members of Protestant sects dissenting from the established Church.
  • NONCONFORMIST CHURCH — A place of worship for members of Protestant sects dissenting from the established Church.
  • NONCONFORMIST MEETING HOUSE — A building used for services by a nonconformist protestant sect, especially by Quakers and Presbyterians.
  • NORTH LIGHT FACTORY — A type of factory building, often single-storey, designed so that windows incorporated into the vertical faces of its saw-tooth roof can allow the maximum amount of natural light into its interior.
  • NORTH LIGHT SHED — A single storey building designed so that windows incorporated into the saw tooth roof catch the available light.
  • NOTICE BOARD — A large board, often attached to the side of a building, on which advertisements can be displayed. Use for external structures only.
  • NOVICES ROOM — A room in a monastery used by monks or nuns as a day room.
  • NUCLEAR BUNKER — A reinforced concrete structure, often sited underground, used as a shelter from the threat of nuclear attack.
  • NUCLEAR COMMAND CENTRE — An underground structure from which operations covering the whole, or part, of the country could be directed in the event of a nuclear attack. Usually equipped with air filtration equipment and supplies for several months.
  • NUCLEAR POWER STATION — A complex of buildings producing power derived from nuclear energy.
  • NUCLEAR TEST SITE — Site associated with the testing of nuclear material or its containers.
  • NUNNERY — Houses specifically of nuns/canonesses or religious women.
  • NURSERY — A room or a building set aside for infants and young children.
  • NURSERY GARDEN — A horticultural site where trees, shrubs and plants are grown for sale and transplanting elsewhere.
  • NURSERY SCHOOL — A school for pre-Infant school children, usually 3-5 years old.
  • NURSES HOSTEL — A building where nurses live.
  • NURSES TRAINING SCHOOL — An establishment for the theoretical and practical training of nurses.
  • NURSING HOME — A residential home for older people or people with physical and/or mental disabilities who need care provided by registered nurses.
  • NYMPHAEUM — A grotto or shrine dedicated to the nymphs, composed of fountains designed to imitate a natural grotto.

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O

  • OASTHOUSE — A building for the storage and drying of hops, often including a hop drying kiln. Usually built as part of a farm.
  • OBELISK — A tall, tapering pillar with a pyramidal top, generally square on plan. Used in England from the late 16th century as a public, funerary or garden monument.
  • OBSERVATION POST — A building or site for watching specific military activities or the movement of enemy forces, etc.
  • OBSERVATION TOWER — An observation tower is a structure used to provide panoramic views of the surrounding area. They are often used as attractions at seaside resorts e.g. Blackpool Tower.
  • OBSERVATORY — A building containing celestial telescopes in which astronomical or meteorological phenomena may be observed.
  • OCCUPATION LAYER — A layer of remains left by a single culture, from which the culture can be dated or identified.
  • OCCUPATION SITE — A site showing some signs of occupation but evidence is insufficient to imply permanent settlement.
  • OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY UNIT — A centre where treatment and rehabilitation training is given to patients recovering from injuries or accidents.
  • OCEAN LINER TERMINAL — An area of a port, dock or harbour, often including buildings for passport control and customs, where passengers of ocean liners can embark/disembark and where supplies can be taken on board.
  • OCHRE MILL — A mill for grinding ochre for the paint making process.
  • OCHRE MINE — A site where iron oxide and iron sulphate is extracted.
  • OCHRE PIT — A site where iron oxide and iron sulphates, used as brown pigments, are excavated.
  • OCTAGONAL KILN — A kiln that is octagonal in plan. Use with functional kiln type where known.
  • OCTAGONAL TEMPLE — A garden building, octagonal in plan, designed in the style of a classical temple, used for standing or sitting in.
  • ODDFELLOWS HALL — A building used by the society, fraternity or order organized under this name with initiatory rites, mystic signs of recognition and various degrees of dignity or honour, for social or benevolent purposes.
  • OFFICE — A building or room where business, administrative or professional activities are conducted. Use specific type where known.
  • OFFICERS MESS — A building providing dining facilities and recreation for commissioned officers.
  • OFFICERS QUARTERS — A building where military officers are accommodated.
  • OFFICIAL RESIDENCE — Used where an existing building is designated as the residence of an official.
  • OGHAM STONE — Upright stones engraved on the edges with a Celtic script consisting of lines or notches.
  • OHEL — Prayer hall at burial ground, especially a small walk-in memorial devoted to a deceased Hasidic rabbi.
  • OIL DISTILLERY — A site used for the separation of oil into its constituent parts by heating in an enclosed vessel(s).
  • OIL ENGINE — An internal combustion engine powered by the combustion of vapourized oil.
  • OIL FIRED POWER STATION — An electricity-producing power station fired by oil.
  • OIL FUEL BERTH — A purpose built quay for supplying ships with fuel.
  • OIL MILL — A factory where fruit and seed oil is produced by an oil machine.
  • OIL PUMP — A piece of machinery used to raise oil from a well.
  • OIL REFINERY — A works where crude oil is distilled into its fractions or cuts.
  • OIL RETORT HOUSE — A structure erected for the processing of shale, to extract oil through heating.
  • OIL RIG — A supporting structure for drilling machinery used in the extraction of or prospecting for mineral oils.
  • OIL SILO — An underground structure for the storage of mineral oil.
  • OIL WELL — A site where petroleum is drawn.
  • OIL WORKS — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the retrieval, refining, processing and storage of petroleum oil.
  • OILCLOTH MILL — A mill in which oilcloth (a heavy cotton or linen cloth with a linseed oil coating) was produced.
  • OLYMPIC VLLAGE — Residential area built to house athletes and their coaches at the Olympic Games. The buildings are generally reused as public housing after the contest.
  • ONION DRYING SHED — A building where onions are laid out to dry.
  • OPEN AIR SCHOOL — An early to mid 20th century school designed to effect maximum ventilation and sunlight for its pupils.
  • OPEN AIR THEATRE — An outdoor theatre for the staging of dramatic productions.
  • OPEN AIR WARD BLOCK — A hospital ward block, completely open on the south side apart from a low railing and sun blind. It was thought beneficial for the recovery of wounded soldiers as well as those with diseases of the chest.
  • OPEN BRETHREN MEETING HOUSE — A place of meeting and worship for Open Brethren, a non exclusive fundamentalist puritan sect which was created when the Brethren split in 1847.
  • OPEN CAST MINE — An excavation open to the sky, caused by the extraction of coal, stone or similar. Use with product type where known.
  • OPEN FIELD — An area of arable land with common rights after harvest or while fallow. Usually without internal divisions (hedges, walls or fences).
  • OPEN HALL HOUSE — A house consisting of a single storey hall with two storey domestic ranges attached to either one or both ends.
  • OPEN HEARTH FURNACE — A form of blast furnace. Steel is smelted in an open hearth while the waste gases are used to preheat the air blast.
  • OPEN ROPEWALK — A long, narrow, rectangular plot of land used for the manufacture of rope. Usually walled, it may include small buildings and awnings at each end. Often attached to a warehouse.
  • OPEN SITE — A Palaeolithic or Mesolithic occupation site, excluding occupations of caves and rock shelters. Evidence for occupation may include traces of hearths and other structures.
  • OPEN TRAINING PRISON — An institution for the imprisonment of prisoners who can be trusted to serve their sentence without likelihood of escape and of being a threat to the public. There is no physical barrier designed to prevent absconding.
  • OPENCUT — A linear open working along a lode vein, worked directy from the surface. Survives as a gully or ravine, normally with closed ends.
  • OPERA HOUSE — An often ornately decorated theatre for the performance of opera.
  • OPERATING THEATRE — A room where surgical operations are performed. Originally in the form of a room with a raised table surrounded by tiered seating from where students could watch an operation or disection be performed.
  • OPERATIONAL READINESS PLATFORM — An area on post-war military airfields for parking aircraft on quick reaction alert to allow immediate access to the runway. Abbreviation ORP.
  • OPERATIONS BLOCK — A building of varying designs intended for directing military aviation operations. Normally associated with military airfields.
  • OPERATIONS ROOM — A room used for directing military operations and exercises.
  • OPPIDUM — An imprecise term used to describe large Iron Age settlements of town-like proportions.
  • OPTICIANS — An establishment for the testing of eyesight, making up of optical prescriptions and the sale of spectacles.
  • ORANGERY — A gallery or building in a garden, usually south facing, used for the growing of oranges and other fruit.
  • ORCHARD — An enclosure used for the cultivation of fruit trees.
  • ORCHARD HOUSE — A forcing house used for various types of fruit which first appeared in the 19th century. Lean-to houses were used for wall-grown fruit and free-standing houses for fruit grown in pots or for trees planted in the ground.
  • ORDNANCE DEPOT — A building or site used by the armed forces for the storage and issuing of military stores and materials.
  • ORDNANCE DISPOSAL SITE — Site for the disposal of unexploded ordnance, possibly attached to a bombing range.
  • ORDNANCE FACTORY — A building or site used for the manufacture of small arms and artillery pieces, etc.
  • ORDNANCE STORE — A building or site used by the armed forces for the storage and issuing of military stores and materials.
  • ORDNANCE STOREKEEPERS HOUSE — The residence of a storekeeper of naval ordnance.
  • ORDNANCE YARD — A storage area usually for naval weapons and stores.
  • ORE CHUTE — A stone or timber lined channel for conveying ore out of a working.
  • ORE HEARTH — A furnace for smelting ore in which the fuel and ore are mixed.
  • ORE STORE — A storehouse for ore, often found in conjunction with a BLAST FURNACE.
  • ORE WASHING PLANT — A plant incorporating a range of ore processing operations such as buddles.
  • ORE WORKS — A site or building where ore is processed to obtain metal.
  • ORGAN BLOWING CHAMBER — A dedicated room for housing the organ feeder bellows, can be an underground chamber or a free-standing building.
  • ORGAN FACTORY — A factory where musical organs are manufactured.
  • ORIENTAL INSTITUTE — A building used by an organization or society to promote the study of oriental languages and history through lectures, research, etc.
  • ORLIT HUT — A prefabricated structure of reinforced concrete posts and beams with infillings of pre stressed concrete planks and felted slabs. Initially used for military barracks in WWII and later for civilian housing. Manufactured by the Orlit Company.
  • ORLIT POST — A small prefabricated, reinforced concrete structure manufactured by Messrs Orlit Ltd for the Royal Observer Corps. The first were ordered in 1951, most were redundant by 1955, a few remained in use in eastern England until 1965.
  • ORNAMENTAL BATH — An ornamental garden feature, sometimes with an associated bath house.
  • ORNAMENTAL BRIDGE — A bridge built to enhance or compliment the surrounding landscape. Mainly found on estates or in parkland and usually 18th and 19th century.
  • ORNAMENTAL CANAL — An artificial stretch of water, usually rectangular in shape, used decoratively, particularly in formal gardens, eg. Long Water, Hampton Court. Occasionally used to supply water to cascades.
  • ORNAMENTAL CLEARING — An area of land, usually planted with creeping plants and turf, laid out in a woodland landscape to produce the natural effect of a clearing.
  • ORNAMENTAL CLOCK — A functioning clock designed to serve also as an ornamental feature or sculpture.
  • ORNAMENTAL FOUNTAIN — An often highly elaborate water fountain, usually found in parks, gardens or urban spaces.
  • ORNAMENTAL GARDEN — A decorative garden, often landscaped, laid out with intricate flower beds and hedges, and often containing ornate sculptures, fountains and garden ornaments.
  • ORNAMENTAL LAKE — An artificial lake, often made by damming a stream. A common feature of landscape parks.
  • ORNAMENTAL POND — A small artificial pond of water often found in parks and gardens, for decorative purposes.
  • ORPHAN SCHOOL — A school for parentless children.
  • ORPHANAGE — A public institution for the care and protection of children without parents.
  • ORTHODONTICS DEPARTMENT — A hospital department for the medical and surgical treatment of teeth disorders.
  • ORTHODOX CHURCH — A place of worship for followers of the Orthodox Catholic Church. Use only where the specific denomination is unknown.
  • ORTHOPAEDIC DEPARTMENT — A department devoted to the curing or correcting of physical deformities.
  • ORTHOPAEDIC HOSPITAL — A hospital devoted to the curing or correcting of physical deformities.
  • OSIER BED — A place where osiers (willows) are grown for basket-making.
  • OSSUARY — A building, site or container used to store the bones of the dead after they have been removed from graves to allow new burials.
  • OUBLIETTE — An underground cell, usually hidden and accessed only through a trapdoor, in which a prisoner was confined and then allegedly forgotten about.
  • OUTBUILDING — A detached subordinate building. Use specific type where known, eg. DAIRY.
  • OUTDOOR PLAYHOUSE — A purpose built theatre with a central open yard, dating to the Elizabethan period. Famous examples include The Globe and the Swan.
  • OUTDOOR SWIMMING POOL — An unenclosed feature, usually sub-terranean, constructed to contain water for public or private recreation and sporting avtivities. Sometimes part of a LIDO complex. Use INDOOR SWIMMING POOL for pools with a covering structure.
  • OUTFALL SEWER — The outlet or mouth of a sewer where it dispenses into the sea, lake, etc.
  • OUTFARM — A multi-purpose farm building in an outlaying area of a farm.
  • OUTFITTER — A shop that sells men's clothes, either off the peg, bespoke or both.
  • OUTPATIENTS DEPARTMENT — A hospital department which treats patients without keeping them in overnight or for a longer period.
  • OVAL BARROW — A form of Neolithic long barrow comprising an oval, rather than rectangular or trapezoidal mound.
  • OVAL ENCLOSURE — An oval shaped area of land enclosed by a boundary ditch, bank, wall, palisade or similar barrier.
  • OVEN — A brick, stone or iron receptacle for baking bread or other food in.
  • OVERBRIDGE — A bridge that crosses over a railway.
  • OVERHEAD CRANE — A hoist suspended from a girder within the roof of a building or workshop.
  • OVERSHOT WHEEL — A waterwheel turned by the force of water falling upon the top of the wheel into buckets placed round the circumference.
  • OX BOW STONE — Stone for holding ox yokes.
  • OX ENGINE HOUSE — A round or polygonal building containing a wheel turned by an ox to provide power.
  • OXHOUSE — A building in which oxen are accommodated.
  • OXLAND WORKS — Any building, group of buildings, or site at which tungsten ores have been converted to sodium tungstate by means of the Oxland Process. This was first used at Drakewalls Mine, Cornwall, in 1850.
  • OYSTER BEDS — A place where oysters are bred for consumption.

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  • PACKAGING EQUIPMENT FACTORY — A factory used to make packaging equipment.
  • PACKAGING FACTORY — A factory used to make packaging.
  • PACKHORSE BRIDGE — A high-humped, narrow, cobbled bridge used by trains of packhorses, often located in upland areas where the bulk of goods were carried by horses.
  • PACKHORSE ROAD — Narrow, rough tracks often over upland routes used by packhorse trains to carry goods.
  • PACKHORSE SHELTER — A building in which pack animals could shelter.
  • PACKING HOUSE — An ancillary building in a factory or other industrial complex where manufactured goods are packaged.
  • PADDOCK — An enclosed field for horses.
  • PAGODA — A tall, polygonal structure with ornamental roofs at each storey which is associated with Buddhist temples; the style was adapted for secular eyecatchers and pavilions in the 18th century in England.
  • PAINT FACTORY — A building or buildings used for the production of paints, varnishes, colours and distemper.
  • PAINT SHOP — Workshop for the painting of vehicles, machines, etc.
  • PAINTBALLING SITE — Site or building used for paintballing.
  • PALACE — A substantial house in a town or the country (particularly associated with medieval London). Use more specific monument types where known.
  • PALAEOCHANNEL — The course or channel of a river or stream preserved as a geological feature.
  • PALISADE — An enclosure of stakes driven into the ground, sometimes for defensive purposes.
  • PALISADE DITCH — A ditch associated with a palisade.
  • PALISADED ENCLOSURE — An enclosed settlement surrounded by a single or double row of close-set timbers embedded in a foundation trench, without ditches or banks.
  • PALISADED HILLTOP ENCLOSURE — A small, defended settlement dating to the Early Iron Age, located on spurs, promontories or hilltops. The defences are marked by single or double trenches which originally held substantial palisades.
  • PALISADED HOMESTEAD — A small, defensive settlement, usually consisting of one dwelling and ancillary buildings, surrounded by a palisade.
  • PALISADED SETTLEMENT — A settlement site enclosed within a timber palisade.
  • PALISSADE — Originally a fence against which trees and shrubs were grown. Later used to describe a row of trees and shrubs forming a hedge clipped into a green wall.
  • PALM HOUSE — A greenhouse used for growing palms and/or tropical plants.
  • PAN HOUSE — A component of a salt works housing iron pans where the brine was evaporated above a furnace and flue. Such houses were lightly built in order to allow the heat and steam to escape.
  • PANHOUSE — A building containing pans in which salt water or brine was boiled to produce salt.
  • PANORAMA — A building, usually circular, or containing circular rooms, for the exhibition of panorama paintings.
  • PAPER INDUSTRY SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the production and use of paper.
  • PAPER MILL — A factory where paper is made. Use with power type where known.
  • PAPER YARN MILL — Factory where yarn is made from paper.
  • PARACHUTE AND CABLE LAUNCHER — A site where a cable was fired into the air, with parachutes attached to either end, to present an aerial obstruction to bring down, through contact, fouling and general drag, or obstruct the passage of an aircraft. Usually found as one of a group.
  • PARACHUTE STORE — Distinctive clerestory-roofed building, used for the drying and storage of military parachutes.
  • PARACHUTE STORE (10825/42) — A distinctive, clerestory-roofed building of three 10ft and two 12ft bays, used for the drying, storage and packing of military parachutes and built to Air Ministry drawing number 10825/42.
  • PARACHUTE STORE (11137/41) — A distinctive, clerestory-roofed building of five 10ft bays, used for the drying, storage and packing of military parachutes and built to Air Ministry drawing number 11137/41.
  • PARACHUTE STORE (175/36) — A protected parachute store similar in design to the 6351/37 except constructed wholly from reinforced concrete.
  • PARACHUTE STORE (17865/39) — A distinctive, clerestory-roofed building of five 10ft bays, used for the drying, storage and packing of military parachutes and built to Air Ministry drawing number 17865/39.
  • PARACHUTE STORE (2355/25) — A brick-built building with four windows on the north-facing wall with a pitched roof and with a dormer roof light on both sides, intended for drying, storing and packing parachutes.The 2355/25 was the first design for a purpose-built parachute store.
  • PARACHUTE STORE (3633/35) — A hut 51ft long by 20ft wide used to dry, store and pack parachutes.Similar in design to the 2355/25, but constructed in timber instead of brick.
  • PARACHUTE STORE (6351/37) — A protected parachute store built with permanent brick cavity walls and a roof of reinforced concrete slabs in two heights separated by lantern lights.
  • PARADE GROUND — A place where military personnel parade, practice marching, assemble or muster for a march or any other special purpose.
  • PARALLEL PLAN — A farmstead, often of linear plan, where the working buildings are placed opposite and parallel to the house and attached working buildings with a relatively narrow space between.
  • PARCHMENT WORKS — A works used for the production of parchment from animal skin.
  • PARISH BOUNDARY — The limit line of a parish.
  • PARISH CHURCH — The foremost church within a parish.
  • PARISH HALL — A hall built for the use of people living within a parish boundary.
  • PARISH SCHOOL — A school serving or supported by a parish. Usually teaching religious as well as conventional education.
  • PARK — An enclosed piece of land, generally large in area, used for hunting, the cultivation of trees, for grazing sheep and cattle or visual enjoyment. Use more specific type where known.
  • PARK HOME — A prefrabicated home sited in parks where a pitch fee is charged. Although technically mobile they usually only make one journey before being permanently installed.
  • PARK PALE — A wooden stake fence, often associated with deer hunting.
  • PARK SHELTER — A shelter in a public park.
  • PARK WALL — A stone or brick wall enclosing a park.
  • PARKING METER — A coin-operated meter receiving fees for parking a vehicle in a street, and indicating time allowed.
  • PARLIAMENT HOUSE — A building in which a parliament meets and conducts the business of government.
  • PARROT HOUSE — A building or cage in which parrots are bred and kept.
  • PARTERRE — A level space in a garden occupied by ornamental flower beds.
  • PARTIAL SOLAR SALT WORKS — A coastal site producing salt by solar evaporation of seawater in a series of PONDS, followed by boiling of the concentrated brine in a PANHOUSE
  • PARTICULAR BAPTIST CHAPEL — A place of worship for Particular Baptists, a Calvinistic Baptist denomination who believe in predestination.
  • PASSAGE GRAVE — A form of Neolithic burial monument comprising a large circular stone or earthen mound, with a low and narrow entrance passage leading to a wider and higher stone built chamber.
  • PASSIVE AIR DEFENCE SITE — Sites, buildings or structures involved in passive air defence, usually by forcing hostile aircraft to fly high or drop their bombs on the wrong targets. Use more specific term.
  • PASTURE — A field covered with herbage for the grazing of livestock.
  • PATENT SLIP — An inclined plane with a cradle designed to lift a ship from the water onto a slip.
  • PATH — A way made for pedestrians, especially one merely made by walking (often not specially constructed).
  • PATHOLOGY DEPARTMENT — A hospital department where research and treatment into the causes and nature of diseases or abnormal bodily conditions is carried out.
  • PATIENTS VILLA — A detached block within a hospital complex used as sleeping accommodation for patients.
  • PATIO — A small paved area attached to a building.
  • PATTE D'OIE — A garden featrue where several allees radiate from a single point (usually the house). French for 'Goose Foot'
  • PATTERN SHOP — Workshop for the manufacture of master parts from working drawings which are then used as patterns for mass manufacture.
  • PATTINSON REFINERY — A long building with a louvred roof in which silver is refined using the Pattinson Process, which had been developed in the 1830s.
  • PAUPER SCHOOL — A school for the teaching of poor children, often the recipients of Poor Law relief.
  • PAVEMENT — A path or road for pedestrians, laid or beaten in with stones or other materials.
  • PAVEMENT LIGHTS — A frame containing glass tiles or bricks set into a pavement to allow the lighting of basement areas.
  • PAVILION — A light, sometimes ornamental structure in a garden, park or place of recreation, used for entertainment or shelter. Use specific type where known.
  • PAVILION SCHOOL — A school design consisting of single-storey buildings with classrooms entered from a verandah.
  • PAVILION WARD BLOCK — Detached block comprising one or more storeys of wards.
  • PAWNSHOP — A pawnbrokers shop or place of business.
  • PAY OFFICE — An office for the payment of wages, especially in industrial or commercial complexes.
  • PEACE CAMP — An informal encampment, usually near a military establishment, set up as a public protest against that establishment or against some aspect of military policy.
  • PEACOCK HOUSE — A building used to house peacocks.
  • PEAT CUTTING — A site where peat (vegetable matter decomposed in water and partly carbonised), used for fuel, is cut.
  • PEAT EXTRACTION SITE — A site used for the extraction of peat.
  • PEAT STAND — A structure used to dry peat on.
  • PEAT STORE — A fuel store for the storage of dried peat.
  • PEAT WORKINGS — Sites and structures associated with the cutting and processing of peat.
  • PEDESTAL — A concrete, cylindrical pedestal on which a spigot mortar was mounted. The pedestal is often the only evidence for a Spigot Mortar emplacement to survive.
  • PEDESTRIAN CROSSING — A path across a road, usually marked as a crossing for pedestrians.
  • PEDESTRIAN PRECINCT — An area in a town where traffic is prohibited, often containing shops.
  • PEDESTRIAN TRANSPORT SITE — Sites and structures associated with pedestrian transport.
  • PEDESTRIAN TUNNEL — An underground foot tunnel primarily constructed to allow for the passage of pedestrians beneath an over ground obstacle.
  • PELE TOWER — A strong, fortified dwelling, of between two and four storeys. Occupied only in times of trouble built mainly in the border country of the North from the mid 14th to the 17th century.
  • PELOTA COURT — A court, usually with only 2 walls, used for playing pelota and its variants.
  • PELTON WHEEL — An impulse water turbine comprising a wheel with hemispherical cups arranged around the circumference using high water pressure to revolve the wheel.
  • PEN — A small enclosure for cattle, sheep, swine, poultry, etc. Use more specific type where known.
  • PEN FACTORY — A building or buildings used for the production of pens.
  • PEN POND — A pond storing water to supply a HAMMER POND.
  • PENCIL MILL — A factory where pencils are manufactured.
  • PENCIL SHARPENING STONE — A stone, usually found in a schoolyard, either built into a wall or forming part of a free standing structure, on which pencils can be sharpened. Although increasingly rare examples do survive.
  • PENGUIN POOL — A pool of water, and ancillary buildings, designed to accommodate penguins.
  • PENITENCE MAZE — A maze used for the act of penitence.
  • PENITENTIARY — An institution for convicted prisoners held under a regime which strove to reform by means of silent isolation and labour.
  • PENSTOCK — A pipe, usually of reinforced concrete or metal, which delivers pressurized water from a dam to hydraulic turbines.
  • PENTAD HANGAR — An all-steel end-opening, hangar with canted sides designed for folded-wing aircraft.
  • PENTECOSTALIST CHURCH — A place of worship for followers of the Pentecost (ie. emphasising the gifts of the Holy Spirit).
  • PEOPLES COLLEGE — A training college where workers can attend classes in vocational subjects. The classes are often day-release and sanctioned by the employer.
  • PERCEE — A cutting through a wood to open up a view or establish an allee.
  • PERFUMERY — A place where perfume is sold, as well as manufactured.
  • PERGOLA — Timber or metal structure consisting of upright and cross members designed to support climbing plants.
  • PERIMETER TRACK — The outer boundary of an airfield.
  • PET FOOD FACTORY — Factory for the production of Pet Food.
  • PETANQUE TERRAIN — A prepared piece of ground on which the game of Petanque is played.
  • PETRIFYING WELL — A well with an unusually high mineral content that combined with extensive periods of evaporation may give objects a stony exterior. Once believed to have been caused by magic or witchcraft.
  • PETROCHEMICAL SITE — Buildings and plant used for the refining of oil or the production of chemicals using oil.
  • PETROL PUMP — A pump used to transfer petrol from a storage tank into cars, lorries and other road vehicles.
  • PETROL STATION — A place where vehicles can be filled up with petrol, oil, water, etc.
  • PETROLEUM WARFARE SITE — A site, usually including fuel tanks, pipe works and control buildings, where flaming petroleum was intended to be used as a weapon against a hostile invasion.
  • PETTY SESSIONS COURT — A court of summary jurisdiction formally recognized by statute in 1848. Renamed Magistrates Court, following legislation, in 1949.
  • PEWTER WORKS — A site or building used for the manufacture of goods made from pewter, an alloy of tin and lead.
  • PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMICAL SITE — Sites used for the production of drugs and other medical products.
  • PHARMACEUTICAL WORKS — A large-scale site where medicinal drugs are maufactured.
  • PHARMACY — A building where the study and practice of preparing, preserving, compounding and dispensing drugs is performed.
  • PHEASANTRY — A place where pheasants are reared and kept.
  • PHENOL WORKS — A chemical works engaged in the production of the coal tar derivative phenol, a chemical used for the manufacture of explosives during WWI.
  • PHILOLOGICAL SCHOOL — A place where the science of historical and comparative language is taught.
  • PHOENIX CAISSON — A floatable concrete vessel, numbers of which made up the main breakwater of the Mulberry Harbours used to secure beachheads during the allied invasion of Europe in June 1944.
  • PHOTO INTERPRETATION CENTRE — A building in which photographers, taken for aerial reconnaissance purposes, are analysed and interpreted to provide intelligence on enemy activities.
  • PHOTOGRAPHIC GALLERY — A place where photographs are displayed for sale.
  • PHOTOGRAPHIC STUDIO — A place where photographs are taken of people or things on a commercial basis.
  • PHYSIC GARDEN — A garden maintained for the study and cultivation of plants for medicinal purposes.
  • PHYSICAL DISABILITY HOSPITAL — Specialist hospital treating patients with physical disabilities.
  • PHYSIOTHERAPY DEPARTMENT — A hospital department where heat, light, sound, electricity, etc, is administered to patients suffering from muscular or skeletal disorders.
  • PIANO FACTORY — A factory where pianos are manufactured.
  • PICKER HOUSE — Working area for rag sorting and grading.
  • PICKETT HAMILTON FORT — A sunken, circular, concrete pillbox used on airfields. They remained flush with the surface to permit the free movement of aircraft but, if attack threatened, could be raised hydraulically or by a counterbalance, and manned to give covering fire.
  • PICRIC ACID WORKS — A chemical works engaged in the manufacture of the coal tar derivative, picric acid, often associated with the textile industry where it was used as a dye, but more commonly with the explosives industry where it was used as the shell filling Lyddite.
  • PIE AND MASH SHOP — A cheap eating establishment traditionally serving jellied eels, pies and mash.
  • PIECE ROOM — Part of textile mills.
  • PIER — A structure of iron or wood, open below, running out into the sea and used as a promenade and landing stage.
  • PIER PAVILION — A pavilion at the end of a PLEASURE PIER.
  • PIERMASTERS HOUSE — The residence of a piermaster.
  • PIERMASTERS OFFICE — Office used by a Piermaster.
  • PIGEON CREE — A housing for racing pigeons usually situated in allotments of back yards.
  • PIGGERY — A place where pigs are reared.
  • PIGSTY — An enclosure for pigs that includes a covered pen and yard.
  • PILE — Component: Use wider site type where known.
  • PILE DWELLING — A dwelling built on marshy, boggy or waterlogged land using timber piles driven vertically into the ground to raise the floor above the ground to prevent flooding.
  • PILLAR BOX — A hollow pillar, erected in a public place, containing a receptacle for posting letters.
  • PILLBOX — An often squat building with thick, loopholed walls and a flat roof, designed to accommodate a variety of weapons, usually strategically positioned to cover a vulnerable point in a defensive system. Many were built to standardized designs.
  • PILLBOX (AIR MINISTRY PATTERN) — A pillbox built to a design drawn up by the Air Ministry. Usually found on or near airfields.
  • PILLBOX (ASSAULT TRAINING) — A pillbox constructed for use in training exercises forming part of a simulated defensive position
  • PILLBOX (CANTILEVERED) — A pillbox in which the roof is detached from the walls and supported by a central pillar, thus leaving an embrasure allowing a 360 degree field of fire.
  • PILLBOX (MODIFIED) — A pillbox which has been modified from a standard Directorate of Fortifications and Works design. Double index with specific type where known.
  • PILLBOX (PREFABRICATED) — A pillbox constructed of prefabricated concrete panels. Double index with specific type where known.
  • PILLBOX (SHELLPROOF) — A pillbox with walls that have been thickened to protect against shells. Double index with specific type where known.
  • PILLBOX (TYPE 391) — A pillbox built to a design drawn up by the chief engineer of GHQ home forces.
  • PILLBOX (TYPE CE124/41) — A pillbox built to a design drawn up by the chief engineer of South-Eastern Command.
  • PILLBOX (TYPE CE2717) — A pillbox built to a design drawn up the chief engineer of Scottish Command
  • PILLBOX (TYPE CE2843) — A pillbox built to a design drawn up the chief engineer of Scottish Command
  • PILLBOX (TYPE CE390) — A pillbox built to a design drawn up by the chief engineer of GHQ home forces.
  • PILLBOX (TYPE CP/6/40/111) — A circular pillbox, usually consisting of a concrete pipe with a timber and corrugated iron roof, surrounded and covered by earth and sandbags. Built to a design by Norcon Ltd, a company dealing in concrete pipes.
  • PILLBOX (TYPE CRE TL62) — A pillbox built to a design drawn up by the commander of the Royal Engineers in Southern Area (Taunton Line).
  • PILLBOX (TYPE CRE1094) — A pillbox built to a design drawn up by the commander of the Royal Engineers for the Colchester Garrison.
  • PILLBOX (TYPE CRE1116) — A pillbox built to a design by the commander of the Royal Engineers for the Colchester Garrison.
  • PILLBOX (TYPE FW3/22) — A hexagonal pillbox, with an internal anti-ricochet wall and loopholes for fives light machine guns and one rifle. Originally designed to have 15in bulletproof walls many were built with 42in thick shellproof walls. Designed by DFW branch 3.
  • PILLBOX (TYPE FW3/23) — A rectangular pillbox with an enclosed square plan section for three light machine guns and an adjacent open area housing a mounting for a light anti-aircraft weapon. Designed by DFW branch 3.
  • PILLBOX (TYPE FW3/24) — A hexagonal pillbox with an interanl anti-ricochet wall. The rear wall was lengthened to take two rifle loopholes in addition to the five light machine gun. Both 15in and 42in thick walls are common. Designed by DFW branch 3.
  • PILLBOX (TYPE FW3/25) — A circular pillbox designed by the Engineering and Metals Company using 'Armco' corrugated iron sheets as the inner and outer skins into which concrete was poured, giving a 12in wall thickness. The design was taken up by DFW and assigned a drawing number.
  • PILLBOX (TYPE FW3/26) — A square pillbox with loopholes for four light machine guns with 18 in thick walls. Probably designed by DFW branch 3 although it may have been adapted from an external source as Southern Command correspondence refers to the type as 'Stento'.
  • PILLBOX (TYPE FW3/27) — A large octagonal pillbox, with a projecting entrance, equipped with loopholes for eight light machine guns and a light anti-aircraft mounting sited in a central well which was accessed from inside the pillbox. Designed by DFW branch 3.
  • PILLBOX (TYPE FW3/28) — A square pillbox with walls up to 48in thick, designed to emplace a 2 pounder anti-tank gun. A large opening in the back allowed the gun to be wheeled into position at the large embrasure in the front wall. Designed by DFW branch 3.
  • PILLBOX (TYPE FW3/28A) — A large, rectangular pillbox based on the FW3/28 with the addition of a small infantry chamber to one side of the main gun chamber.
  • PILLBOX (TYPE FW3/45) — A pillbox design, assigned a drawing number by DFW branch 3. Although originally believed to be a distinct type, FW3/45 has recently been found to be a design for modifications to existing types. Double index with specific type where known.
  • PILLBOX (TYPE FW3/46) — A pillbox design, assigned a drawing number by DFW branch 3. Although originally believed to be a distinct type, FW3/45 has recently been found to be a design for modifications to existing types. Double index with specific type where known.
  • PILLBOX (TYPE PD541) — A circular pillbox designed by the Croft Granite, Brick and Concrete Company, with six loopholes. With no roof or door access was gained through the roof.
  • PILLBOX (VARIANT) — A pillbox which varies from standard designs.
  • PILLORY — A wooden frame with holes, through which the head and hands of an offender were thrust, in which state they would be exposed to public ridicule and assault.
  • PILLOW MOUND — A pillow-shaped, flat topped rectangular mound often surrounded by a shallow ditch used to farm rabbits.
  • PILLOW STONE — A small Anglo-Saxon cross-slab buried on the breast or beneath the head of a corpse.
  • PILOT OFFICE — An office used by a qualified pilot, expert in ship-handling and with local knowledge, who assists the captain or master to take a vessel in or out of a harbour or through narrow waters.
  • PIN FACTORY — A building where pins are manufactured.
  • PIN MILL — A building or site used for the manufacture of pins.
  • PINERY — A glasshouse used for growing pineapples.
  • PINETUM — An arboretum devoted mainly to the growing of conifers.
  • PINNACLE — A vertical, pointed structure usually resembling a pyramid or cone. Use for component of a larger building type where it is now used as a freestanding ornament.
  • PIPE BRIDGE — Bridge for carrying pipes between buildings or working areas.
  • PIPE WORKSHOP — A workshop used for the manufacture of clay tobacco pipes.
  • PIPELINE — A conduit or pipes, used primarily for conveying petroleum from oil wells to a refinery, or for supplying water to a town or district, etc.
  • PIPELINE BRIDGE — A bridge used for carrying liquids, usually water, although sometimes oil, in a pipeline over a river. Mid 19th century onwards.
  • PISCINA — A perforated stone basin usually built into the wall of a church on the south side of the altar. Used for carrying away the ablutions (wine and water used to rinse the chalice, and wash the priests hands after communion).
  • PIT — A hole or cavity in the ground, either natural or the result of excavation. Use more specific type where known.
  • PIT ALIGNMENT — A single line, or pair of roughly parallel lines, of pits set at intervals along a common axis or series of axes. The pits are not thought to have held posts.
  • PIT CIRCLE — An enclosure of Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age date, related to henges, defined by a circular arrangement of pits, probably none of which originally held posts. More than one circle, concentrically arranged, may be present.
  • PIT CLUSTER — A spatially discrete group of pits usually containing artefactual material with little or no accompanying evidence for structural features.
  • PIT DEFINED ENCLOSURE — An enclosure where the boundary consists of a line of discrete pits, as opposed to a continuous ditch. Use with a term that describes the shape of the monument.
  • PIT TRAP — A pit used to trap game. Often originally covered and consealed, and sometimes with sharpened stakes in the base.
  • PITCH MAKING HEARTH — A hearth constructed specifically for the manufacture of pitch.
  • PITCHBACK WHEEL — A type of waterwheel where the incoming supply of water leaves a launder near the top of the wheel, and drops onto the paddles or buckets of the wheel which rotates in the reverse direction to that of the incoming flow.
  • PITHEAD BATHS — A building containing the colliery showers. Also often containing first aid and mine rescue facilities.
  • PLACE OF WORSHIP — A place where appropriate acts, rites and ceremonies are performed to honour or revere a supernatural being, power or holy entity. Use specific type where known.
  • PLAGUE CEMETERY — A burial ground for victims of the plague.
  • PLAGUE MEMORIAL — A commemorative monument to victims of the plague.
  • PLAGUE PIT — A deep pit used for the burial of plague victims.
  • PLAGUE STONE — A stone on which plague victims placed vinegar-disinfected money to pay for food left for them by the townspeople.
  • PLAIN AN GWARRY — A Cornish Medieval amphitheatre used for the performance of mystery plays and sports.
  • PLANETARIUM — A building incorporating a model representation of the planetary system projected onto the ceiling.
  • PLANING MILL — Mill for producing a smooth surface and edges on newly sawn timber.
  • PLANNED SETTLEMENT — A settlement built to a pre-determined plan, including housing, infrastructure and associated amenities.
  • PLANT BED — A plot of earth used for the raising of plants.
  • PLANTATION — A group of planted trees or shrubs, generally of uniform age and of a single species.
  • PLANTATION BANK — An earthen bank indicating the limit of a plantation.
  • PLAQUE — An ornamental, commemorative tablet. Use with materials field when indexing.
  • PLASTER MANUFACTURING SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the manufacture of plaster.
  • PLASTER MILL — A factory where rock gypsum is ground into a powder used in the production of plaster.
  • PLASTER WORKS — A site incorporating all of the production processes for the manufacture of plaster.
  • PLASTIC SURGERY DEPARTMENT — A hospital department concerned with the reconstruction or repair of parts of the human body using transferred tissue, either in the treatment of injury or for cosmetic reasons.
  • PLASTICS FACTORY — A factory for the production of plastics by chemical processes.
  • PLATE GLASS WORKS — A factory used for the production of thick, flat glass used for shop window panes, etc. Plate glass is produced by rolling and casting rather than traditional blowing.
  • PLATE RACK — A storage rack for sections of steel plate used in the construction of ships.
  • PLATERS SHOP — Large covered spaces where the steel plate used for ship construction was cut and marked out, prior to being craned onto the hull, etc.
  • PLATEWAY — A track consisting of flanged strips used in early colliery railways.
  • PLATFORM — Unspecified. Use specific type where known.
  • PLATFORM BARROW — The rarest of the recognized types of round barrow, consisting of a flat, wide circular mound, which may be surrounded by a ditch. They occur widely across southern England with a marked concentration in East and West Sussex.
  • PLATFORM CAIRN — A roughly circular monument featuring a low, more or less level platform of stones surrounded or retained by a low stone kerb. Some may feature a small central open area, thus resembling a ring cairn.
  • PLATFORM SHELTER — A structure providing protection against the weather, situated on railway platforms.
  • PLATING WORKS — A factory or group of buildings used for the production of plated goods. Plating is the process whereby one metal object is coated with a thin layer of another metal.
  • PLAYGROUND EQUIPMENT — Fixed equipment, such as slides, swings and climbing frames for children to play on. Often found in playgrounds, parks and school grounds.
  • PLAYGROUND SHELTER — A rudimentary roofed building found in school playgrounds, open at the side. Used as a shelter from bad weather.
  • PLAYING FIELD — A field or piece of ground used for the playing of games and other activities.
  • PLEASANCE — An area attached to a house, or part of an estate used for pleasure and recreation.
  • PLEASURE GARDEN — A type of 18th century public park, with refreshment houses, concert rooms, etc.
  • PLEASURE PIER — A seaside pier used as a promenade and amusement park.
  • PLEDGE DEPOT — A municipal pawnshop.
  • PLOUGH HEADLAND — A narrow strip of land where a plough and team could turn. This usually remains higher than the ploughed land.
  • PLOUGH MARKS — The subsoil traces of cultivation, presumed to have been caused by the use of a plough to till the soil.
  • PLUNGE POOL — A small cold water bath, often known as a natatio when part of a Roman bath complex.
  • PLUTO SITE — A site associated with Operation PLUTO (Pipe Line Under The Ocean) the operation to supply the allies with fuel following the invasion of Normandy.
  • POINT BLOCK — A tall multi-storey block of flats, slender with a square plan.
  • POLICE BOX — A metal, wooden or concrete box containing a telephone for use by the public, limited accommodation for use as a temporary cell, and a lamp on top that could be used to attract the attention of a passing patrol.
  • POLICE HOUSE — A building providing lodgings for police constables.
  • POLICE STATION — The office or headquarters of a local police force, or of a police district.
  • POLICE TELEPHONE PILLAR — A metal pillar with a flashable lamp on top containing an emergency telephone for use by members of the public and by officers of the local police force.
  • POLICE TRAINING COLLEGE — An educational establishment for the training of police cadets.
  • POLISHING SHOP — A building in which engineered metal products are finished and polished.
  • POLISSOIR — Stone used for grinding or polishing during the manufacture of lithic implements
  • POLITICAL CLUB — A building owned by a constituency political party which provides a meeting place for local political activities and also provides entertainment facilities for its members and guests.
  • POLO FIELD — A piece of prepared ground on which the game of polo is played.
  • POLYGONAL ENCLOSURE — An area of land, roughly shaped like a polygon and enclosed by a boundary ditch, bank, wall, palisade or similar barrier.
  • POLYTECHNIC — An educational institution, introduced in the 1960s. Distinguished from universities by traditionally training technicians in business, industry and commerce for an immediate local area, and offering more part-time classes, etc.
  • POLYTUNNEL — A plastic covered tunnel designed to protect vulnerable plants from the weather and allow vegetables to be grown out of season
  • POND — A body of still water often artificially formed for a specific purpose. Use specifc type where known.
  • POND BARROW — A monument featuring an artificial circular shallow depression surrounded by a bank which runs around the rim of the depression.
  • POND BAY — Form of dam, usually associated with ponds supplying water for blast furnaces.
  • PONTOON BRIDGE — A floating bridge, generally temporary, whose decks are supported on low flat-bottomed or hollow floats.
  • PONTOON PIER — A form of floating, moveable pier designed for use in open water.
  • POOL — A small body of water, either natural or artificial.
  • POOR SOULS LIGHT — A small, ornate structure in which candles were placed either during masses for the dead or to indicate the position of the cemetery at night .
  • PORT — A settlement area that combines a harbour and terminal facilities at the interface between land and water transportation systems.
  • PORT ADMIRALS HOUSE — The residence of an admiral of a port.
  • PORT AUTHORITY OFFICE — The office of the body controlling a harbour and docks.
  • PORTABLE BUILDING — Prefabricated small building that is designed and built to be movable rather than permanently located.
  • PORTAL — A door, gate, doorway or gateway of grand or elaborate construction. Use specific type where possible.
  • PORTAL DOLMEN — A megalithic tomb of Neolithic date comprising a chamber bounded by large upright orthostats, often only three or four in number, which support a large capstone.
  • PORTAL FRAMED SHED — Mass produced iron framed shed usually clad in metal sheeting.
  • PORTCULLIS — A heavy grating, often made of wood or iron, usually lowered vertically as a defensive barrier at the entrance to a gatehouse or barbican.
  • PORTERS LODGE — A small building used by the keeper of a castle, park, etc.
  • PORTERS REST — A small structure comprising of a 'shelf' of wood or metal sitting on pillars and erected for the benefit of porters to allow them to rest their burdens.
  • POSITION FINDING STATION — A structure consisting of different cells equipped with instrument posts which supported finders. These provided range and bearing of the projected position of the target to guns emplaced in a nearby battery. Errected along the coast in the late 1870s.
  • POST ALIGNMENT — An alignment of posts or postholes of unknown function
  • POST BOX — A box in which letters are posted or deposited for dispatch.
  • POST BUILT STRUCTURE — A structure indicated by the presence of post holes and of uncertain interpretation.
  • POST HOLE — A hole dug to provide a firm base for an upright post, often with stone packing. Use broader monument type where known.
  • POST MILL — A type of windmill, mainly timber-framed, whose body, containing machinery and carrying the sail, rotates about an upright post.
  • POST MILL ROUNDHOUSE — A circular or octagonal building at the base of a post mill to provide storage space and to give protection to the superstructure. The roundhouse is not attached to the mill itself. Some roundhouses were later converted for domestic purposes.
  • POST OFFICE — A building, department or shop where postal business is carried on.
  • POST TRENCH — A construction trench dug to receive a line of posts for a wall, with associated packing.
  • POSTAL SYSTEM STRUCTURE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the collection, distribution, sending and reception of mail.
  • POSTERN — A small gateway cut through the curtain wall or its flanking towers. Used primarily as an outlet for counter-attacking forces.
  • POT ARCH — Type of furnace used in the glass industry to pre-heat glass in crucibles, prior to the main melt. This may have been a separtate structure, or may have been part of the main furnace. All periods from the Roman onwards.
  • POTASH KILN — A kiln used for the slow burning of vegetable matter to produce potassium carbonate.
  • POTASH MINE — A mine from which potash is obtained. Potash is a deposit of potassium carbonate: the only example of a potash mine in the country is at Boulby in Cleveland.
  • POTTERY KILN — A structure, composed of oven and hovel, used for the firing of pottery ware.
  • POTTERY MANUFACTURING SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the production of pottery. Use only for sites where there is evidence of pottery manufacture but no specific monument, otherwise use more specific term.
  • POTTERY WORKS — A complex of buildings used for the manufacture of pottery.
  • POTTERY WORKSHOP — A building or room where items of pottery are manufactured. Includes handcrafted and machine made pottery.
  • POTTING SHED — A shed in which delicate plants are reared from seedlings for planting out later.
  • POULTIGGERY — A building combining a pigsty at ground level with a poultry house in a loft over.
  • POULTRY HOUSE — A structure providing accommodation for poultry.
  • POUND — A pen, often circular and stone-walled, for rounding up livestock.
  • POUND LOCK — A common type of lock in the form of a chamber with gates on either side.
  • POWDER MAGAZINE — A place in which gunpowder and other explosives are stored in large quantities.
  • POWER GENERATION SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the generation and transmission of power.
  • POWER HOUSE — A building housing the permanent electricity generator supply for domestic use or small scale unspecified power generation on an airfield. Unlike stand by set houses, power houses had to cope with both essential and non-essential loads.
  • POWER HOUSE (1380/24) — A power house built to Air Ministry drawing number 1380/24.
  • POWER HOUSE (207/17) — A power house built to Air Ministry drawing number 207/17 and comprising four rooms; a driver's room, workshop and store, battery room and engine room containing 2 generator sets.
  • POWER HOUSE (476/18) — The standard RFC power house built to Air Ministry drawing number 476/18 and comprising an engine room with a small workshop and driver's room.
  • POWER LOOM SHED — A building housing a number of power looms.
  • POWER STATION — A building or set of buildings and structures where power, especially electrical or mechanical, is generated. Use more specific type where known.
  • PRACTICE TRENCH — A system of trenches dug by troops for practice purposes.
  • PREACHING CROSS — A cross, erected on a highway or in an open place, at which monks and others used to preach.
  • PREACHING PIT — A large, circular hollow, often with a platform and seating built into the sides, used for preaching.
  • PRECEPTORY — A manor or estate owned and run by an order of knights and governed by a preceptor.
  • PRECINCT — The ground immediately surrounding a place, particularly a religious building.
  • PRECINCT WALL — A wall enclosing a precinct.
  • PREFABRICATED BRIDGE — A bridge manufactured from prefabricated sections.
  • PREFABRICATED BUILDING — A building constructed from prefabricated sections. Use more specific type where known.
  • PREFABRICATED CLASSROOM — A classroom constructed from prefabricated sections.
  • PREFABRICATED HOUSE — A type of prefabricated house erected, to 11 approved designs, as part of the Temporary Housing Programme, between 1944 and 1948. This scheme was devised to relieve the post-war housing shortage at a time when conventional materials were unavailable.
  • PREMONSTRATENSIAN ALIEN CELL — A residence of two or three monks of the Premonstratensian order dependent on a foreign mother house.
  • PREMONSTRATENSIAN CELL — A residence of two or three monks of the Premonstratensian order dependent on an English mother house.
  • PREMONSTRATENSIAN GRANGE — An outlying farm or estate belonging to the Premonstratensian order.
  • PREMONSTRATENSIAN MONASTERY — An abbey or priory of Premonstratensian canons.
  • PREMONSTRATENSIAN NUNNERY — A priory of Premonstratensian canonesses.
  • PREPARATORY SCHOOL — An independent school for children up to the age of 11 or 13 in which pupils are prepared for entry into a public school.
  • PRESBYTERIAN CHAPEL — A place of worship for Presbyterians, a movement who started off attempting to reform Anglicanism before breaking away in 1660. Sometimes referred to as moderate puritans, they joined with the Congregationalists to form the United Reformed church in 1972.
  • PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF WALES CHAPEL — A place of worship for Welsh Presbyterians. Formerly known as Calvinistic Methodists, the Presbyterian Church of Wales separated from the established church in 1811.
  • PRESS HOUSE — A building containing presses for the compaction of mill cake gunpowder as part of the gunpowder manufacturing process.
  • PRESS SHOP — A workshop containing machinery used to press textiles.
  • PRIEST HOLE — A hiding place for a (Roman Catholic) priest.
  • PRIESTS HOUSE — The residence of a priest.
  • PRIMARY SCHOOL — A school which combines the functions of both Infant and Junior Schools, teaching children up to the age of eleven. Use specific type where known.
  • PRIMATE HOUSE — A building used to house apes and monkeys.
  • PRIMITIVE METHODIST CHAPEL — A place of worship for Primitive Methodists, a group who were formed in Staffordshire and influenced by American evangelical ideas and who left the Methodists in 1811.
  • PRINT SHOP — A printer's workshop in the newspaper/publishing industries.
  • PRINTING AND PUBLISHING SITE — Buildings and sites associated with the printing and publishing industry.
  • PRINTING SHOP — A workshop for printing textiles in a CALICO PRINTING WORKS.
  • PRINTING WORKS — A factory or complex containing machinery for the manufacture of printed materials.
  • PRIORY — A monastery governed by a prior or prioress. Use with narrow terms of DOUBLE HOUSE, FRIARY, MONASTERY or NUNNERY.
  • PRISON — An establishment where offenders are confined. Use more specific type where known.
  • PRISON CHAPEL — A chapel for a prison, either attached or in a separate building.
  • PRISON GOVERNORS HOUSE — The residence of a prison governor.
  • PRISON HULK — The hull of a dismantled ship used as a prison.
  • PRISON TREADMILL — An appliance for producing motion by the stepping of men on movable steps on a revolving cylinder. Used as a form of punishment in prisons.
  • PRISON VISITORS CENTRE — A centre attached to a prison where families and friends can visit with the inmates.
  • PRISONER OF WAR CAMP — A prison site for the containment of servicemen captured in war.
  • PRIVATE CHAPEL — A small private chapel in a church or house, either attached or in a separate building.
  • PRIVATE NURSING HOME — A privately-funded home for the care of the elderly.
  • PRIVATE PATIENTS WARD — An area within a hospital where patients receiving privately-funded medical and surgical treatment are accommodated. Often includes separate rooms.
  • PRIVATE SCHOOL — A school that is established, run and supported by a private, non-governmental body.
  • PRIVATE SQUARE — An open area, often paved or cobbled, surrounded by privately owned buildings and inaccessible to the public.
  • PRIVATE SURGERY — A surgery where patients who pay for medical treatments are seen and treated.
  • PRIVY HOUSE — A small building housing a lavatory.
  • PRODUCER GAS HOUSE — A building used to manufacture Producer Gas. Producer Gas is a mix of gases formed by passing compressed air through hot coke.
  • PRODUCTIVE WALLED GARDEN — A large kitchen garden enclosed by a substantial wall, not usually adjacent to its associated house.
  • PROFESSIONAL INSTITUTE — A building used by organizations or societies for the promotion of a particular profession through lectures, research, etc.
  • PROMENADE — A place for strolling, public walks, etc. Usually associated with coastal resorts.
  • PROMONTORY FORT — A defensive enclosure created by constructing one or more lines of ramparts across a neck of land, in order to defend, or restrict access to, a spur or promontory, either inland or on the coast.
  • PROOF RANGE — A site where weapons and/or explosives are tested experimentally, or are routinely tested as part of a manufacturing quality control process.
  • PROPRIETARY SCHOOL — A school in which the funds were raised through a system of shareholding whereby parents bought shares in the school and thus paid for their children's education.
  • PROSPECT MOUND — An artificial mound, generally conical, placed within a garden or park to provide a viewing point to overlook the garden or park. It may also serve as a visual focus in the garden or park layout.
  • PROSPECT TOWER — A tower built on a prominent part of an estate to provide panoramic views of the surrounding countryside.
  • PROSPECTING PIT — A pit dug in the prospect of finding valuable minerals, coal, metal ores, etc, beneath the ground surface.
  • PROTEST CAMP — A temporary settlement established as a public protest against an aspect of government policy or more specifically the development of a site.
  • PROTESTANT METHODIST CHAPEL — A place of worship for Protestant Methodists, a group who broke away from the Methodists to form their church in Leeds in 1828.
  • PROVING HOUSE — A building used for the testing of weapons for quality, accuracy and explosive power.
  • PROVOSTS HOUSE — The residence of the head or president of a chapter, or community of religious persons.
  • PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITAL — Nowadays a hospital where patients suffering from psychiatric disorders receive medical care and treatment. Traditionally they were often places where psychiatric patients were kept confined away from society receiving minimal medical care or attention.
  • PSYCHIATRIC WARD — A section of a hospital specializing in the treatment of patients with serious mental disorders.
  • PSYCHIATRIC WARD BLOCK — Nowadays a hospital block where patients suffering from psychiatric disorders receive medical and surgical treatment. Formerly a place where psychiatric patients were primarily segregated from other patients in a hospital.
  • PUBLIC ASSISTANCE INSTITUTION — Name given to a workhouse after 1929. The Local Government Act of 1929 abolished Poor Law Unions and Guardians, and control passed to public assistance authorities run by county boroughs and county councils. Lasted until 1948 when poor laws were repealed.
  • PUBLIC BUILDING — A building or group of buildings owned and operated by a governing body and often occupied by a government agency. Use specific type of building where known.
  • PUBLIC CONVENIENCE — A toilet or toilets for public use.
  • PUBLIC HALL — A purpose-built hall (usually 19th century) which was available for public hire and could be used for a variety of activities, eg. lectures, meetings, balls and concerts.
  • PUBLIC HOUSE — The public house was a 19th century development, distinctive from the earlier BEER HOUSE by its decorative treatment and fittings.
  • PUBLIC LIBRARY — A library for use of the public.
  • PUBLIC PARK — A park for the use of the public for entertainment and relaxation.
  • PUBLIC SCHOOL — An endowed school providing a liberal education for such as can afford it.
  • PUBLIC SQUARE — An open area, often paved or cobbled, surrounded by buildings and accessible to the public.
  • PUBLIC WASH HOUSE — A laundry built in conjunction with a PUBLIC BATHS.
  • PUBLISHING HOUSE — An establishment where books, periodicals, music, etc, are produced from original manuscripts and distributed to booksellers, dealers and the public.
  • PUDDLING FURNACE — A reverberatory furnace used for forging wrought iron from pig iron using coal as fuel.
  • PUG MILL — Machine, frequently horse powered, for mixing raw clay into brick earth.
  • PULP MILL — Building housing the machinery for the shredding and grinding of wood in running water and pressing of the resulting fibres into a pulp.
  • PULPIT — Use as an external architectural feature only.
  • PUMP — A machine used to raise and move water and other liquids, compress gases, etc. Use more specific type where known.
  • PUMP HOUSE — A small pumping station.
  • PUMP ROOM — A room or building where a pump is worked.
  • PUMP ROOMS — A spa building to which water was pumped from springs or wells; usually also serving a social function as an ASSEMBLY ROOM, eg. as at Bath.
  • PUMPING STATION — A waterworks pumping station.
  • PUNISHMENT PLACE — A site where acts of corporal and capital punishment were carried out.
  • PURIFIER — A machine used in a mill to remove bran scales and flour from grits or middlings.
  • PURIFIER HOUSE — A building, within a gas works, housing a gas purifier.
  • PUT ON STONE — A stone used to instruct a coachman to take an extra trace horse to assist on roads of a steep gradient.
  • PUTTING GREEN — An open area of prepared ground used for practising putting with golf clubs.
  • PUTTY MILL — A factory where putty, used as a means of securing windows and for setting plumbing fixtures, is produced from a combination of whiting and oil.
  • PYROTECHNIC STORE (2647/37) — A protected building used for the storage of explosives and other pyrotechnic equipment and designed to Air Ministry drawing number 2647/37.

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Q

  • Q PIT — A kiln in the form of a pit dug into the earth which was used for the the production of white coal prior to the Industrial Revolution.
  • Q SITE — A decoy site designed to simulate the flarepath lighting of permanent RAF stations, to lure attacking night bombers away from legitimate targets.
  • Q SITE SHELTER (3395/40) — An operations room, built to drawing number 3395/40, to control the lighting arrays of the 'T' type of bombing decoy in use during the Second World War. It was semi-sunken for added protection and then covered in earth
  • Q SITE SHELTER (367/41) — An operations room, built to drawing number 367/41, to control the lighting arrays of the DREM type of bombing decoy in use during the Second World War. Unlike earlier designs it was surface built and then covered in earth to protect against flooding.
  • QF SITE — A decoy fire positioned close to a legitimate target which would be lit in the event of an incendiary attack in the hope that subsequent bombs would be drawn to the area of the decoy.
  • QL SITE — A decoy site designed to simulate permitted lighting, such as locomotives, furnaces and tramwire flashes, to lure attacking night bombers away from legitimate targets.
  • QUADRANGULAR CASTLE — A castle built on a simple, rectangular plan, usually with a tower at each corner. This design became common in England after 1300.
  • QUADRANT TOWER — An enclosed observation tower, usually made of brick or concrete and raised on four legs, associated with WW2 bombing ranges.
  • QUADRIGA — A sculptured group comprising a chariot drawn by four horses.
  • QUARRY — An excavation from which stone for building and other functions, is obtained by cutting, blasting, etc.
  • QUARRY HOIST — Machinery for lifting pieces of stone or loaded trucks out of a quarry.
  • QUARTERMASTERS STORE — A building or group of buildings used for the storage and issuing of rations and equipment to an army unit.
  • QUASI AISLED HOUSE — A house with no row of posts between the central space and the aisles.
  • QUAY — An artificial paved bank or solid landing place built parallel to, or projecting out from, the shoreline to serve in the loading and unloading of vessels.
  • QUAY CRANE — A crane located on a quayside used for the loading and unloading of goods and materials to and from vessels.
  • QUERN WORKING SITE — A site used for the manufacture and finishing of querns.
  • QUINCUNX — A geometrical planting of trees in the form of the number 5 as represented on a dice.
  • QUINTAIN — An object supported by a crosspiece on a post, used by knights as a target in tilting.
  • QUOITS GROUND — An area of ground used for the game of quoits.
  • QUONSET HUT — A lightweight prefabricated structure of corrugated galvanized steel having a semicircular cross section. The design was based on the Nissen hut developed by the British during the First World War.

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R

  • RABBIT TRAP — Term applied to both the pit trap itself, and the walled enclosure containing pit trap(s).
  • RABBIT TYPE — Term applied to a pit trap itself and also a walled enclosure containing one or more pit traps.
  • RABBIT WARREN — An area used for the breeding and rearing of rabbits.
  • RACE TRACK — A piece of ground on which athletes race.
  • RACECOURSE — An area or route marked out for the site of a race.
  • RACECOURSE PAVILION — A building situated next to a horse racing course with facilities for participants and spectators.
  • RACING CIRCUIT — A piece of ground used for motor racing.
  • RACING SPORTS SITE — A building, site or structure associated with various racing sports.
  • RACING STABLE — A building or range of buildings used to accommodate race horses.
  • RACKET SPORTS SITE — A building, site or structure associated with the playing of racket sports.
  • RACKING ROOM — A building or room where beer is decanted from conditioning tanks, into casks or barrels.
  • RACQUETS COURT — A plain four walled court used to play the game of racquets on.
  • RADAR BEACON — A structure which allows aircraft fitted with radar equipment to 'home' in on an airfield in the dark or in poor visibility, and land safely. Radar beacons can also be used as navigation aids.
  • RADAR MAST — A tall, usually steel, structure used to receive and transmit radio signals in order to determine the height, distance and number of aircraft approaching.
  • RADAR STATION — A building or site incorporating equipment used for detecting the presence of enemy aircraft or ships. Radar Stations can also be used to aid aircraft navigation in dark or poor conditions.
  • RADAR STATION SET HOUSE — A building housing the generator set and associated equipment supplying electricity to a radar station.
  • RADIO BROADCASTING STUDIO — A place where radio programmes are produced and broadcast.
  • RADIO POSITIONING STATION — An offshore station, equipped with a fixed electronic radio navigation and positioning system such as Hyperfix. The transmission principle are pulsed and phase comparisons systems. Superceded by Global Positioning System in 1994.
  • RADIO STATION — A building or group of buildings containing equipment capable of transmitting and receiving radio signals. Use BROADCASTING RADIO STATION for broadcasting establishments e.g. BBC Radio stations.
  • RADIO STUDIO — A room or building used for recording and broadcasting radio programmes.
  • RADIO TELEGRAPHY MAST — A tall, usually steel, structure used to receive and transmit radio telegraphy signals.
  • RADIO TELEGRAPHY STATION — A building or group of buildings, incorporating radio masts, built to intercept radio transmissions from enemy vessels and aircraft during WWI and WWII.
  • RADIO TELESCOPE — A large dish-like structure designed to observe the invisible outerspace phenomena detected by radio waves, eg. Jodrell Bank.
  • RADIO VALVE WORKS — A complex of buildings used for the manufacture of radio valves or similar electronic components.
  • RADIOGRAPHY DEPARTMENT — A place where patients have X-Rays taken to highlight an illness or irregularity.
  • RADIUM INSTITUTE — A building where radium is used in the treatment of cancer.
  • RAG GRINDING MILL — A mill in which textile rags were ground, either to enable the fibres to be respun or to use the pulp in the manufacture of paper.
  • RAG GRINDING SHED — Shed for grinding rags, eg. for use in mungo and shoddy mills.
  • RAG MILL — A mill used for grinding textile rags.
  • RAG SORTING HOUSE — A building in which textile rags are sorted according to fibre types.
  • RAGGED SCHOOL — A free school for poor children.
  • RAIDSAFE SHELTER — A small, industrially manufactured, air raid shelter, designed to be used inside buildings and to provide cover for nightwatchmen or firewatchers remaining on site during air raids.
  • RAIL DEPOT — A railway yard with associated buildings used for the maintenance and storage of locomotive engines and rolling stock.
  • RAILBLOCK — Obstacles, often semi permanent, which are placed on railway lines to prevent the enemy from using them. Set up during the defence of Britain.
  • RAILINGS — A fence or barrier made of metal or wooden rails.
  • RAILWAY — A line or track consisting of iron or steel rails, on which passenger carriages or goods wagons are moved, usually by a locomotive engine.
  • RAILWAY BRIDGE — A bridge carrying a railway track across a river, valley, road etc.
  • RAILWAY BUFFET — A small eating and drinking establishment or refreshment bar at a railway station for the use of passengers.
  • RAILWAY BUILDING — A building or structure of unknown function found on a railway. Use more specific type where known
  • RAILWAY CARRIAGE — Use for stationary railway carriage being used for a purpose it wasn't originally intended for - office, shelter, etc.
  • RAILWAY CARRIAGE SHED — A building used to house railway carriages.
  • RAILWAY CARRIAGE WORKS — An engineering site where railway carriages are manufactured.
  • RAILWAY CONTROL CENTRE — A building used to coordinate movement of railway engines and rolling stock in the event of war.
  • RAILWAY CUTTING — A man-made trough or valley through a hill, carrying at its base a railway.
  • RAILWAY EMBANKMENT — A man-made ridge to carry a railway across a declivity or area subject to flooding.
  • RAILWAY ENGINEERING SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the construction and maintenance of railways and rolling stock.
  • RAILWAY ENGINEERING WORKS — A large site specializing in the manufacture of locomotives.
  • RAILWAY ENGINEERING WORKSHOP — An engineering workshop, often attached to an engine shed, for the running repairs of operational parts, etc.
  • RAILWAY HOTEL — A hotel adjacent to a railway terminus. Railway hotels were often owned by a railway company.
  • RAILWAY INCLINED PLANE — An embankment or cutting on a railway system, surfaced at a uniform gradient, up or down which materials were hauled by rope.
  • RAILWAY JUNCTION — A place where two or more railway lines meet.
  • RAILWAY LIFT — A mechanically operated lift used to transfer rolling stock from one level of track to another.
  • RAILWAY LOOKOUT TOWER — A semaphore signalling tower on a railway.
  • RAILWAY OFFICE — A building or room where railway tickets may be bought and administrative duties associated with a railway are conducted.
  • RAILWAY PLATFORM — A raised floor along the side of a line at a railway station, for convenience in entering and alighting from a train.
  • RAILWAY SIDING — A short piece of track lying parallel to the main railway line enabling trains and trucks to pass one another. Sidings can also be used to park trains which are not in use.
  • RAILWAY SIGNAL — A structure with semaphore arms and/or coloured lights used as a means of warning on railway systems.
  • RAILWAY STABLE — A stable located at a railway station or goods yard. Horses were necessary both for freight and passengers to continue their journey beyond the railway.
  • RAILWAY STATION — A place where railway trains regularly stop for taking up and setting down passengers or for receiving goods for transport.
  • RAILWAY STOREHOUSE — A small store building at a railway station for the storage of equipment and other stores associated with the railway.
  • RAILWAY SYSTEM — An arrangement of railway tracks, stations and other buildings that together form a railway transport system.
  • RAILWAY TRANSPORT SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with railway transport.
  • RAILWAY TUNNEL — A tunnel running under a river or a hillside through which a railway line runs.
  • RAILWAY TUNNEL PORTAL — An often stately or ornate entrance to a railway tunnel.
  • RAILWAY TURNTABLE — A piece of machinery on which a railway engine, carriage or wagon can be rotated at a railway terminal.
  • RAILWAY VIADUCT — A bridge, usually resting on raised arches, carrying a railway across low-lying land or water.
  • RAILWAY WAGON WORKS — Engineering works specializing in the production and maintenance of non-passenger carrying railway rolling stock.
  • RAILWAY WAREHOUSE — A large building, situated at a railway terminus, used for the temporary storage of goods or merchandise awaiting transportation to or from a railway.
  • RAILWAY WATER TROUGH — A very long trough laid between the rails of a railway track to allow a suitably equiped steam engine to scoop up water whilst in motion.
  • RAILWAY WORKERS COTTAGE — Purpose-built housing for railway workers.
  • RAILWAY WORKERS TEMPORARY SETTLEMENT — A temporary settlement or shanty-town erected by railway construction workers or "navvys".
  • RAILWAY WORKS — An engineering works producing items for the railway other than rolling stock, such as signals, tracks, points, etc.
  • RAILWAY WORKSHOP — An ancilliary workshop used for repairs, etc.
  • RAIN GAUGE — An instrument for gauging the amount of rain which has fallen over a stated period.
  • RAINWATER HEAD — The receptacle at the top of a rain-water pipe which gathers the water from one or more outlets or gutters on the roof.
  • RAISED BED — A bed raised above the level of the surrounding walks. A common feature of medieval and Renaissance gardens.
  • RAISED PAVEMENT — A pavement walkway for pedestrian use, often raised above the level of a road or path.
  • RAKE — A vertical vein of metallic ore, usually lead, occuring between walls of rock and cutting through the bedding. Often rakes have been worked from early times leaving deep trenches several km long, with adits leading off and shafts sunk at the side.
  • RAMP — An inclined plane connecting two different levels, used to accomodate the movement of vehicles, wheeled apparatus,livestock etc.
  • RAMPART — A protective earthen mound, often the main defence of a fortification.
  • RAMS PEN — Cubicles for housing rams, resembling pigsties with their own yard but slightly larger.
  • RANCH BOUNDARY — A system of long, continuous banks and/or ditches dividing land into well defined areas. Possibly used for controlling livestock
  • RANGERS HOUSE — The residence of a keeper of a royal park etc.
  • RAPID LOADING STATION — A group of buildings and machines, usually situated close to the pithead, enabling the rapid, mechanized loading of goods wagons with coal.
  • RAVELIN — In fortification, a detached triangular outwork consisting of two battered faces forming a salient angle. Usually positioned in the ditch in front of a rampart and between two bastions. Term mainly for military architecture from 15th century and later.
  • READING ROOM — A room in a library or institution providing periodicals, newspapers, etc.
  • REAL TENNIS COURT — An indoor court where the ancient and complex sport of real tennis is played, eg. the court at Hampton Court Palace.
  • REAVE — A stone wall, often of considerable length, built to divide an area of land. Most occur as part of extensive walled field systems. This is a regional term specific to Dartmoor and should not be used in other parts of the country.
  • RECEIVING BLOCK — A building as part of a workhouse, prison or hospital, often including porter's lodge, baths, clothes store, washrooms, casual cells, rooms etc, for receiving inmates/patients. Use term from Components thesaurus if it is part of a building complex.
  • RECEPTION CENTRE — A facility for the kitting out and induction of recruits before being sent on for training.
  • RECEPTION HOUSE — A building, usually associated with, or found within the grounds of, a cemetery and used for the storage of coffins prior to burial. Reception houses were introduced as a result of concerns around the implcations for public health of C19 burial practices.
  • RECORD OFFICE — A building where official archives are kept for public inspection.
  • RECORDING STUDIO — A room or building used for the making of films, television or radio programmes and musical recordings (CDs, LPs, etc).
  • RECREATION CENTRE — A site available to the public for the pursuit of leisure and recreational activities.
  • RECREATION GROUND — A public ground with facilities for games and other activities.
  • RECREATION HUT — A hut, usually built as part of a complex on a military base or airfield and used for the recreation of military personnel.
  • RECREATIONAL — Sites, buildings, structures, features & areas of land associated with sport, leisure & entertainment. Includes sports grounds, hunting forests, cinemas, theatres etc.
  • RECREATIONAL HALL — A hall built as part of a complex and used for the recreation of the workers or inhabitants. Usually associated with model estates, factories, flats etc.
  • RECRUITING STATION — A building where civilians are enlisted to join the military forces.
  • RECTANGULAR ENCLOSURE — A rectangular shaped area of land enclosed by a boundary ditch, bank, wall, palisade or similar barrier.
  • RECTILINEAR ENCLOSURE — A monument consisting of an area of land enclosed by a ditch, bank, wall, palisade or similar barrier, where the barrier consists of several straight or near straight sections.
  • RECUMBENT STONE — A stone or boulder which lies lengthways on the ground and may be used as a table, altar etc. Use only for isolated stones.
  • RECUMBENT STONE CIRCLE — A stone circle featuring a stone which lies lengthways between two of the upright standing stones.
  • RECYCLING CENTRE — A central point for the deposit, collection and recycling of waste materials.
  • RED HILL — Iron Age or Roman coastal site producing salt by boiling of seawater in fired clay pans, resulting in characteristic mounds of 'BRIQUETAGE' (see Archaeological Objects Thesaurus).
  • REDOUBT — A defence work, either a detached fieldwork or an outwork built as part of a fortification as a last defensive position.
  • REED AND HEALD WORKS — An establishment used for the manufacture of reeds and healds, which are components of a textile loom with related functions, in that they move and control the threads, and similar wire-based construction.
  • REEL DRYING STOVE — A structure or building used in the manufacture of the explosive cordite. After the cordite had been pressed to extract moisture it was placed on racks within the stove prior to being taken to the reeling house for winding.
  • REELING SHED — A building wherein silk worm cocoons are boiled to release the silk fibres.
  • REFECTORY — A communal dining room, especially in schools, colleges and monasteries.
  • REFERENCE LIBRARY — A library where books may be consulted but not taken away.
  • REFINERY — An industrial building, plant or site where crude substances, such as sugar, metal, oil etc., are purified or refined.
  • REFLECTING POOL — A body of water placed in such a way as to reflect a building or landscape feature.
  • REFRESHMENT PAVILION — A type of pavilion sometimes found in public parks or country house estates.
  • REFRESHMENT ROOMS — An area within a building open to the public where light meals and drinks can be purchased and consumed.
  • REFRIGERATED STORE — A storehouse using mechanical means of controlling temperature rather than ice or insulation.
  • REFUGE BEACON — A beacon, firmly embedded on the sea floor, consisting of an iron mast, with ladder steps leading up to the refuge cage considerably above high-water mark, and capable of holding several people.
  • REFUGEE HOUSING — Housing provided for refugees. Similar to refugee camp but with the reuse of existing buildings rather than a temporary camp.
  • REFUSE DEPOT — A place where domestic refuse is collected for disposal.
  • REFUSE DESTRUCTOR STATION — Power station using domestic refuse as its principal fuel.
  • REFUSE DISPOSAL PLANT — For the disposal of town refuse. Some 19th century plants were linked to a power station. Later ones incorporate INCINERATORS, recycling facilities, etc.
  • REFUSE DISPOSAL SITE — A site where household rubbish and other waste products can be disposed of. May take the form of a pit, rubbish tip, landfill site or incineration plant.
  • REFUSE TRANSFER DEPOT — A depot for the transfer of town refuse to river barges before transportation to the REFUSE DEPOT.
  • REGIMENTAL DEPOT — Any military base where the depot battalion of a regiment is based. Depot battalions maintain the stores and records of a regiment and train new recruits.
  • REGIMENTAL HEADQUARTERS — The main administrative building and headquarters of a regiment
  • REGIMENTAL INSTITUTE — An institute provided by a regiment for the improvement of the soldiers and to reduce excessive drinking.
  • REGIONAL GOVERNMENT HEADQUARTERS — A reinforced concrete structure, usually sited underground, from where it was intended to conduct the business of government in the event of nuclear war. Date specific from mid 1980's to early 1990's.
  • REGIONAL GOVERNMENT SHELTER — A reinforced concrete structure, usually sited underground, intended to be used by the regional government as an air raid shelter in the event of a nuclear attack.
  • REGIONAL SEAT OF GOVERNMENT — A reinforced concrete structure, usually sited underground, from where it was intended to conduct the business of government in the event of nuclear war. Date specific late 1950's to early 1970's.
  • REGISTER OFFICE — An office at which the registration of marriages, births and deaths are recorded, and in which marriage ceremonies may take place.
  • REGISTRARS HOUSE — A house, the inhabitant of which keeps an official register e.g. a registrar's house near a cemetery would keep an official record of deaths and burials.
  • REGULAR COURTYARD E PLAN — Regular courtyard farmsteads where the buildings are arranged as an E-shaped plan around two cattle yards. Cattle housing and stabling typically extend as three ranges from the longer main range which includes a barn or mixing house.
  • REGULAR COURTYARD F PLAN — Regular courtyard farmsteads where the buildings are arranged as an F-shaped plan around two cattle yards. Cattle housing and stabling typically extend as three ranges from the longer main range which includes a barn or mixing house.
  • REGULAR COURTYARD FULL PLAN — Regular courtyard farmsteads where the buildings are arranged around all four sides of the yard.
  • REGULAR COURTYARD H PLAN — Regular courtyard farmsteads where the buildings are arranged as an H-shaped plan, commonly with cattle housing to two or more cattle yards.
  • REGULAR COURTYARD L PLAN — Regular courtyard farmsteads where the buildings are arranged as two linked ranges to create an L-shape. They can comprise a barn and an attached shelter shed to a cattle yard or an interlinked cattle housing and fodder range.
  • REGULAR COURTYARD MULTI YARD — A farmstead with multiple yards which are grouped together and regularly arranged (other than the defined E, F, H, T or Z plans). The yards may relate to one or more buildings or ranges which may be of either loose courtyard or regular courtyard form.
  • REGULAR COURTYARD PLAN — Regular courtyard farmsteads where the working buildings are carefully planned as linked ranges and are focused around one or more working yards. They often result from a single phase of building.
  • REGULAR COURTYARD T PLAN — Regular courtyard farmsteads where the buildings are arranged as two ranges at right angles to each other.
  • REGULAR COURTYARD U PLAN — Regular courtyard farmsteads where the buildings are arranged around three sides of a yard which is open to one side.
  • REGULAR COURTYARD Z PLAN — An uncommon form of a regular courtyard farmstead where the buildings are arranged in a Z-shaped form.
  • REHABILITATION CENTRE — A place where people recovering from illnesses or accidents are helped to recover their physical and/or mental capabilities.
  • RELIGIOUS EDUCATION CENTRE — A building or part of a building, sometimes attached to a religious community, where religious activities such as worshipping, meetings, teaching about the faith and conferences take place. It can also provide accommodation.
  • RELIGIOUS HOUSE — Use only for a monastic house of unknown status, religious order and uncertain authenticity.
  • RELIGIOUS RITUAL AND FUNERARY — Sites, buildings, structures & features related to the practice of rituals & religious beliefs, including funerary rites. Includes ancillary buildings, structures & features of uncertain use, which are thought to be ‘ritual’ (eg. hill figures).
  • REMOUNT DEPOT — A military depot where horses were taken and trained for service in the army.
  • Renewable Energy Park — An area of land used for producing renewable energy, which can comprise a solar farm, wind turbines or biomass facility
  • REPOSITORY — A room or building used as a store, usually for documents, works of art, books etc.
  • REPTILE HOUSE — A building where reptiles are accommodated at a zoo or wildlife park.
  • REQUISITIONED BUILDING — A building which has been temporarily taken over for use by the military or civilian authorities. During wartime buildings were requisitioned for various purposes, such as temporary hospitals or headquarters.
  • REQUISITIONED LAND — Land which has been temporarily taken over for use by the military or civilian authorities. During wartime land was requisitioned for various purposes, such as for argriculture or for military training/events etc.
  • RESCUE CENTRE — A place from where rescue missions are co-ordinated and casualties treated after an accident, offensive action or disaster.
  • RESEARCH INSTITUTE — A building used by an organization or society instituted to promote research.
  • RESEARCH STATION — A building, group of buildings or installation in which scientific experiments are carried out.
  • RESERVOIR — A large natural or artificial body of water, sometimes covered, used to collect and store water for a particular function, eg. industrial or public use.
  • RESERVOIR INSPECTION CHAMBER — A chamber built into the side of a covered reservoir to enable the water level to be inspected.
  • RESETTLEMENT CAMP — A camp for the temporary accommodation of uprooted civilians or foreign ex-service personnel, who had fought for the British forces during WWII (e.g.Polish).
  • RESIDENTIAL BUILDING — Buildings used as non-permanent homes.
  • RESORT VILLAGE — Model village built as a holiday resort.
  • RESTAURANT — A place where refreshments or meals may be obtained.
  • RETAIL PARK — A grouping of retail warehouses and supermarkets with associated car parking.
  • RETAINING WALL — A wall constructed for the purpose of confining or supporting a mass of earth or water.
  • RETENTURA — The rear part of a Roman fort, where barrack accommodation, stables and stores were situated. Use with wider site type where known.
  • RETIREMENT HOME — Residence for retired people, often in the form of an apartment complex, differing from a nursing home as the residents live independently.
  • RETORT HOUSE — Central functional building of a gas works. Coal is roasted in retorts producing gas and coke.
  • RETREAT — A house or centre used for meditation, contemplation and/or prayer.
  • RETTING POND — A pit used for the prolonged steeping of the flax plant in water to separate the fibres from the wood.
  • REVERBERATORY CALCINER — A calciner dating from the early 17th to early 20th centuries, usually made of brick and without moving parts, consisting of a reverberatory furnace, and used for the extraction of arsenic.
  • REVERBERATORY FURNACE — A furnace in which the flame is turned back over the substance to be heated.
  • REVETMENT — A wall or masonry construction built for the purpose of retaining or supporting a bank of earth, wall, rampart etc.
  • REVOLVING SHELTER — Small revolving wooden chalets that could be turned with their backs to the prevailing wind so that hospital patients could recline in them on long chairs in all weathers.
  • RFC SIDE OPENING AIRCRAFT HANGAR — The earliest side-opening standard type of aircraft hangar designed in 1913 and used in WWI. Originally constructed from wooden trusses and struts, one example has steel frames. It comprised a single or coupled shed with rear workshops.
  • RHINOCEROS HOUSE — A building, or group of buildings, deliberately designed for rhinos.
  • RHYTHM AND BLUES CLUB — A club where predominantly rhythm and blues style music is played, analagous to a jazz club.
  • RIBBON FACTORY — A factory where ribbons are manufactured.
  • RICE MILL — A mill for the processing of rice for use in food products.
  • RIDE — A road or way for riding on horseback within a park or estate.
  • RIDGE AND FURROW — A series of long, raised ridges separated by ditches used to prepare the ground for arable cultivation. This was a technique, characteristic of the medieval period.
  • RIDGEWAY — A road or way along a ridge of downs or low range of hills.
  • RIDING SCHOOL — A school for instruction in the art of horsemanship.
  • RIFLE BUTTS — A target range used for rifle and small arms practice and recreational purposes.
  • RIFLE PIT — A pit dug to protect a small group of infantry men.
  • RIGGING HOUSE — A workshop with equipment for the making and repair of ships' rigging.
  • RING BANK — Circular enclosure featuring an enclosing bank with no accompanying ditch. Use specific type where known.
  • RING BARROW — A circular bank surrounding an area where burials were placed.
  • RING CAIRN — A low, wide, circular ring or bank of stones surrounding an open, roughly circular area which is (or was initially) free of cairn material. The inner and outer faces of the bank may be kerbed.
  • RING DITCH — Circular or near circular ditches, usually seen as cropmarks. Use the term where the function is unknown. Ring ditches may be the remains of ploughed out round barrows, round houses, or of modern features such as searchlight emplacements.
  • RING ENCLOSURE — A small circular enclosure defined by a turf or earthern bank.
  • RINGWORK — A defensive bank and ditch, circular or oval in plan, surrounding one or more buildings.
  • RINGWORK AND BAILEY — An enclosure within a bailey which contained a keep and sometimes took the place of a motte.
  • RITUAL PIT — A pit which appears to have been dug for, or which contains, objects apparently deposited for reasons other than storage, disposal or extraction. Index with principal object types.
  • RITUAL SHAFT — A shaft which appears to have been dug for, or which contains objects apparently deposited for, reasons other than storage, disposal or extraction (eg. of stone, water, etc). Index with principal object types.
  • RIVER DEFENCE SITE — A fortified river or river bank forming part of the anti invasion infrastructure.
  • RIVER DEFENCES — Manmade constructions used to prevent rivers breaking their banks and flooding the surrounding area with water. Often taking the form of a bank or wall.
  • RIVER DOCK — An artificial area of open water, situated on a river, enclosed by masonry and fitted with dock gates in which ships can be repaired, loaded/unloaded or berthed.
  • RIVER GATE — A gate, made of wood, used as a livestock barrier by continuing a fence line across a river or stream. The gate usually consists of a series of droppers, that can float up and down depending on water levels, attached to a length of cable or wooden pole.
  • RIVER INTAKE — A dam and sluice combination, associated with an aqueduct, for the extraction of water from a river to feed a reservoir or water treatment plant.
  • RIVER INTAKE GAUGE — A balance engine used to replenish the water levels of a river by transferring water from a reservoir or other supply.
  • RIVER LOCK — A section of the water channel of a river, shut off above and below by lock gates provided with sluices to let water in and out and thus raise or lower boats from one level to another. Often found situated next to a weir.
  • RIVER NAVIGATION — A river canalized for shipping.
  • RIVER PORT — A port situated on a river, often associated with a town or overland goods transport facilities.
  • RIVER WHARF — A large wooden structure built alongside the edge of a river where boats may lie for the loading and unloading of goods and passengers.
  • ROAD — A way between different places, used by horses, travellers on foot and vehicles.
  • ROAD BRIDGE — A bridge carrying a road over land or water.
  • ROAD JUNCTION — A place where two or more roads meet.
  • ROAD SIGN — A sign, often mounted on a post next to a roadside, giving directions or other instructions.
  • ROAD TRANSPORT DEPOT — A place where goods and merchandise are temporarily stored before being transported to or from somewhere by road.
  • ROAD TRANSPORT SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with road transport.
  • ROAD TUNNEL — A tunnel running under a river or through a hill along which vehicles may travel.
  • ROAD TUNNEL PORTAL — The entrance to a road tunnel, sometimes of a grand construction.
  • ROAD VIADUCT — A bridge, usually resting on raised arches, carrying a road across low-lying land or water.
  • ROADBLOCK — A combination of obstructions, used either to stop enemy forces or force them off the road.
  • ROADSIDE LIGHTHOUSE — A lighted pillar or LIGHTHOUSE, eg. Dunston Pillar, Lincs., erected in 1751 to guide travellers over the heath.
  • ROADWAY — The central part of a road between the pavements or the verges.
  • ROASTING HEARTH — A hearth for roasting metallic ore, usually non ferrous, before smelting.
  • ROBBER TRENCH — Use broader site type where known
  • ROBIN AIRCRAFT HANGAR — A small dispersal WWII military aircraft hangar featuring an "A" shaped steel frame clad with corrugated iron; end doors were supported by outriggers when open.Typically used on aircraft storage units or satellite landing grounds. Variations in size.
  • ROCK ART — Refers to art, whether carving or painting, applied to free -standing stones or cave walls.
  • ROCK BRIDGE — A bridge constructed using rockwork to create a craggy, naturalistic appearance. A feature of 18th century rococo gardens and parks.
  • ROCK CARVING — A decorative design or illustration, often an anthropomorphic or geometrical image, carved into a stone surface, such as a cave wall or free-standing stone. Usually, though not always, of Prehistoric date.
  • ROCK CUT CHAMBER — A manmade chamber cut into a rockface.
  • ROCK CUT DWELLING — A dwelling cut into the rockface of a cliff or hillside, often with a built frontage. Many date from the Medieval period and are still in use in some areas of the country.
  • ROCK CUT GRAVE — A grave which has been formed by cutting into the bedrock of a site.
  • ROCK GARDEN — A garden consisting primarily of rocks and rock plants.
  • ROCK PAINTING — Art applied in pigment to rock wether in the form of a free-standing stone or the walls of a cave.
  • ROCK SHELTER — The area beneath a natural overhang at the base of a cliff or crag. This may have been used for occupation, burial, etc. Index with site type where known.
  • ROCKERY — A pile of rough stones and soil used for the growing of ferns and other plants.
  • ROCKET — A missile or aircraft that obtain its thrust from a rocket engine. Some rockets will exist as monuments for example, in the form of gate guardians. Double index with the monument type where appropriate.
  • ROCKET HOUSE — A building specifically built to house life saving apparatus used when conditions prevented the lifeboat from deploying.
  • ROCKET MOTOR FACTORY — A factory for the manufacture of rocket motors, both for civil and military use.
  • ROCKET PROJECTOR BATTERY — Unspecified Second World War anti-aircraft battery. There were three types of battery. The U2P and U20P had different arrangements of DFW55373 projector sites for the 20-barrelled 3" projectors. The U9P mounted 12-barrelled projectors.
  • ROCKET PROJECTOR BATTERY (TYPE 55373) — Rocket projector site with a circular or octagonal concrete holdfast, 1.5m across, surrounded by a 4.6m radius octagonal concrete surround. Six such rocket projectors were arranged in a 3 x 2 grid. Personnel shelters placed midway between each site.
  • ROCKET PROJECTOR BATTERY (TYPE U20P) — 6 Type DFW 55373s placed in a 3X2 rectangular plan. Each projector was separated by 31-34m. Hardened personnel and ammunition shelters located midway between each projector, but ammunition stored outside the perimeter.
  • ROCKET PROJECTOR BATTERY (TYPE U2P) — 64 Type DFW55373 projector sites arranged in and 8x8 grid or in 4 groups of 16. 30m between each projector, with hardened personnel and ammunition shelters located midway between each
  • ROCKET PROJECTOR BATTERY (TYPE U9P) — 6 DFW55373 projector emplacements spaced in a 3x2 rectangular gid, but each spaced 35m apart. No blast protection was provided at the shelters, which were placed between the projector emplacements.
  • ROCKET PROJECTOR BATTERY (TYPE UP) — 64 Type DFW55373 single projector sites arranged in an 8x8 grid or in 4 groups of 16. 30m between each projector, with hardened personnel and ammunition shelters located midway between each
  • ROCKET TEST FACILITY — An area for the testing of rockets and guided missiles. Includes all structures associated with both the firing and testing of rockets and missiles.
  • ROCKWORK — An area of either natural or artificial stone arranged to resemble a rocky outcrop or cliff face within animal cages/enclosures of a Zoo.
  • ROCOCO GARDEN — Garden comprising rockwork features including grottoes, cascades and arches, often in different architectural styles ie. Gothic, Chinese and rustic. In use from the mid C18.
  • ROLLER COASTER — A type of fairground or seaside amusement, often a permanent structure, where carriages travel at high speeds on an undulating track raised some distance from the ground.
  • ROLLER MILL — A grain grinding mill in which the meal is ground into flour between revolving metal rolls.
  • ROLLING MILL — A mill in which sets of rollers were used to roll metal to set thicknesses or shapes such as rails, beams or rods.
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CATHEDRAL — The principal Roman Catholic church in a diocese in which the cathedra or bishop's throne is to be found.
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CEMETERY — A burial ground for Roman Catholics.
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CHAPEL — A chapel where Roman Catholics worship.
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH — A place of worship for Roman Catholics.
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC NUNNERY — A house of Roman Catholic nuns or canonesses.
  • ROMANIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH — A place of worship for members of the Romanian Orthodox Church, the national church of Romania.
  • ROMANY GYPSY SCHOOL — Boarding school for children of Travellers and Romany Gypsies while their parents were away on agricultural work
  • ROMNEY HUT — A prefabricated structure of a steel frame clad in corrugated iron. Semi-circular in section they were used for storage and as workshops, cinemas etc during WWII. Designed at Romney House, London by the Directorate of Fortifications & Works.
  • ROND POINT — An open circular area where avenues converge.
  • ROOF GARDEN — A garden or collection of potted plants on the flat roof of a house or other building.
  • ROOF TOP CAR PARK — A car park on the roof of a building.
  • ROOM AND POWER MILL — A type of textile mill found in Lancashire in the 19th century. Small businesses paid the owner rent for space for their machines, and power from the mill engine or waterwheel.
  • ROOT HOUSE — A picturesque garden building decorated with tree roots, often serving as a HERMITAGE or ARBOUR.
  • ROOT ROOM — Room, usually part of another building, for storing and preparing roots and other animal feed.
  • ROPE MANUFACTURING SITE — Buildings and structures associated with the manufacture of rope.
  • ROPERY — A place where ropes are made.
  • ROPEWALK — A very long, narrow, roofed building, often two-storeyed, used for the manufacture of rope. Often attached to warehousing, an engine house or offices. Can be included within the complex of a textile mill.
  • ROSE BORDER — A long bed containing rose plants.
  • ROSE GARDEN — A garden, often geometrical in layout, or area for the cultivation of roses.
  • ROSTRAL COLUMN — A column set on a pedestal and decorated with the bows of warships to celebrate naval victories. Originally a Roman form, it was revived in 17th and 18th century decoration.
  • ROSTRUM — A raised platform or stage for public speaking or conducting an orchestra. Also a platform for supporting cameras during filming.
  • ROTARY KILN — A kiln in which stone is burnt as it falls through a heated and slightly inclined steel tube.
  • ROTATIVE BEAM ENGINE — An engine in which the oscillating motion of the beam is translated via gearing to a rotative motion.
  • ROTOR TEST TOWER — A purpose built tower used for the testing of helicopter rotor blades.
  • ROTUNDA — An isolated building, circular in plan, generally consisting of one apartment with a domed roof, eg. Mausoleum at Castle Howard, Yorkshire.
  • ROUND — A small, Iron Age/Romano-British enclosed settlement found in South West England.
  • ROUND BARROW — Hemispherical mound surrounded by a ditch (or occasionally two or more concentric ditches), often accompanied by an external (or occasionally internal) bank. Mound and ditch may sometimes be separated by a berm. Use specific type where known.
  • ROUND CAIRN — A roughly hemispherical mound constructed primarily of stones, normally containing or covering one or more human burials. The mound may be surrounded and partly retained by a low stone kerb.
  • ROUND HOUSE (DOMESTIC) — Circular structure, normally indicated by one or more rings of post holes and/or a circular gulley, and usually interpreted as being of domestic function.
  • ROUND TOWERED CHURCH — A church, usually found in East Anglia, of early Medieval and/or Medieval date with attached or detached round tower.
  • ROUNDABOUT — A circular construction at the intersection of two or more roads to aid the passage of vehicles from one road to another.
  • ROUNDHOUSE (RAILWAY) — A circular building for housing and repairing railway locomotives.
  • ROVING BRIDGE — A bridge which takes the towpath across the canal.
  • ROW — A row of buildings built during different periods, as opposed to a TERRACE.
  • ROW HOUSE — A terrace house sharing a common wall with its neighbours.
  • ROW PLAN — A farmstead where the main range of working buildings are attached in-line and form a long row often facing a series of yards.
  • ROWING CLUB — A building used as a social venue by people interested in, and involved with, the sport of rowing. An area of the building may be used for the storage of canoes, sculls etc. Often situated by a river.
  • ROYAL AIR FORCE BASE — A site, usually with an airfield, hangars and control buildings, used for the storage and deployment of military aircraft or the administration of the Royal Air Force. May also include accommodation buildings for personnel.
  • ROYAL AIR FORCE CAMP — A site with accommodation buildings and ancillary facilities for Royal Air Force personnel.
  • ROYAL AIR FORCE HOSPITAL — A hospital where Air Force personnel and their families receive medical and surgical treatment.
  • ROYAL CHAPEL — A private chapel for a royal court.
  • ROYAL FLYING CORPS AIRCRAFT HANGAR — The earliest side-opening standard type of aircraft hangar designed in 1913 and used in WWI. Originally constructed from wooden trusses and struts, some examples have steel frames. It comprised a single or coupled shed with rear workshops.
  • ROYAL NAVAL AIR STATION — An airfield with associated hangars and control buildings used for the storage, maintenance and deployment of military aircraft and airships flown by the Royal Naval Air Service.
  • ROYAL NAVAL AIR STATION CONTROL TOWER — A control tower constructed on RNAS stations by the Royal Marine Engineers. Built to a common ground floor plan they could be built with one, two or three storeys above this depending on the requirements of the station.
  • ROYAL NAVAL BASE — A site, usually with docks and control buildings, used for the storage, maintenance and deployment of military vessels or the administration of the Royal Navy. May also include accommodation buildings for personnel.
  • ROYAL NAVAL DEPOT — A building or site used for the storage and distribution of the essential logistical requirements of the Royal Navy.
  • ROYAL NAVAL HOSPITAL — A hospital where Royal Naval personnel and their families receive medical and surgical treatment.
  • ROYAL NAVY SHORE ESTABLISHMENT — A complex of buildings used as a headquarters and training base for Royal Navy personnel. Even though they are buildings on land shore establishments are deemed to be shipsand are designated 'HMS' eg. HMS Dolphin in Portsmouth.
  • ROYAL OBSERVER CORPS COMMAND CENTRE — A command centre used to co-ordinate information received from Royal Observer Corps observation and monitoring posts.
  • ROYAL OBSERVER CORPS HEADQUARTERS — A building used by the Royal Observer Corps as a headquarters and reporting centre. It may also fulfil an observation and nuclear fallout monitoring role. Use term to describe headquarters for plotting and monitoring nuclear fallout.
  • ROYAL OBSERVER CORPS SITE — A site or structure associated with the activities of the Royal Observer Corps. The Corps was reformed on 1 January 1947 and disbanded in 1991.
  • ROYAL ORDNANCE FACTORY — A factory used for the manufacture of ordnance including small arms, ammunition, artillery pieces and armoured fighting vehicles.
  • ROYAL PALACE — A large, luxuriously appointed building used as an official residence by a member of royalty.
  • ROYAL PARK — Originally a large tract of wooded country, owned by the Monarchy, for the purpose of hunting. The royal parks of London, eg. Greenwich, are all open to the public and have been for centuries.
  • RUBBER WORKS — A factory for processing rubber or manufacturing rubber goods, such as tyres.
  • RUBBING STONE — A large stone used by cattle to rub up against and so scratch themselves.
  • RUBBISH PIT — A pit where domestic waste material is deposited.
  • RUCK MACHINE GUN POST — A machine gun post designed by James Ruck constructed from hollow blocks and prefabricated concrete sheeting with loopholes allowing for a garrison of eight.
  • RUGBY FOOTBALL GROUND — A site including a pitch, stands and other ancillary buildings associated with the game of rugby.
  • RUGBY PITCH — A prepared area of grass on which the game of rugby is played.
  • RUM WAREHOUSE — A type of warehouse found in naval victualling yards, used for the storage of rum, a ration of which was given on a daily basis to members of the Royal Navy, up until the 1980s, when this practice ceased.
  • RUNE STONE — A stone on which Runes have been inscribed. Often used as memorials though not always associated with a burial.
  • RUNWAY — A hard level roadway or other surface from which aircraft take off and land.
  • RUNWAY LIGHTING — A system of lights to aid aircraft when landing at night. When viewed from above the runway lights form an outline of the runway.
  • RUSSIAN BATHS — A building housing a Russian-style steam bath or banya.
  • RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH — A place of worship for members of the Russian Orthodox Church, the national church of Russia.
  • RUTWAY — A track of two parallel ruts deliberately cut in the ground or living rock for the guidance of two-wheeled carts when the way was obscured by darkness or water.

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S

  • SABULITE FACTORY — A factory or works principally engaged in the manufacture of the mining explosive sabulite.
  • SACRISTY — A place for keeping vestments and sacred vessels.
  • SADDLERY — A house for storing or drying saddles.
  • SAFE FACTORY — A factory where security safes are manufactured.
  • SAFETY FUSE FACTORY — Factory for the production of safety fuses used in the ignition of gunpowder for blasting.
  • SAFETY RAMP — Emergency deceleration lane.
  • SAGGAR MAKERS WORKSHOP — A workshop in which saggars - fire clay boxes to protect ware from direct action of flame and gases during firing - were manufactured.
  • SAIL LOFT — A place where sails are manufactured.
  • SAILING CLUB — A building used as a social venue by people interested in, and involved with, the sport of sailing. Often situated by a MARINA.
  • SAILMAKING WORKS — A building or site where boat sails are manufactured from processed cloth.
  • SALT BATHS — A building where people could bathe in salt water. Salt water was believed to have medicinal properties.
  • SALT CHUTE — A chute for conveying salt.
  • SALT MINE — A mine yielding rock salt.
  • SALT PAN — A boiling vessel used in the direct boiling process, or the sleeching process, used for the manufacture of salt. For evaporating features associated with SOLAR and PARTIAL SOLAR sites use SALT POND.
  • SALT POND — A shallow pond containing salt water and used for the manufacture of salt through the evaporation process. For metal vessels associated with the DIRECT BOILING and SLEECHING SALT WORKS use SALT PAN.
  • SALT PRODUCTION SITE — Sites, buildings or stuctures associated with the entire process of salt production.
  • SALT REFINERY — A coastal site producing salt by dissolving rocksalt or other impure salt in seawater, then boiling the concentrated brine in a PANHOUSE
  • SALT STORE — Buildings incorporating a high degree of protection against damp for the bulk storage of salt.
  • SALT WORKS — A site, building or factory used for the production of salt.
  • SALTCOTE — A hut, usually containing lead pans, in which salt water is boiled to produce salt.
  • SALTERN — A site, in which salt is obtained by boiling and evaporating salt brine or seawater in large pans. Often the only surviving evidence are the mounds formed from the waste produced by the process.
  • SALTING HOUSE — A room or building used for curing fish or meat.
  • SALTPETRE STORE — A place where saltpetre, the chief component of gunpowder, is kept.
  • SALTPETRE WORKS — A building, factory or works which was engaged in the manufacture of refining saltpetre. Often part of a gunpowder works.
  • SALUTING BATTERY — A battery equipped and ready to fire salutes
  • SALVATION ARMY HALL — A place of worship and meeting hall for members of the Salvation Army, an evangelical sect founded by William Booth in Nottingham in 1865 and derived from Wesleyan Methodism. They rejected the sacraments and adopted a quasi-military rhetoric and style.
  • SANATORIUM — A hospital for convalescents or consumptives.
  • SANCTUARY — A sacred area of a building or a consecrated piece of land.
  • SAND AND GRAVEL EXTRACTION SITE — A site associated with the extraction, from the ground, of sand and gravel. Use more specific type where known.
  • SAND PAPER MILL — A mill for producing abravive papers and cloths such as glass paper or emery cloth.
  • SAND PIT — A pit from which sand is excavated.
  • SAND WORKINGS — A place where sand is extracted from surface workings.
  • SANDEMANIAN CHAPEL — A place of worship for Sandemanians, a movement founded by John Glass after his expulsion from the Church of Scotland in 1728. It was spread to England by his son-in-law, Robert Sandeman.
  • SANDSTONE QUARRY — A place where sandstone is excavated.
  • SAP — A covered trench, often in a zig zag form, made for the purpose of approaching a beseiged place under fire of the garrison.
  • SARCOPHAGUS — A stone coffin embellished with sculpture.
  • SARSEN PIT — A pit dug to extract Sarsen stones from the superficial geology in which they occur. They range in size from one dug for the extraction of a single boulder to pits from which multiple boulders are extracted & date from the Neolitic to the mid 20th century
  • SATELLITE DISH — A structure consisting of a large, metal framework holding a skyward facing dish. Used for transmitting and receiving signals which are relayed by satellite.
  • SATELLITE EARTH STATION — A group of buildings and satellite dishes used to transmit and receive signals relayed by satellites.
  • SAUCER BARROW — A round barrow featuring a low, wide mound surrounded by a ditch which may be accompanied by an external bank.
  • SAUNA — A building housing a Finnish-style steam bath.
  • SAVIGNIAC CELL — A residence of two or three monks of the Savigniac order dependent on a foreign mother house. The order was originally founded by monks in Savigny, Normandy, in 1105 and first established in Britain in 1123 at Tulket, Preston.
  • SAVIGNIAC MONASTERY — An abbey or priory of Savigniac monks. Order merged with Cistercians c1147.
  • SAVINGS BANK — A bank which specializes in accepting savings deposits. Originally established to help the poor.
  • SAW MILL — A factory in which logs are converted to timber by running them through a series of saws.
  • SAW PIT — A place where tree trunks were sawn into planks by hand.
  • SAXON SHORE FORT — Roman coastal forts fortified with large walls and a ditch, introduced to cope with raids from across the English Channel and North Sea.
  • SCAFFOLD — An elevated platform on which a criminal is executed.
  • SCARP — A steep bank or slope. In fortifications, the bank or wall immediately in front of and below the rampart.
  • SCAVELLMANS CABIN — A building used by labourers who clean and pump the docks, and in general, assist shipwrights.
  • SCHOOL — An establishment in which people, usually children, are taught.
  • SCHOOL BOARDING HOUSE — A building, usually within the grounds of a school and often containing dormitories, used by pupils who board.
  • SCHOOL CLINIC — A place at a school where children receive medical advice, health checks and treatment.
  • SCHOOL FOR THE BLIND — A specialist school for the teaching of blind people.
  • SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF — A specialist school for the teaching of deaf people.
  • SCHOOL HALL — A large room or building at a school used for assembly and other activities.
  • SCHOOL HOUSE — A building appropriated by a school for the purpose of teaching pupils.
  • SCHOOLROOM — A room in a school devoted to the formal instruction of pupils.
  • SCIENCE PARK — An area including buildings dedicated to scientific research for commercial purposes. Often associated with, or operated by, a university or higher education institution.
  • SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTE — A building used by an organization or society instituted to promote science through lectures, research, etc.
  • SCONCE — A small protective fortification, such as an earthwork.
  • SCOOP WHEEL — A wheel driven by wind or steam for the lifting of water.
  • SCOOPED SETTLEMENT — A settlement, usually enclosed, on a sloping hillside containing a number of oval or circular scopped house floors separated by walls or unexcavated ridges.
  • SCOREBOARD — A large board found at sporting events, erected so as to be seen by the spectators, on which the score of a game is kept.
  • SCOTCH KILN — A type of updraught intermittent kiln of rectangular plan and battered sides, but with an open top.
  • SCOTTISH PRESBYTERIAN CHAPEL — A place of worship for members of the Church of Scotland which has been Presbyterian since 1690. It is the national Church of Scotland and is free and endowed.
  • SCOUT HUT — A building used for meetings and other events by Scouts Associations.
  • SCOWLE — An old opencast iron ore site, which has been abandoned.
  • SCRAP YARD — A place where scrap metal is collected.
  • SCRATCH DIAL — A set of marks found on the wall of a building, thought to be a form of sundial.
  • SCREENING PLANT — A type of coal preparation plant for the sizing, sorting and washing of coal.
  • SCREENS HOUSE — A building housing filters for sewage. Usually associated with a sewage pumping station.
  • SCREW MILL — A factory used for the manufacture of screws.
  • SCRIBBLING MILL — A mill used for the preparation of raw fleece etc, for spinning by a coarse form of carding.
  • SCRUBBER — A device used to remove pollutants from gas or smoke produced during industrial processes such as burning high-sulphur fuels.
  • SCULPTURE — A figurative or abstract design in the round or in relief, made by chiselling stone, carving wood, modelling clay, casting metal, or similar processes.
  • SCULPTURE GARDEN — A garden designed to display sculpture, publicly or privately.
  • SCUTCHING MILL — A mill for the removal by mechanical means of the dried wood and seeds of the flax and cotton plants after retting. The resulting 'tow' is then spun into linen and cotton respectively.
  • SCYTHE MILL — A factory used for the manufacture of scythes.
  • SEA BATHING HOSPITAL — A hospital where patients would bathe daily in the sea or in indoor salt-water swimming baths.
  • SEA BEACON — A mark erected on or near danger or on shore as an aid to pilotage.
  • SEA DEFENCES — Non-military maritime flood and erosion defences.
  • SEA FORT — A defensive construction situated in the sea, designed to protect the land from seabourne attack. The term applies mainly to those monuments built from around 1860 onwards.
  • SEA LION POOL — A pool of water and associated ancillary buildings designed to accommodate sea lions.
  • SEA LOCK — An entrance chamber from tide water to basin, with gates at each end and means of pumping up or lowering the level of water to suit.
  • SEA MARK — A conspicuous object, such as a beacon, used by mariners to aid navigation at sea.
  • SEA TERMINAL — A port, dock or harbour where ferries, hovercraft, ocean liners and cargo vessels can load and unload. May include road and/or rail terminals for transportation to the port.
  • SEAGULL TRENCH — A trench in the form of a flattened 'W' with a flat concrete roof covered in turf, supported on concrete pillars. The name derives from the resemblance to a child's drawing of a seagull in flight.
  • SEAMENS CHURCH — A place of worship specifically for mariners and their families.
  • SEAMENS HOSPITAL — A hospital for the medical and surgical treatment of sailors and/or their families. For Royal Naval seamen use ROYAL NAVAL HOSPITAL.
  • SEAMENS MISSION — A building, usually associated with a port or dock, where seamen could get a meal and a cheap room. Often established by religious groups for the moral betterment of seamen.
  • SEAPLANE BASE — A building complex with hangars and slipways built adjacent to a body of water where seaplanes can be stored and maintained.
  • SEAPLANE FACTORY — A factory where seaplanes are manufactured.
  • SEAPLANE MOORING — Moorings for a seaplane not part of a seaplane base.
  • SEAPLANE SHED — An aircraft hangar designed to house seaplanes.
  • SEAPLANE SHED (TYPE F) — A military side-opening aircraft hangar originally designed for seaplanes and used RNAS bases from 1916. Steel framed with asbestos or corrugated iron cladding.
  • SEAPLANE SHED (TYPE G) — A side-opening steel framed shed. A smaller version of the SEAPLANE SHED (TYPE F) they were built from 1916 on RNAS seaplane bases
  • SEAPLANE SHED (TYPE J) — A steel framed seaplane hangar designed for Royal Navy Air Stations by the admiralty in 1917-1918.
  • SEAPORT — A port on the sea, rather than on river or estuary.
  • SEARCHLIGHT BATTERY — A site in which one or more searchlights were positioned to locate enemy aircraft or surface vessels for the benefit of batteries and night fighter aircraft.
  • SEARCHLIGHT EMPLACEMENT — A site in which one or more searchlights and their accompanying structures were positioned to locate enemy aircraft or surface vessels for the benefit of batteries and night fighter aircraft.
  • SEASIDE PAVILION — A light, ornamental building or structure situated close to the sea.
  • SEASIDE SCHOOL — School built by the local Education Authority to provide residental schooling at the seaside for children from urban communities.
  • SEAT — An external structure used to sit on.
  • SECO HUT — A prefabricated structure of cellular hollow plywood 'aero' beams and columns clad with timber framed units of flat asbestos facing sheets and a felt roof. Designed as airfield accommodation that could be reused as post WWII emergency housing.
  • SECONDARY MODERN SCHOOL — A school attended by children between the ages of eleven and sixteen offering a vocationally orientated curriculum.
  • SECONDARY SCHOOL — A school attended by children between the ages of eleven and sixteen.
  • SECTION HOUSE — A building providing lodgings for members of the police force.
  • SECTION POST — A large pillbox-like structure, often L-shaped or angular, with numerous loopholes used as a defensive position.
  • SECTIONAL HUT (TYPE A) — A prefabricated structure consisting of sectional timber framed units that were bolted together. The structure was clad with Canadian Cedar weatherboarding and had a roof of corrugated asbestos. They were used as temporary accommodation on airfields.
  • SECTIONAL HUT (TYPE B) — A prefabricated structure consisting of sectional timber framed units that were bolted together. The structure was clad with weatherboarding and had a felted roof. They were used as temporary accommodation on airfields. Also see 'Type A'
  • SECULAR CATHEDRAL — A cathedral in which the chapter was composed of canons who lived in their own houses and were not governed by a monastic rule. Nine such cathedrals existed in England between the 11th and 16th centuries.
  • SECULAR HALL — The meeting hall of a secular or ethical society.
  • SEDAN CHAIR LIFT — A stepped, roadside platform, usually of stone on which a sedan chair was placed to allow the porters to lift the chair without having to bend.
  • SEDILIA BUILDING — A building containing a series of seats for use by the clergy during services. The seats are usually placed in the church and as such this is a very rare monument type, being purpose-built. An example being St. Germoe's Chair in Germoe, Cornwall.
  • SEGMENTED DITCH — A ditch which is not continuous but instead is made up of segments which may vary in length and width.
  • SEISMOLOGY STATION — A building housing the instrumentation necessary for the observation and measurement of tremors generated by earthquakes.
  • SEMAPHORE STATION — A signal station incorporating equipment for visually conveying coded communications.
  • SEMI DETACHED BUNGALOW — A bungalow joined to another to form one building.
  • SEMI DETACHED HOUSE — A house joined to another to form one building.
  • SENSORY GARDEN — A garden that has been specifically created to be accessible to both disabled and non-disabled visitors. They may contain scented and edible plants and features designed to make sound etc.
  • SENTRY BOX — A small structure providing cover and protected accommodation for a sentry.
  • SEPHARDI MATZEVAH — A matzevah from the Sephardi group of Jews descended from medieval Jewish communities of the Iberian Peninsular and Northern Africa. Characterised by flat slabs with Hebrew Inscriptions
  • SEPTIC TANK — A watertight reservoir or tank that receives sewage, and by sedimentation and bacterial action effects a process of partial purification.
  • SERBIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH — A place of worship for members of the Serbian Orthodox Church, the national church of Serbia.
  • SERGE FACTORY — A factory used for the manufacture of serge, a heavy woollen cloth.
  • SERGEANTS MESS — A building providing accommodation, dining facilities and recreation for non commissioned officers.
  • SERPENTINE PATH — A winding path in a garden or park, common in the late 17th and early 18th centuries.
  • SERPENTINE QUARRY — A quarry for the extraction of Serpentine, a major metamorphic mineral which is easily polished and easily carved. A major variety, lizardite, is found in Cornwall.
  • SERPENTINE WALK — A winding walk, common in early 18th century Rococo gardens and parks.
  • SERPENTINE WALL — A wall for growing fruit, dating in England from the mid-18th century, whose curving lines gave added strength, thus doing away with the need for buttressing.
  • SERVANTS HALL — Usually a servants' dining room.
  • SERVICE SHAFT — A shaft allowing access to an area. Often used as an additional escape route to the main shaft in a mine or as an air shaft.
  • SERVICE STATION — Use for complexes where services (eg. restaurants, shops) are provided in addition to facilities for buying petrol.
  • SERVICE WING — A building or wing of a large house in which the servants would live and carry out some of their duties.
  • SERVICES CLUB — A place where current and former members of the armed services meet for social and recreational activities.
  • SERVICES HOME — A residential establishment for retired armed servicemen and women.
  • SERVITE FRIARY — A friary of the Order of the Friar servants of the Blessed Virgin Mary or Servites. The Servite Fathers came to England in 1864.
  • SERVITE NUNNERY — A nunnery of nuns belonging to the Order of the Servants of the Blessed Virgin Mary or Servites.
  • SESSIONS HOUSE — A building housing court rooms and associated offices and cells, in which the Quarter Sessions were held.
  • SETTLEMENT — A small concentration of dwellings.
  • SETTLING PIT — Pit for the depostion of ore sediment from waste water collected from ore washing.
  • SETTLING TANK — A large tank where particles suspended in water, or other liquids, are allowed to sink to the bottom forming a sediment.
  • SEVENTH DAY ADVENTISTS CHAPEL — A place of worship for members of the Seventh Day Adventists Church. This was formed in 1843 by followers believing in the imminent second coming of Christ.
  • SEWAGE FARM — A farm on which liquid sewage was regularly used for irrigation as a means of sewage disposal.
  • SEWAGE PUMPING STATION — A building used to pump sewage from the sewers to the filter beds of a sewage works.
  • SEWAGE WORKS — A group of buildings in which local sewage is filtered and purified in large rectangular or circular tanks.
  • SEWER — A large drain or conduit for carrying away wastes.
  • SEWER INSPECTION CHAMBER — A chamber attached to the sewer of a building to facilitate the removal of any blockage.
  • SEWER VENTILATION PIPE — A tall, hollow pipe, usually cast-iron, resembling a lamp-post. Used to ventilate sewer systems.
  • SHADOW FACTORY — An existing factory that was converted for use as aircraft works in the run up to or during the Second World War.
  • SHAFT — Use only if function unknown, otherwise use specific type.
  • SHAFT CALCINER — A nineteenth century stone calciner, similar to a lime kiln, used for extracting arsenic from mined ores, consisting of a solid structure with a central shaft and a drawing-hole at the base for calciner waste.
  • SHAFT FURNACE — A furnace constructed as a shaft with the fire at the bottom and the fuel and ore added from the top.
  • SHAFT KILN — A vertical structure, sometimes made of steel, often used in the manufacture of cement. Material is loaded at the top, burnt in the middle and removed at the bottom.
  • SHAFT MOUND — Circular spoil heap surrounding a wide central depression, the entrance to a mine shaft.
  • SHALE QUARRY — A place where shale, a laminated clay or silt which has been compressed by the weight of the rocks over it, is extracted from the ground.
  • SHALE WORKING SITE — A site or building used for processing shale. Shale can be fashioned into goods or, if bituminous, distilled to produce oil, naphtha or tar.
  • SHAMBLES — Traditionally a place where meat and fish were sold.
  • SHED — A slight structure built for shelter or storage, or for use as a workshop, either attached as a lean-to to a permanent building or separate. Use more specific type where known.
  • SHED MILL — A single storey mill used in the textile industry.
  • SHEEP DIP — A place where sheep are washed in a chemical bath to control the parasites of sheep. To conserve the poisonous chemicals the bath is usually small and are not allowed to enter any watercourse.
  • SHEEP FOLD — A pen or enclosure used for containing sheep.
  • SHEEP HOUSE — A building providing shelter for sheep and storage for fodder and shepherding equipment.
  • SHEEP SHEARING SHED — A building in which sheep are sheared.
  • SHEEP WASH — A place used to clean the fleece of sheep before shearing. This could be a watercourse temporarily dammed in order to wash sheep.
  • SHEER HULK — An old ship hull used as a base for lifting tackle.
  • SHEER LEGS — A structure comprising two upright spars, joined at the top to form a triangle, with a hoisting tackle suspended from the apex. Used to lift cargo or other weights.
  • SHEET METAL WORKS — A site where large sheets of thin metal are manufactured.
  • SHEILA NA GIG — A small carved figure, usually female in appearance, probably representing fertility charms, found on Romanesque churches in the West of England, eg. Kilpeck.
  • SHELL BRIDGE — A bridge decorated with shells forming an ornamental feature.
  • SHELL FACTORY — A works or factory where shells or projectiles were machined before they were dispatched to a filling factory to be filled with explosives.
  • SHELL FOUNTAIN — A fountain decorated with shells forming an ornamental feature.
  • SHELL GROTTO — A grotto decorated with shells, sometimes a room in a house, sometimes a detached building.
  • SHELL HOUSE — An ornamental building, usually decorated with or displaying shells.
  • SHELL KEEP — A Norman keep, in the form of a circular or polygonal enclosure surrounded by a wall.
  • SHELL MIDDEN — A refuse heap of discarded shells.
  • SHELTER — A structure which protects an area of ground from the weather.
  • SHELTER SHED — An open-sided building known to have been used for sheltering animals other than cattle.
  • SHELTERED ACCOMMODATION — Accommodation designed for the elderly, disabled, etc, as individual units.
  • SHEMOT — Sacred Jewish texts and appurtenances buried within a Jewish cemetery.
  • SHEPHERDS HUT — A small building used as a shelter by a shepherd.
  • SHIELING — Pasture to which animals were driven for grazing, with associated temporary huts for domestic or agricultural use.
  • SHIFTED VILLAGE — An extant settlement which shows evidence of a shift in focus, eg. towards a new road, generally in the form of abandoned buildings or earthworks on the margin furthest from the new focus.
  • SHIFTING HOUSE — A building in a military complex (eg. naval dockyard, castle, etc.) for preparing gunpowder.
  • SHIP BREAKERS YARD — Place where ships and boats are dismantled.
  • SHIP BURIAL — A burial in which the body is placed in, or covered by a boat, which is then covered with earth. Use with barrow type where relevant.
  • SHIP CANAL — A canal that can accommodate ocean-going ships, usually built across an isthmus or to give access to a river port e.g. Manchester ship canal
  • SHIP CHANDLERY — A commercial premises supplying ships with provisions.
  • SHIP GRAVEYARD — An area of the sea or coastline where vessels have been abandoned.
  • SHIP REPAIR WORKS — A site containing slipways and associated buildings used specifically for the repair of ships and larger ocean-going craft.
  • SHIPHOUSE FRAME — An open metalwork structure supporting either a fabrication shed or the runners for an overhead crane.
  • SHIPPING WAREHOUSE — A large store for the temporary accommodation of goods awaiting transportation to or from the sea.
  • SHIPWRECK GRAVE — Graves known to be of shipwreck victims buried close to their site of discovery, as was customary until the 19th century, rather than in consecrated ground.
  • SHIPWRIGHTS WORKSHOP — A place where dockyard craftsmen both design and build ships.
  • SHIPYARD — A place where boats or ships are built or repaired.
  • SHIRE HALL — A county judicial building where the Quarter Session and the Assizes for the County were held.
  • SHIRT FACTORY — A factory where shirts are manufactured.
  • SHODDY MILL — A mill in which poor quality woollen cloth was made from fibres produced by grinding light woollen rags.
  • SHODE WORKING — An extractive pit or pits, usually 2.5m square by 2m deep dug to extract tin ore in areas where streamworking is not possible. Usually dug along a vein rather than across it.
  • SHOE FACTORY — A factory where boots and shoes are manufactured.
  • SHOE MACHINERY DEPOT — A depot or warehouse for the storage, distribution and repair of shoe making machines.
  • SHOE MACHINERY WORKS — An engineering works that produces machinery specially for use in shoe making.
  • SHOE WAREHOUSE — A building or part of a building used for the storage of shoes or boots.
  • SHOOTING STAND — Position often screened by earth, stone or wood from which game is shot.
  • SHOP — A house or building where goods are made or prepared and displayed for sale and sold. Use more specific type where known.
  • SHOPPING ARCADE — A covered shopping street, sometimes with galleries, dating from the late 18th/early 19th century.
  • SHOPPING CENTRE — A shopping complex, usually indoors, comprised of a number of separate retail outlets surrounding an open space. Often on more than one level.
  • SHOPPING PARADE — A purpose-built terrace of shops.
  • SHOPPING PRECINCT — A pedestrianized shopping street, or a more complex arrangement of shopping 'squares' and walkways.
  • SHOT TOWER — A tower in which shot is made from molten lead poured through sieves at top and falling into water at bottom.
  • SHOWGROUND — A large area, usually open-air, used for permanent, seasonal or regular shows, events or exhibitions.
  • SHOWROOM — A room used for the display of merchandise for sale.
  • SHRINE — A place where worship is offered or devotions are paid to a deity or saint.
  • SHRUB BORDER — A long bed planted with mixed shrubs, usually found near the house.
  • SHRUBBERY — A plantation of shrubs.
  • SHRUNKEN VILLAGE — A settlement where previous house sites are now unoccupied, but often visible as earthworks, crop or soil marks.
  • SHUTTER TELEGRAPH STATION — A signalling station which used a series of shutters to indicate various messages.
  • SHUTTLE WORKS — A manufacturing site producing weaving shuttles for the textile industry.
  • SICK QUARTERS — A building used for the accommodation of sick and wounded members of the armed forces.
  • SIEGE — In the glass industry this is bench-like structure within the melting-furnace on which crucibles are placed.
  • SIEGE CASTLE — A temporary castle built to house and protect troops beseiging another castle or town.
  • SIEGEWORK — A temporary earthwork or fortification constructed by forces laying siege to a castle or town, etc.
  • SIGN — A board, wall painting or other structure displaying advice, giving information or directions
  • SIGNAL BOX — A building on a railway system housing levers used to regulate trains on the tracks using signals and to change the points to enable a train to transfer from one track to another.
  • SIGNAL POST — A cast iron post similar to a lamp post, with revolving top to carry either coloured plates, or an oil lamp with coloured glass at night. Associated with canal or river navigation locks.
  • SIGNAL SQUARE — A signalling structure used on WWII airfields, comprising a concrete square base with a kerbed border into which concrete signal symbols could be placed to advise pilots in the air of current airfield state e.g. directions of landing and airfield circuit.
  • SIGNAL STATION — A building or tower used to communicate information to shipping or other stations using signals such as flags, fires or lights. Roman signal stations took the form of a stone tower surrounded by a ditched enclosure and were used to warn of Saxon raids.
  • SIGNAL TOWER — A tower in a semaphore communication system. Often a three-storey building on a hill in line-of-sight, signal towers provided working and living space, usually for two crewmen with their families.
  • SIGNALLING BATTERY — A gun battery used to signal warnings to ships during bad weather.
  • SIGNALLING STRUCTURE — Buildings and structures associated with signal communication.
  • SIGNALMANS COTTAGE — The residence of a signalman.
  • SIGNALS GATHERING STATION — Buildings and structures associated with the acquisition of electronic signals for the purpose of intelligence gathering.
  • SIGNPOST — A post bearing one or more signs indicating the direction, and often the distance, to specified locations or routes.
  • SIKH TEMPLE — A place of worship for followers of Sikhism.
  • SILAGE CLAMP — A three-sided structure for the production and storage of silage.
  • SILICA QUARRY — A place where silica or silicate, the most common mineral component of rock, is extracted from the ground.
  • SILK DRYING SHED — A building in which silk was dried.
  • SILK MANUFACTURING SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the manufacture of silk.
  • SILK MILL — A mill used for the mechanized processing of silk.
  • SILKWORM FARM — A farm or group of buildings where Silkworms are bred. The Silkworm when changing into a pupa spins a cocoon made of silken filaments, these are then unwound and used to manufacture silk thread.
  • SILO — A building or structure for the storage of processed minerals, chemicals or agricultural products, etc. Use more specific type where known.
  • SILVER HEARTH — Ore hearth specifically for the refining of silver.
  • SILVER MINE — Use with other minerals extracted and MINE where relevant, eg. ZINC MINE.
  • SILVER REFINERY — Any building or site in which silver was refined and/or extracted by smelting, cupellation, liquation or by the Parkes Process. IA-C20. Don't use for lead or copper smelters at which silver has been extracted unless silver-related features survive.
  • SILVER WORKING SITE — A site or building where silver was processed and/or worked and fashioned into objects.
  • SILVERSMITHS WORKSHOP — A place where silverware is manufactured.
  • SINGLE AISLED BARN — A barn in which a central space is separated from a side aisle by posts and braces.
  • SINGLE AISLED BUILDING — A building with an aisle on one side only.
  • SINGLE AISLED HOUSE — A house with an aisle on one side only.
  • SINGLE ENDED HALL HOUSE — A house consisting of a single storey open hall with a two storey domestic range attached at one end, forming a T shape.
  • SINGLE ENDED WEALDEN HOUSE — A wealden house with only one end being jettied.
  • SINGLE GUN (DIVER) BATTERY — 40mm gun emplacement created between 24th-26th June 1944 as part of the fourth deployment of Diver LAA guns to the Kentish Gun Belt. Each site had an extant searchlight battery.
  • SIROCCO FAN HOUSE — An electric fan used for the ventilation of mines.
  • SISTERS OF ST JOHN NUNNERY — A priory of the female Order of Knights Hospitallers.
  • SITE — Unclassifiable site with minimal information. Specify site type wherever possible.
  • SKATEPARK — A purpose-built facility providing an area for wheeled sports, such as skateboarding, skating and BMX cycling, equipped with ramps and other structures and obstacles for the performance of tricks and manoeuvres.
  • SKATING RINK — A piece of ice or a floor, often within a building, used for skating.
  • SKIN DISEASE HOSPITAL — A specialist hospital for the medical treatment of skin diseases.
  • SKITTLE ALLEY — A place where the game of skittles is played.
  • SLAB BLOCK — A rectangular multi-storey block of flats, greater in width than height.
  • SLAB BRIDGE — A type of concrete bridge, developed in the 20th century, that consists of reinforced concrete deck slabs that sit on the supporting bridge piers and/or abutments.
  • SLAG HEAP — A spoil heap consisting mainly of slag, pieces of refuse material separated from a metal during the smelting process.
  • SLAG HEARTH — A hearth used for the reheating of metal slag to extract further metal.
  • SLAG PIT — A pit containing the waste product form iron working.
  • SLAG WORKS — A site or factory where waste slag from ironworking if further processed for use in manufacturing.
  • SLATE QUARRY — A site where slate is quarried from the ground.
  • SLEDWAY — An early form of railway for the transportation of freight by sleds.
  • SLEECHING SALT WORKS — A coastal site producing salt by scraping up salt-impregnated sand and silt, leeching out the salt to produce a concentrated brine, then boiling in 'saltcotes' (small huts containing lead pans)
  • SLIP (GARDEN) — A strip of cultivated land situated against the exterior of a walled garden's perimeter, so placed to maximise usable wall space.
  • SLIP SHED — A wooden or metal structure covering a shipbuilding slip way.
  • SLIPPER BATHS — Originally partially covered baths shaped somewhat like a slipper, now usually a number of single baths of the modern domestic style installed for hire at public baths.
  • SLIPPER WORKS — Factory making slippers.
  • SLIPWAY — A structure inclined towards the water on which a ship may be built or lowered into the water.
  • SLIT TRENCH — A short trench used to protect troops or to provide defensive fire from, often dug for practice purposes.
  • SLITTING MILL — A mill with machinery used to cut slabs of metal into rods, or thin sections, for use in nail making or wire drawing.
  • SLUICE — A dam which can be raised or lowered to regulate the flow of water.
  • SLUICE GATE — The gate of a sluice which can be opened or shut to let out or retain the water.
  • SLUICE HOUSE — A building containing machinery for operating sluices.
  • SLYPE — A covered way or passage especially in a cathedral or monastic church, leading east from the cloisters between transept and chapter house.
  • SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION FACTORY — A factory engaged in the manufacture of small arms ammunition, especially the metal components and filling with the explosive propellant.
  • SMALLHOLDING — A holding on a smaller-scale than an ordinary farm.
  • SMELT MILL — A manufacturing complex incorporating furnaces, calciner and condenser flues. Use SMELTERY for more modern type of plant.
  • SMELTERY — A site where ores are smelted. Use more specific site type where known.
  • SMELTING HOUSE — An ancilliary building within a larger works, as distinct from a SMELT MILL.
  • SMITHS COTTAGE — The dwelling of a blacksmith, nailer, sword cutler, etc, often adjacent to, or containing, a BLACKSMITHS WORKSHOP.
  • SMOCK MILL — A windmill with a stationary timber body which contains the grinding machinery, and which supports a rotating cap in which the sails rotate.
  • SMOKE GENERATOR — Smoke generators (also known as smoke pots) were used to create a smoke screen to provide defensive cover for strategic targets
  • SMOKE HOUSE — A building used to smoke fish or meat.
  • SMUGGLERS CACHE — A hiding place for stores, often underground, used by smugglers.
  • SNOOKER HALL — A building with facilities for playing snooker.
  • SNUFF MILL — A factory where tobacco was ground to form snuff.
  • SOAKAWAY — A pit filled with rubble, etc., into which rain or waste water flows in order to disperse into the surrounding soil.
  • SOAKING PIT — A furnace for holding hot steel ingots to equalize their temperature before they are hot-rolled in a steel-making or rolling mill complex.
  • SOAP FACTORY — A building or buildings where soap is manufactured.
  • SOAPSTONE QUARRY — A quarry for the extraction of Soapstone (also known as steatite or soaprock), a metamorphic rock largely composed of the mineral talc and rich in magnesium.
  • SOCIAL CLUB — A building used by a group of people who meet socially to participate in activities, usually related to a particular interest or occupation.
  • SOCKETED STONE — A stone which has a socket for an unknown function. Use specific term where known.
  • SODA KILN — A kiln used for the production of any of the soda group of alkalis by the heating of plant remains or salt.
  • SODA WORKS — A site used for the production of sodium bicarbonate, soda ash or caustic soda.
  • SOFT DRINKS FACTORY — A commercial building, or buildings, used for the production of soft drinks.
  • SOFT PLAY AREA — A building containing soft play equipment for children.
  • SOLAR EVAPORATION PAN — A shallow artificial pond, usually found on the coast, in which sea water is allowed to evaporate leaving behind the salt.
  • SOLAR SALT WORKS — A coastal site producing salt by solar evaporation of seawater in a series of PONDS, without any boiling stage
  • SOLARIUM — A terrace, balcony or room exposed to the rays of the sun which were thought to be beneficial to recovering from an illness.
  • SONAR STATION — A building or site incorporating sonar equipment used for detecting the presence of enemy ships or submarines.
  • SORTING OFFICE — A place where letters and parcels are sorted before being distributed. Usually found at a large general post office.
  • SOUND LOCATOR EMPLACEMENT — An emplacement housing mobile sound locating acoustic dishes/horns for the detection of incoming enemy aircraft and the triangulation of their positions so that they could be targeted by Anti aircraft guns.
  • SOUND MIRROR — An early warning structure built during and after WWI along the south and east coasts of England. Sound detecting acoustic dishes and walls could detect the sound of approaching enemy aircraft at a distance of 8 to 15 miles.
  • SOUND MIRROR (20 FEET) — A concrete, circular concave dish 20 feet in diameter used as an acoustic listening device to detect approaching enemy aircraft.
  • SOUND MIRROR (200 FEET) — A concrete, concave wall 200 feet in length used as an acoustic listening device to detect approaching enemy aircraft.
  • SOUND MIRROR (30 FEET) — A concrete, circular concave dish 30 feet in diameter used as an acoustic listening device to detect approaching enemy aircraft.
  • SOUND MIRROR BUILDING — A building housing the acoustic detection equipment for a sound mirror
  • SOUP KITCHEN — A place where soup and food is available to the homeless.
  • SOUTERRAIN — An underground chamber, store room or passage.
  • SPA — A medicinal or mineral spring often with an associated building.
  • SPA HOTEL — A building offering accommodation to people who are visiting a town or locality renowned for its mineral springs.
  • SPA PAVILION — A light, ornamental building or structure built to incorporate, or in association with, a mineral spring.
  • SPECIAL OPERATIONS EXECUTIVE BASE — A military base for the training of SOE operatives in the skills and techniques required to survive in enemy-occupied territory.
  • SPECIAL SCHOOL — A school for pupils with physical or learning difficulties.
  • SPECIALIST HOSPITAL — A hospital providing medical, surgical or psychiatric testing and treatment for patients with specific illnesses or injuries.
  • SPECTACLE ENCLOSURE — A site consisting of, usually two, sub-circular enclosures linked by a linear ditch running tangentially to the enclosure boundaries. Characteristic of the later prehistoric period in the Wessex region.
  • SPEEDWAY TRACK — A specially prepared track used for fast motorcycle racing.
  • SPHINX — A sculptured, carved or moulded representation of an imaginary creature with a human head and breast combined with the body of a lion.
  • SPIDER BILLET — A barracks comprising eight barrack blocks accessed via a central corridor. With four blocks on either side of the corridor the whole structure resembled a spider in plan.
  • SPIGOT MORTAR EMPLACEMENT — A pit or emplacement surrounding a concrete pedestal, or 'thimble', which was used to mount a spigot mortar. Deployed by the Home Guard during WWII as an anti invasion measure.
  • SPILLWAY — A channel carrying overflow water past a dam. Early 19th century onwards.
  • SPINNING MILL — A mill or factory in which raw cotton, wool, nylon or other material is spun into yarn or thread.
  • SPINNING SHED — A building associated with a spinning mill in which raw material is mechanically spun into yarn or thread.
  • SPINNING SHOP — A workshop in which textile fibres were spun into yarn by hand.
  • SPIRIT CELLAR — A building or subterranean structure used for the storage of spirits.
  • SPIRITUALIST CHURCH — A place of worship for the believers of spiritualism: The belief that the spirits of the dead can somehow manifest themselves and speak with the living.
  • SPLIT SHAFT KILN — A twin-shafted kiln, circular or oval in plan, consisting of a fire chamber, pre-heater and cooling chamber.
  • SPOIL HEAP — A conical or flat-topped tip of waste discarded from a mine or similar site.
  • SPORTS BUILDING — A building in which a sport is played. Use more specific type where known.
  • SPORTS CENTRE — A specially built building where facilities exist for the playing of a variety of sports.
  • SPORTS EQUIPMENT FACTORY — A factory manufacturing sports equipment.
  • SPORTS GROUND — An area of prepared ground on which a sport is played. Use more specific type where known.
  • SPORTS PAVILION — A building, usually at a sports ground, with facilities for players and spectators.
  • SPORTS SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with sporting activities.
  • SPRING — A point where water issues naturally from the rock or soil onto the ground or into a body of surface water.
  • SPRING SHOP — An engineering workshop for the manufacture and repair of springs.
  • SPRING WORKS — A site where metal springs are manufactured.
  • SQUADRON OFFICE — A building used for the administration of a squadron.
  • SQUARE — An open space or area, usually square in plan, in a town or city, enclosed by residential and/or commercial buildings, frequently containing a garden or laid out with trees.
  • SQUARE BARROW — A burial monument, usually of Iron age date, comprising a small square ditched enclosure surrounding a central interment, which may also have been covered by a mound.
  • SQUARE CAIRN — A roughly square mound of stones which may also contain or conceal a burial.
  • SQUARE ENCLOSURE — A square shaped area of land enclosed by a boundary ditch, bank, wall, palisade or similar barrier. Small square enclosures (with sides of less than c.20m) have been interpreted as the remains of square barrows of Iron Age date.
  • SQUARE PARTERRE — A parterre consisting of square beds containing ornamental plants often laid out in intricate patterns mimicking embroidery.
  • SQUASH COURT — A place where the game of squash is played.
  • SQUATTER SETTLEMENT — A site occupied by people who have no legal right to the land or buildings on it.
  • SQUATTERS COTTAGE — A cottage erected over a short period of time, by people who had no legal right to the land. Squatters were often tolerated by the landlord as they provided cheap labour.
  • STABLE — A building in which horses are accommodated.
  • STABLEHANDS LODGINGS — A place of accommodation for a stablehand.
  • STACK STAND — A platform for storing winter fodder.
  • STACK YARD — A farmyard or enclosure containing regularly built stacks of hay, corn, peas etc.
  • STADDLE BARN — A threshing barn, usually timber framed which is raised on staddle stones.
  • STADDLE STONE — Mushroom-shaped stones used to raise the floor of barns, granaries etc. above ground level, to prevent vermin gaining access to stored grain and fodder.
  • STADIUM — A large, usually unroofed building with tiers of seats for spectators built in various shapes and enclosing a field used for sports events.
  • STAINED GLASS WORKSHOP — A place where stained glass is manufactured, traditionally for church windows.
  • STAIRCASE LOCK — Two or more adjacent locks where the upper gates of one lock serve as the lower gates of the next.
  • STAITHE — A waterside depot for coals brought from the collieries for shipment, furnished with staging and chutes for loading vessels.
  • STAKE ALIGNMENT — An alignment of stakes or stakeholes of unknown function
  • STAKE CIRCLE — A circle of wooden stakes or stake holes in the ground.
  • STAKE HOLE — A hole in the ground which has been created by driving or hammering an upright stake into the ground. As a feature of some archaeological sites they may often represent the only surviving evidence for the former presence of an above-ground structure.
  • STALLION HOUSE — A building where a stallion is kept.
  • STAMPING MILL — Building or structure housing a form of ore crushing device associated with tin mines.
  • STAMPS — Form of ore crushing machinery associated with tin mines often wooden and water-powered.
  • STAND BY SET HOUSE — A building housing the stand-by generator set and associated equipment which could supply electricity to all essential services in the event of a power cut.
  • STAND BY SET HOUSE (1039/41) — A stand by set house built to Air Ministry drawing number 1039/41.
  • STAND BY SET HOUSE (13244/41) — A stand by set house designed to drawing number 13244/41 and comprising of 4 rooms; a fuel storage room, a transformer chamber, a switchgear chamber and the main engine room with 2 diesel engines.
  • STAND BY SET HOUSE (16302/41) — A stand by set house similar to 13244/41 and designed to drawing number 16302/41 and comprising of 4 rooms; a fuel storage room, a transformer chamber, a switchgear chamber and the main engine room with 3 diesel engines.
  • STAND BY SET HOUSE (3527/43) — A portable stand by set house built to Air Ministry drawing number 3527/43.
  • STAND BY SET HOUSE (4238/44) — A stand by set house built to Air Ministry drawing number 4238/44.
  • STAND BY SET HOUSE (607/36) — An expansion period stand by set house designed to drawing number 607/36 and containing a single generator set and switch board. Constructed in reinforced concrete.
  • STAND BY SET HOUSE (8760/42) — A stand by set house built with a steel-framed pitched roof. Built to drawing number 8760/42 it was intended to supersede all earlier designs and was cheaper to produce. Both the transformer and fuel tanks were located outside the main building.
  • STAND BY SET HOUSE (974/35) — An expansion period stand by set house designed to drawing number 974/35 and containing a single generator set and switch board. Constructed with brick cavity walls.
  • STANDING STONE — A stone or boulder which has been deliberately set upright in the ground. Use only for isolated stones. Otherwise use specific type where known.
  • STANNARY COURT — A medieval court for tin miners in Devon and Cornwall.
  • STANTON SHELTER — A commercially manufactured air raid shelter, using prefabricated parabolic concrete panels which could be combined to produce any length of shelter.Usually semi-sunken and covered with earth they were mainly used on RAF sites.
  • STAR FORT — A fort with a star trace plan, designed to increase the angles of fire.
  • STARCH MILL — A mill used for the extraction and processing of starch.
  • STARFISH SITE — A decoy site designed to simulate a burning urban area during a bombing raid in order to lure enemy bombers away from legitimate targets.
  • STARTING GATE — A gate or mechanism designed to allow animals which are being raced to start at the same time.
  • STATION CANOPY — A supported, roof structure covering all, or part, of a railway platform.
  • STATION HEADQUARTERS — Headquarters buildings on military airfields for administrative purposes housing offices, lecture rooms and in some cases a library and a meteorological office. On smaller airfields it is called Station Offices. Abbreviation SQH.
  • STATION MASTERS HOUSE — The residence of a station master.
  • STATION SIGN — A board indicating the name of the railway station.
  • STATIONAL MONUMENT — A monument within a church or cathedral representing one of the stations of the cross. Usually images or pictures of successive incidents of the Passion, they are intended to be visited for meditation and prayer.
  • STATIONERY WAREHOUSE — A building or part of a building used for the storage of stationery materials.
  • STATUE — A representation in the round of a living being, allegorical personage, eminent person or animal, etc, sculptured, moulded or cast in marble, metal, plaster, etc.
  • STATUE FOUNDRY — A workshop or factory where statues are made by casting molten material into moulds.
  • STATUE WORKSHOP — A workshop used for the manufacture of statues, either cast or carved.
  • STAUNCH — A lock or a dam in a river.
  • STEAM CRANE — A crane powered by a steam engine.
  • STEAM ENGINE — An engine in which the mechanical force of steam is made available as a motive power for driving machinery.
  • STEAM ENGINE HOUSE — A building housing a steam engine.
  • STEAM MILL — A steam-powered factory.
  • STEAM PLANT — An industrial site or building where the machinery is powered by a steam engine.
  • STEAM PLOUGHED RIG — A ridge and furrow produced by a plough drawn between two steam engined vehicles, or a steam engined vehicle and a moveable windlass, standing on opposite headlands.
  • STEAM POWER PRODUCTION SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the production and use of steam power.
  • STEAM PUMP — A machine used to raise and move water and other liquids, compress gases etc. and powered by a steam engine.
  • STEAM TURBINE — A motor in which rotary motion is produced by steam power.
  • STEAM TURBINE POWER STATION — A complex of buildings where electricity is produced using steam-powered turbines.
  • STEAM WHIM — A steam-powered machine used for raising ore or water from a mine.
  • STEAM WHIM HOUSE — A steam driven winding engine house for raising coal to the surface.
  • STEAM WINCH — A winch powered by a steam engine.
  • STEAM WINDER — A steam powered winding gear used at a colliery or other mine.
  • STEAMING SHED — A building used specifically for testing the boilers of railway engines, both hydraulically and with live steam.
  • STEEL TEST HOUSE — A building used for the testing of steel.
  • STEEL WORKING SITE — A site used for the manufacturing of steel. Use more specific type where known.
  • STEEL WORKS — A site containing plant and machinery for the manufacture of steel.
  • STEELYARD — Traditionally, dating from the medieval period, this was an area on the north bank of the Thames where the Merchants of the Hanse conducted their business. Now includes a similar establishment in a provincial town.
  • STEEPING PIT — Pit for soaking animal hides as part of the tanning process.
  • STEEPING TANK — A large tank used for soaking alumina-bearing shale in water and chemicals, the initial stage in the alum-making process.
  • STEPPED TERRACE — A terrace of houses built on a slope giving the roofline a stepped appearance.
  • STEPPING STONES — Stones placed in the bed of a stream or on wet ground, to enable crossing on foot.
  • STEPS — A series of flat-topped structures, usually made of stone or wood, used to facilitate a person's movement from one level to another.
  • STEWARDS HOUSE — The residence of a person entrusted with the management of a great house or castle.
  • STILE — A set of steps or a framework of bars and steps for crossing over a fence or wall.
  • STILL HOUSE — A building housing equipment for the process of distillation.
  • STILLING HOUSE — A distilling or brewing house.
  • STOCK ENCLOSURE — A pound for the accommodation of livestock.
  • STOCK EXCHANGE — A building which provides the centralized market for trading in stocks and shares and for raising capital for industry.
  • STOCKADED ENCLOSURE — An enclosure surrounded by a wooden stockade. A rare site type of Neolithic date.
  • STOCKS — An instrument of punishment, in which the offender was placed in a sitting position in a timber frame, with holes to confine the ankles and wrists between two planks.
  • STOKE PIT — The position of a fire in a wood-fuelled furnace. All periods from the Iron Age to the 17th century.
  • STONE — Use only where stone is natural or where there is no indication of function.
  • STONE ALIGNMENT — A single line, or two or more roughly parallel lines, of standing stones set at intervals along a common axis or series of axes.
  • STONE AVENUE — A monument consisting of parallel lines of standing stones, which appears to mark out an approach to another monument or monuments.
  • STONE AXE FACTORY — Source from which stone utilized for the manufacture of non-flint artefacts, including axes, was obtained. Applied only to sources exploited during the Neolithic and earlier Bronze Age. Do not use for flint mining or knapping sites.
  • STONE BLOCK — A piece of stone, usually shaped, of uncertain origin or use.
  • STONE BREAKING YARD — A place where inmates of a workhouse or prison carried out stone breaking.
  • STONE CIRCLE — An approximately circular or oval setting of spaced, usually freestanding, upright stones. More than one circle may be present, arranged concentrically.
  • STONE COVE — A group of, usually three, standing stones forming a square with an open side and often found with a stone circle.
  • STONE CRUSHING PLANT — A place where pieces of stone are crushed and ground.
  • STONE DISPATCH BUILDING — A building in a quarry consisting of a series of loading bays in which stone is loaded onto wagons.
  • STONE DRESSING FLOOR — A place where stone is dressed or shaped for use in building, etc.
  • STONE EXTRACTION SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the extraction of stone. Includes preparation processes.
  • STONE GRUBBING SITE — A site used for the small scale extraction and working of surface boulders.
  • STONE MILL — A flour mill which uses one or more pairs of horizontal millstones to grind wheat into flour which millers call a ‘sudden death’ process; within not more than 90 seconds complete wheat grain becomes wholemeal flour.
  • STONE QUARRY — An excavation from which stone for building is obtained by cutting, blasting etc.
  • STONE SETTING — An arrangement of one or more standing stones. Use particularly for isolated recumbent stones, or where original form of monument unclear. Use specific type where known.
  • STONE STORE — A building or area where stone is stored for industrial or agricultural use.
  • STONE TABLE — A table made of stone, found in streets, parks, etc.
  • STONE WORKING SITE — A site where rough stone is processed, shaped, worked or formed into finished products.
  • STONEMASONS YARD — A complex, comprising a workshop and a storage yard, used by a stonemason.
  • STOP GATE — Pairs of canal gates (also called Brindley gates) designed to rapidly shut off a section of a canal to prevent flooding
  • STOP LINE — A notional line of resistance defined by anti tank obstacles, pillboxes and gun emplacements.
  • STOP LOCK — A lock at the end of one company's canal where it joins another company's canal.
  • STORAGE BUILDING — A building used for the storage of equipment.
  • STORAGE CLAMP — Large semi-subterranean feature often packed with straw for the storage of potatoes and other root crops.
  • STORAGE DEPOT — A building or site used for the storage of goods or equipment.
  • STORAGE FACILITY — Sites and buildings used for the storage or equipment, ordnance or vehicles. Use more specific term.
  • STORAGE PIT — A pit dug in the ground used to store meat, grain and other foodstuffs. A common feature of Iron Age farms.
  • STORAGE TANK — Container for the storage of unspecified materials.
  • STOREHOUSE — A building in which goods or items are stored. Use more specific type where known.
  • STOUP — A vessel to contain holy water located near the entrance of a church.
  • STOVE HOUSE — A component of salt works containing flues and drying areas where salt blocks are dried before being crushed and bagged.
  • STOWE — A type of windlass for drawing up ore.
  • STREAM — A natural flow or current of water issuing from a source.
  • STREAMWORKS — A place where tin ore is washed using a stream as the water source.
  • STREET FURNITURE — Structures erected on or near a public highway.
  • STREET LAMP — A light, often suspended from a lamp-post, to illuminate a street or road.
  • STREET MARKET — A market consisting of stalls erected in the street and selling a variety of goods.
  • STREET TRAMWAY — A track inlaid into the road surface of a street or road, on which tram cars run for the conveyance of passengers.
  • STRICT BAPTIST CHAPEL — A place of worship for Strict Baptists, a sect who broke away from the Particular Baptists and kept up the practice of denying communion to non members after the union of General and Particular Baptists was formed in 1891.
  • STRIP FIELD — An area of agriculturally used land, which is divided into small, elongated, rectangular fields running parallel to each other.
  • STRIP LYNCHET — A terraced field usually found on hillsides. Comprising a flat strip of land, called the tread, and a steep, scarped lynchet or edge, called the riser.
  • STRONGPOINT — A fortifed position, often including fieldworks or defensive structures, designed to keep enemy forces engaged to allow reinforcements to be mobilized.
  • STRUCTURE — A construction of unknown function, either extant or implied by archaeological evidence. If known, use more specific type.
  • STUD FARM — A farm where stallions and mares are kept for breeding.
  • STUDENTS UNION — A building used, as a meeting place and administration block, by an organization run for the benefit of students at a school, college or university.
  • STUDIO HOUSE — A purpose-built residence for an artist, containing a studio.
  • STUDY CENTRE — A building that houses material that can be used to facilitate the study of a site, landscape or an historical event/period. Such centres are often found in close proximity to the sites and/or landscapes that they seek to encourage the study of.
  • SUB CIRCULAR ENCLOSURE — A monument consisting of an area enclosed by a ditch, bank, wall, palisade or similar barrier, where the barrier follows a circular course, but is not regularly laid out.
  • SUB REGIONAL SEAT OF GOVERNMENT — A structure, often sited underground, from where it was intended to conduct the business of government in the event of nuclear war. Sub RSGs were introduced between the RSGs and local authorities to allow the RSGs to focus on strategic direction.
  • SUBAQUEOUS TUNNEL — A man-made passageway, which is built through a sea- or riverbed.
  • SUBMARINE BASE — Coastal base for the docking, launch and maintenance of submarines.
  • SUBMARINE CABLE REPEATER STATION — A cable repeater station for the undersea telephone and telegraph cables. Repeater stations compensated for the inadequacies of 1920's and 30's equipment over long distances, by repeating the signal every 200 miles.
  • SUBMARINE CABLE STATION — A building housing one end of an underwater telegraph cable.
  • SUBMARINE FOREST — A forest killed by rising sea-level. Nowadays only tree stumps survive.
  • SUBMARINE MINE DEPOT — A complex of purpose-built or adapted buildings used for the maintenance, storage, assembly and control of sea mines and minefields.
  • SUBMARINE TELEPHONE CABLE STATION — A telephone exchange housing one end of an underwater cable and used to send messages overseas.
  • SUBMERGED LANDSCAPE — Former terrestrial landscape of any kind now submerged through erosion, as at Dunwich, or historical inundation processes, eg. post-glacial submersion of the North Sea landscape ("Doggerland").
  • SUBRECTANGULAR ENCLOSURE — A monument consisting of an area enclosed by a ditch, bank, wall, palisade or similar barrier, where the barrier follows an almost rectangular course.
  • SUBSCRIPTION HOSPITAL — A hospital where people would pay a subscription in order to recieve treatment when ill.
  • SUBURB — A largely residential area on the outskirts of a town or city.
  • SUBWAY — An underground passageway for cables, pipes and pedestrians to allow passage beneath an over ground obstacle.
  • SUCCAH — An ancillary building to a synagogue, used as a place of worship at the feast of the tabernacle.
  • SUGAR HOUSE — A sugar factory.
  • SUGAR REFINERY — A site where sugar beet was processed before being washed and dried to form granulated sugar.
  • SUGAR SILO — A building or structure used for the storage of sugar.
  • SUGAR WAREHOUSE — A building where sugar is stored.
  • SULPHUR STORE — A building used for storing Sulphur, a highly inflammable chemical element used in the manufacture of matches, gunpowder and sulphuric acid. It is also used in bleaching, for vulcanizing rubber and as a disinfectant.
  • SUMMERHOUSE — A building in a garden or park designed to provide a shady retreat from the heat of the sun.
  • SUNDAY SCHOOL — A school in which instruction is given on a Sunday, especially such a school for children connected with a parish or congregation.
  • SUNDIAL — A structure used to show the time of day by means of the sun shining on a 'gnomon', the shadow of which falls on the surface of the dial which is marked with a diagram showing the hours. Can be freestanding, usually on a pillar, or fixed to a building.
  • SUNKEN GARDEN — An often secluded garden set below the level of surrounding ground, usually surrounded with terraces.
  • SUNSHINE RECORDER — A glass sphere in a metal frame standing on a small pillar. A card is placed behind the sphere which focuses any sunlight, marking the card and thus indicating how many hours of sunlight there was on that day.
  • SUPER ROBINS HANGAR — An aircraft hangar designed to Air Ministry specification (drawing number 6910/43). Similar in design to the ROBINS AIRCRAFT HANGAR but larger.
  • SUPER ROBINS HANGAR (TYPE A) — An aircraft hangar designed to Air Ministry specifications (drawing number 2243/41). Constructed from prefabricated A-frames and clad in corrugated iron.
  • SUPERMARKET — A large self-service store selling foods and some household goods.
  • SUPERPHOSPHATE FACTORY — A building or site where phosphorous-based fertilizers are produced by controlled chemical reactions.
  • SUPPLY DEPOT — A building or site used for the storage and distribution of the essential logistical requirements of an armed force.
  • SUPREME COURT — The highest judicial court where appeals can be heard and whose rulings are not subject to further review by another court.
  • SURGERY — A room or office at a general practitioners' or veterinary practice, where patients or animals are seen and medicine dispensed.
  • SURVEY TOWER — A tower used for surveying, especially in civil engineering projects such as bridges.
  • SUSPENSION BRIDGE — A bridge whose deck is hung from above by large cables, chains or pinned iron or steel bars hanging from towers.
  • SWALLOW HOLE — An opening or cavity through which a stream or natural watercourse disappears underground.
  • SWANNERY — A place where swans are bred and reared.
  • SWANNERY POND — A pond located at or near a swannery.
  • SWEDENBORGIAN CHAPEL — A place of worship for followers of Emmanuel Swedenborg who believed he was the medium through which the New Jerusalem would be founded on earth. The church was formed in 1787.
  • SWIMMING POOL — A large, manmade pool, usually lined with tiles, rubber or similar. Can be placed in the open air, eg. a LIDO, or built as part of a covered sports centre.
  • SWING BRIDGE — A movable bridge that swings or rotates around a central pier, or one that is pivoted only at one end, to provide a passageway for navigation.
  • SWING PIT — This is a pit used in the glass industry for the production of cylinder glass. The only surviving examle in England is at the Hartley Wood Glasworks, Sunderland. It is a feature of 19th century and later glassworks
  • SWISS COTTAGE — A chalet designed in the Swiss style, eg. Kenwood, London.
  • SWISS GARDEN — A garden with real or supposed Swiss features, including buildings and plantings.
  • SWITCH HOUSE — Building housing switch gear to control electricity supply either to the National Grid, industrial or domestic premises.
  • SWORD FACTORY — A building or site used for the manufacture of swords.
  • SYNAGOGUE — A place of worship for Jewish people.
  • SYNODAL HALL — A building used as a meeting place by a synod, an assembly of the clergy.

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T

  • TABLE TOMB — A type of tomb in the form of a slab raised on freestanding legs.
  • TACK ROOM — A room or building in which riding tackle is stored.
  • TAIL RACE — A water channel leading from a water wheel.
  • TAILINGS WORKS — A 19th century ore processing works which processed the waste material from a mine.
  • TAKE OFF STONE — A stone used to instruct a coachman to unhitch a horse, previously taken on to help pull the coach up a steep gradient.
  • TAKE-AWAY — An establishment for the preparation and selling of food to be consumed off the premises.
  • TALLOW FACTORY — A building where tallow is produced, ie. solid animal fat that has been separated by heating, usually for making candles.
  • TANK — Armoured military vehicle with its own firepower, which operates on tracks for troop mobility over rough terrain. Some may be adapted, or purpose-built, to be amphibious, and may then be double-indexed as AMPHIBIOUS VEHICLE.
  • TANK FACTORY — A factory for the manufacture of military tanks.
  • TANK FURNACE — An enclosed furnace used for the continuous casting of plate glass.
  • TANK PARK — A site where tanks and armoured fighting vehicles can be stored.
  • TANK RAMP — An inclined plane built to allow tanks to be loaded and unloaded between rolling stock on the railway network and vehicular low loaders.
  • TANK TRAP — Reinforced concrete blocks, walls or ditches designed to obstruct the progress of a tank or armoured vehicle.
  • TANNERY — A manufacturing complex where the hides of animals are turned into leather, consisting of buildings for fleecing and drying, as well as treatment pits.
  • TANNING PIT — A pit or tank containing chemicals for the preserving of animal hide.
  • TAPE MILL — A mill used for the manufacture of narrow strips of woven fabric used in the closing or fixing of garments, or for binding the edges of fabric goods.
  • TAPE SIZING WORKS — A building, usually part of a textile mill complex, where warp yarn is sized prior to weaving. Sizing is the application of a starch solution to warp threads to add strength and protection.
  • TAPESTRY MILL — A factory where tapestries were manufactured.
  • TAPESTRY WEAVING WORKSHOP — A workshop where tapestries were made.
  • TAR HOUSE — A storehouse associated with rope manufacture (eg. in naval dockyards).
  • TAR TANK — A tank found on hop farms in which creosote was held, heated from below by a fire with a chimney. The ends of hop poles were dipped in the tar to prevent rotting in soil.
  • TAR WORKS — A site where tar is manufactured or combined with other substances to produce bitumen, for example.
  • TARGET — Any structure or object, used for the purpose of practice shooting by aerial, seaborne or land mounted weapons.
  • TARGET RAILWAY — A miniature railway on which targets can be placed to provide moving targets on a firing range.
  • TARGET RANGE — An area of ground used for the testing of, and practicing with, weapons against fixed and moveable targets.
  • TAWING WORKS — A building or complex where soft skins are produced by tanning with alum.
  • TAXIWAY — A marked path along which aircraft taxi to or from a parking area, runway, etc.
  • TEA GARDEN — Garden or open-air enclosure, usually connected to commercial premises, where tea and other refreshments are served to the public.
  • TEA HOUSE — A refreshment house in a public park or country house garden.
  • TEA ROOM — An establishment where tea and other non-alcoholic refreshments and light meals are served.
  • TEA WAREHOUSE — A large building used to store tea.
  • TEACHER TRAINING COLLEGE — An educational institution for the training of teachers.
  • TEACHERS CENTRE — A building used by teachers for in-service training.
  • TEACHERS HOUSE — The residence of a teacher, often on the site of a school.
  • TEACHING HOSPITAL — A working hospital, often near or associated with a university, where doctors and nurses are trained.
  • TEAGLE — A crane or hoist within a building found mainly in the North of England. Can also refer to a projecting crane located above a loading slot.
  • TEAZLE DRYING HOUSE — A building used to dry teazle heads in. Teazles were used to raise the nap on cloth in teazle shops.
  • TEAZLE SHOP — A building in which the fibres of new woollen cloth were raised by brushing with teazle heads.
  • TECHNICAL COLLEGE — A college where the applied sciences and the mechanical arts are taught.
  • TECHNICAL LATRINE BLOCK (9026/41) — A standard latine block on RAF airfields.
  • TECHNICAL SCHOOL — A school where the applied sciences and the mechanical arts are taught.
  • TECHNICAL SITE — The area of a military base where engineering and maintenance functions are grouped.
  • TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE — A building used by an organization or society instituted to promote technology through lectures, research, etc.
  • TELECOMMUNICATION BUILDING — A building housing electrical or electronic equipment used for communicating over long distances. Use specific type where known.
  • TELECOMMUNICATION STRUCTURE — Structures associated with telecommunications.
  • TELEGRAPH KEEPERS COTTAGE — The residence of a telegraph keeper, associated with a telegraph station.
  • TELEGRAPH OFFICE — The main office of a telegraph company containing rows of tables set with Morse sounders, keys, relays and pigeon holes from where MORSE coded messages were transmitted and received and telegrams dispatched.
  • TELEGRAPH POLE — A tall wooden pole used to support telegraph wires.
  • TELEGRAPH STATION — One in a chain of stations with semaphore shutters and telescopes which could relay messages according to a planned code. Used from the 1790s by the British Admiralty to speed up communications from London to the ports of Deal, Portsmouth and Plymouth.
  • TELEPHONE BOX — A freestanding public call box, containing a telephone and usually operated by inserting coins.
  • TELEPHONE EXCHANGE — An office or central station of a local telephone system where the various lines are brought to a central switchboard and communication between subscribers is achieved.
  • TELEPHONE REPEATER STATION — A building, similar in style to a telephone exchange but smaller. They were used to compensate for the inadequacies of 1920's and 30's equipment over long distances, by repeating the signal every 200 miles.
  • TELEPHONE WORKS — A place where telephones and their components are manufactured
  • TELESCOPE (CELESTIAL) — An optical instrument for making distant objects appear nearer and larger, usually found at an observatory, through which astronomical or meteorological phenomena may be observed.
  • TELESCOPE (TERRESTRIAL) — An optical instrument for making distant objects appear nearer and larger, often found on the promenade or pleasure pier at a seaside resort or at a site of scenic beauty.
  • TELESCOPE DOME — A dome shaped structure, with an aperture open to the sky, used to house a telescope.
  • TELESCOPIC BRIDGE — A bridge in which one leaf may be retracted in a horizontal plane, passing on rollers over or under the adjacent fixed leaf.
  • TELEVISION SET — Purpose built or modified structure or building used for scenery in a television program.
  • TELEVISION STUDIO — A building or series of rooms specially designed for the recording and transmission of live or taped television programmes.
  • TEMPERANCE HALL — A meeting hall of the Temperance Society.
  • TEMPERANCE HOTEL — A hotel where no alcohol is available.
  • TEMPERANCE PUBLIC HOUSE — A public house where no alcohol is sold.
  • TEMPERATE HOUSE — A building with a regulated moderate temperature for the cultivation of plants.
  • TEMPLARS CAMERA — A residence used during short visits by an official and attendants of the Knights Templars for administrative purposes on their estates.
  • TEMPLARS CHURCH — A church, sometimes circular in plan, founded by the Poor Knights of Christ and the Temple of Solomon, commonly known as the Knights Templar.
  • TEMPLARS GRANGE — An outlying farm or estate belonging to the Poor Knights of Christ and the Temple of Solomon, commonly known as the Knights Templars
  • TEMPLARS PRECEPTORY — The residence of a preceptor, officials and servants, etc, supervising the estates of the Knights Templars military order. Includes the mother house styled the Temple, London. The Order was suppressed in 1312.
  • TEMPLE — Use for places of worship. For later landscape features use, eg. GARDEN TEMPLE.
  • TEMPORARY BRIDGE — A type of bridge which was designed for temporary use and then capable of being moved to another site. Use for temporary bridges which have remained in situ since erection.
  • TEMPORARY CAMP — A temporary overnight camp enclosed by a shallow ditch and palisade, constructed by Roman troops on campaigns or manoeuvres.
  • TENANTS HALL — A communal room or building attached to flats.
  • TENEMENT — A parcel of land.
  • TENEMENT BLOCK — Use for speculatively built 19th century "model dwellings", rather than those built by a philanthropic society.
  • TENEMENT FACTORY — A purpose-built factory for more than one occupier (eg. for several different workshops).
  • TENEMENT HOUSE — Originally built as a family house. Converted into flats during the 19th or 20th century.
  • TENNIS CLUB — A site containing a tennis court, changing facilities and a club house.
  • TENNIS COURT — A prepared area, traditionally grass, where tennis is played.
  • TENTER GROUND — Field or area of ground where washed new cloth is stretched out to dry.
  • TENTER POST — Posts with hooks attached to allow drying new cloth to be stretched out between them.
  • TERMINAL BUILDING — A building within a transport terminal, often associated with the registration and clearing of incoming and outgoing passengers or freight.
  • TERMINUS STONE — To mark the end of a turnpike road.
  • TERRACE — A row of houses attached to and adjoining one another and planned and built as one unit.
  • TERRACED GARDEN — A garden with one or more platforms with walks, often on different levels, usually close to the house.
  • TERRACED GROUND — An artificially raised level of ground.
  • TERRACED HOUSE — A house in a line of houses attached to and adjoining one another and planned and built as one unit.
  • TERRACED LAWN — A raised lawn in a garden or park.
  • TERRACED WALK — A walk, common in 18th century gardens, providing a view across the surrounding countryside.
  • TERRACOTTA WORKS — A site where terracotta, made from weathered clay and grog, was manufactured.
  • TERRITORIAL ARMY CENTRE — A centre used by the Territorial Army, the volunteer reserve of the British army.
  • TERRITORIAL ARMY HEADQUARTERS — A building used as headquarters by the Territorial Army, the volunteer reserve of the British army.
  • TESSELLATED FLOOR — Floor cover in Roman time, where small cubes (tesserea) of one or more colours were laid in a geometric pattern.
  • TEST HOUSE — A building used for the testing of aircraft and aircraft engines.
  • TESTING RANGE — A site, containing installations and machinery, used for measuring the power of explosives.
  • TESTING TANK — A water-filled structure for experimental research.
  • TETHERING POST — a wooden, metal or stone post used to tether a horse, or other animals.
  • TETT TURRET — A small concrete turret placed on top of a standard 4 ft. diameter concrete pipe sunk into the ground. Intended for use in defending road junctions, airfields and beach exits.
  • TEXTILE CONDITIONING HOUSE — Building for testing the condition and strength of textiles.
  • TEXTILE FINISHING SITE — Includes bleaching, dressing, dyeing and printing.
  • TEXTILE INDUSTRY SITE — Includes all stages of production process of textiles, eg. wool, cotton, linen, etc, and textile products. Use only for sites where there is evidence of textile manufacture but no specific monument type, otherwise use more specific term.
  • TEXTILE MACHINERY WORKS — An engineering works that produces machinery specially for use in textile making.
  • TEXTILE MILL — Any factory used for the manufacture of textiles.
  • TEXTILE PRINTING WORKS — A factory complex consisting of PRINTING SHOPS, COLOUR HOUSES, DYE HOUSES, etc, in which patterns are printed onto textiles.
  • TEXTILE WAREHOUSE — A large store for textiles.
  • TEXTILE WORKERS COTTAGE — The residence of a person employed in the textile industry.
  • TEXTILE WORKSHOP — A workshop used in the manufacture and preparation of textiles.
  • THEATRE — A building used primarily for the performing of plays.
  • THEATRE STANDING — Platform or structure used for viewing performances.
  • THEOLOGICAL COLLEGE — An establishment dedicated to the study of theology and religious training.
  • THEOSOPHICAL COLLEGE — An establishment dedicated to the study of God and religion.
  • THERMAL BATHS — A building containing a number of areas for bathing, some of which are naturally heated by thermal springs.
  • THOR MISSILE SITE — A missile base armed with the Thor Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile. Thor Missiles were deployed in Britain under joint British/US control between 1959 and 1964.
  • THRESHING BARN — A barn usually containing a single, central threshing floor.
  • THRESHING FLOOR — An area of a barn, paved or boarded, on which corn was threshed by hand flailing. Use broader site type where known.
  • THRESHING MILL — A mill which contains machinery for separating grain from the chaff.
  • THROUGH BRIDGE — A type of bridge which completely encloses the traffic using it.
  • THROUGH BY LIGHT — A 'through' BACK TO BACK HOUSE - an interlocking L-shaped plan gave each house two street frontages, thus providing better lighting/ventilation.
  • THROWING HOUSE — A building in which pottery ware is made by shaping plastic clay on a spinning turntable, known as a potter's wheel or throwing wheel.
  • THROWING MILL — A textile mill where thread undergoes the processes of twisting and doubling to provide material strong enough to be spun and woven.
  • TIDAL BASIN — A basin or harbour, which is open to the tides. Vessels can only enter and leave at high tide and are stranded at low tide.
  • TIDAL DOOR — A gate which allows water to pass into a dock, etc, at flood tide, and by which it is retained during the ebb tide.
  • TIDAL LOCK — A double lock placed between tidal water and a canal, etc..
  • TIDAL SWIMMING POOL — Manmade structure for bathing or swimming that is located on the beachfront and filled by tidal waters. Similar to a LIDO, with the main difference being the extent of the built up complex around the pool.
  • TIDE GAUGE — An instrument for measuring and indicating the height of tide.
  • TIDE MILL — A type of WATERMILL, powered by retaining seawater at high tide and then releasing it at low tide via the water wheel.
  • TILE BURIAL — An inhumation, usually Roman, which has been covered by tiles to form a tent-like structure over the body; the apex is covered by ridge tiles.
  • TILE KILN — A structure in which pottery tiles were baked.
  • TILE WORKS — A site used for all the processes associated with the manufacture of roof, floor or decorative tiles.
  • TILEMAKING WORKSHOP — A place where ceramic tiles are manufactured.
  • TILT HAMMER — Early form of powered hammer, usually wooden, used primarily in the iron industry.
  • TILTYARD — A long, narrow yard used for jousting.
  • TILTYARD TOWER — A 16th century tower for observing tournaments, eg. at royal palaces.
  • TIMBER AVENUE — A monument consisting of parallel lines of spaced post- holes which appears to mark out an approach to another monument or monuments.
  • TIMBER CIRCLE — Approximately circular or oval setting of spaced post holes indicating the former presence of a free-standing arrangement of upright timber posts. Often regarded as a wooden equivalent of the better known stone circles.
  • TIMBER FRAMED BARN — A barn which is constructed with a timber framework; between the members are panels which are infilled with timber, wattle and daub, plaster, brickwork, stone or other materials.
  • TIMBER FRAMED BUILDING — A building constructed with a basic timber framework; between the members are panels which can be infilled with timber, wattle and daub, plaster, brick or other materials.
  • TIMBER FRAMED HOUSE — A house constructed with a basic timber framework; between the members are panels which can be infilled with timber, wattle and daub, plaster, brick or other materials.
  • TIMBER MARKET — A place where processed wood is sold.
  • TIMBER MILL — A mill used to process raw timber.
  • TIMBER POND — Pond for storing cut lengths of timber to prevent them becoming seasoned.
  • TIMBER PROCESSING SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the processing of timber.
  • TIMBER PRODUCT SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the manufacture of timber products.
  • TIMBER SEASONING SHED — A building where timber was allowed to dry and harden, to render it fit for use as a working material.
  • TIMBER YARD — An open yard or place where timber is stacked or stored.
  • TIMEBALL TOWER — A structure for visually communicating the exact time to ships in anchorage. A ball slides down a mast at the top of the tower, usually at noon or one o'clock exactly.
  • TIMEKEEPERS OFFICE — A room or building occupied by a person employed to keep accounts of workers' hours of labour.
  • TIN MILL — A mill used for the processing of tin ore by crazing, stamping or smelting.
  • TIN MINE — A mine used for the extraction on tin bearing ore.
  • TIN WORKS — A site where tin ore is extracted from suspended fire waste in tin mine spoil heaps.
  • TINNERS CACHE — A crude, stone built structure, often roofless, used by tin miners to store equipment.
  • TINNERS HUT — A small dwelling providing living accommodation for a tin miner.
  • TIRONIAN ALIEN CELL — A residence of two or three monks of the Order of Tiron dependent on a foreign mother house.
  • TIRONIAN GRANGE — An outlying farm or estate belonging to the Order of Tiron.
  • TIRONIAN MONASTERY — An abbey or priory belonging to the Tironian order.
  • TITHE BARN — A large barn used to store the tithe (a tenth part of the annual produce of agriculture etc.) which was paid by the tenants of ecclesiastical lands.
  • TOBACCO FACTORY — A place where tobacco is made into cigarettes, cigars, etc.
  • TOBACCO WAREHOUSE — A building designed specifically for handling tobacco. This may be a bonded warehouse containing facilities for removing tobacco leaves from the hogsheads in which they were imported, and pressing them.
  • TOFT — The place where a house stood or had once stood, often adjoining a garth or croft.
  • TOILET — A small room or building containing a lavatory and, in more recent times, washing facilities.
  • TOLL BOARD — A sign, situated near a road or bridge, indicating a toll.
  • TOLL BOUNDARY MARKER — A marker, of stone, wood or metal, used to delineate the limits of a stretch of highway, river or canal subject to a toll charge.
  • TOLL BRIDGE — A bridge whose upkeep and repair was financed by the exaction of a toll.
  • TOLL GATE — A gate on a toll road where travellers had to pay a toll to the toll-keeper.
  • TOLL HOUSE — A house by a toll gate or toll bridge where tolls are collected.
  • TOLL ROAD — A road whose upkeep and repair was financed by the exaction of a toll.
  • TOLLBOOTH — A booth, shed or stall erected at the side of a road, canal, bridge or gate where a toll must be paid.
  • TOLUENE WORKS — A chemical works engaged in the production or refining of toluene, a substance extracted from coal tar or specific types of crude oil, and used in the production of explosives during WW1.
  • TOMB — A grave or sepulchre including a monument. Use specific type where known.
  • TOMBSTONE — A horizontal stone placed across a grave.
  • TOPIARY AVENUE — A tree-lined way or approach where the trees have been cut into various forms and shapes.
  • TOPIARY GARDEN — A garden containing trees or shrubs pruned and trained into various geometric, zoomorphic or fantastic shapes.
  • TOPSHOP — An attic workshop for textile manufacture, usually weaving.
  • TOR CAIRN — A circular bank of stones and turf, sometimes accompanied by a ditch, surrounding a natural outcrop of rock, usually a tor, or an earthfast boulder.
  • TOR ENCLOSURE — A large hilltop or hillslope enclosure in South West England, located close to rock outcrops, and surrounded by one or more circuits of stone built walls. All are prehistoric; some are definitely Neolithic.
  • TORPEDO RANGE — A designated area of water in which the perfromance of torpedoes can be evaluated.
  • TORPEDO RANGE CONTROL BUILDING — A building from which the firing of torpedoes can be controlled and evaluated.
  • TORPEDO STATION — A land based establishment armed with torpedoes and used to defend the coast from enemy shipping.
  • TOTALISATOR — A mechanically operated display board used in greyhound racing, which showed the state of the Tote, or cumulative betting on individual greyhounds.
  • TOURNAMENT FIELD — A training ground and fighting arena for knightly sports.
  • TOW PATH — A path running by the side of a canal or navigable river for use in towing vessels.
  • TOWER — A tall building, either round, square or polygonal in plan, used for a variety of purposes, including defence, as a landmark, for the hanging of bells, industrial functions, etc. Use more specific type where known.
  • TOWER BLOCK — A tall, multi storeyed building either used as business premises or, more usually, as residential accomodation.
  • TOWER HOUSE — A multi-storey, fortified hall house with one of the crosswings being raised in the form of a crenellated tower. Permanently occupied, they date from the mid 14th to the 17th century and are found mainly in the border counties of the North of England.
  • TOWER KEEP — A fortified keep in the form of a tower, used as a last refuge or defence. If a component of a larger site, use KEEP.
  • TOWER MILL — A windmill with a rotating cap containing the windshaft, and a stationary body in the form of a tower.
  • TOWING PATH BRIDGE — A bridge which takes a towing path over a branch canal, basin, etc.
  • TOWN — An assemblage of public and private buildings, larger than a village and having more complete and independent local government.
  • TOWN CROSS — A cross erected within a town, usually funded by the inhabitants.
  • TOWN DEFENCES — Defensive fortifications such as ramparts, ditches and stone walls, built to defend a town or city.
  • TOWN DITCH — A ditch constructed to surround a town for defensive purposes.
  • TOWN GATE — A highly defensible gateway, usually of stone with two or more storeys, built into the defensive walls of a town or city.
  • TOWN HALL — A large building used for the transaction of the public business of a town, the holding of courts of justice, entertainments and other activities.
  • TOWN HOUSE — A gentry house in a town or city, either detached or in a terrace.
  • TOWN QUARTER — A core part of a town or city that has or had a particular set of characteristics; for example an area of high status residences or an area where a particular industry/trade was centred.
  • TOWN WALL — A fortified wall surrounding a town or city.
  • TOWNSHIP — Cluster of dwellings of medieval or later date (Scots)
  • TOWNSHIP BOUNDARY — The limit line of a township.
  • TOWPATH TUNNEL — A canal tunnel built with one or more integral towpaths
  • TOY FACTORY — A factory that manufactures toys.
  • TRACKWAY — A pathway, not necessarily designed as such, beaten down by the feet of travellers.
  • TRACTION STEAM ENGINE — Small mobile steam engine.
  • TRADE HALL — A meeting hall, or sale room in a town, for manufacturers and traders.
  • TRADE SCHOOL — A school where handicrafts are taught.
  • TRADES UNION BUILDING — A building where the administrative functions of a Trade Union are carried on.
  • TRADES UNION HALL — A hall used by the members of a trade union for meetings and social functions.
  • TRADING SETTLEMENT — A settlement used for trading.
  • TRAFFIC LIGHTS — A mechanical device consisting of a system of signal lights operating in sequence, placed at road intersections and pedestrian crossings to regulate traffic.
  • TRAIN SHED — A canopy or building to cover the platforms in a railway station.
  • TRAINING AREA — A designated area of land, usually closed to the public, used for military exercises and training purposes.
  • TRAINING BASE — A military base used for training service personnel.
  • TRAINING CAMP — A military camp providing training facilities.
  • TRAINING CENTRE — A place where specific skills are taught on short courses.
  • TRAINING COLLEGE — A college where specialist skills, relating to a particular subject, are taught. Use specific type where known.
  • TRAINING SCHOOL — A school where specialist skills, relating to a particular subject, are taught. Use specific type where known.
  • TRAINING SCHOOL WATCH OFFICE — Based on a typical 18ft span, 40ft long temporary brick hut but with two bay windows in the front elevation, one for the watch office and one for the chief instructor.
  • TRAINING SCHOOL WATCH OFFICE (641/41) — Based on a typical 18ft span, 40ft long temporary brick hut but with two bay windows in the front elevation, one for the watch office and one for the chief instructor.
  • TRAINING STRUCTURE — An undefined structure used in the training of people in a certain skill.
  • TRAINING WALL (WATER REGULATION) — A wall structure built to direct a current into the desired channel in a harbour, river etc.
  • TRAM DEPOT — A place where trams are maintained and refitted, etc.
  • TRAM SHED — A building for the housing of trams.
  • TRAM SHELTER — A structure providing protection against the weather at tram stops.
  • TRAM TRANSFORMER STATION — A building housing transformers to convert AC electricity supply to DC supply for use by tramcars.
  • TRAM TURNTABLE — A mechanism used to turn a tram around.
  • TRAMWAY — A track inlaid into a surface, on which tram cars run for the conveyance of passengers and/or goods or raw materials.
  • TRAMWAY BRIDGE — A bridge carrying a tramway.
  • TRAMWAY EMBANKMENT — An embankment of earth alongside a tramway.
  • TRAMWAY REVERSING TRIANGLE — A structure consisting of three stretches of tramline joined by points. The tram is able to go forward, reverse and then go forward again changing line each time until it has turned around completely.
  • TRAMWAY STABLE — A stable associated with a horse-drawn tramway system.
  • TRAMWAY TRANSPORT SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with tramway transport.
  • TRAMWAY TUNNEL — A tunnel through which a tramway runs.
  • TRAMWAY TUNNEL PORTAL — The entrance to a tramway tunnel.
  • TRANSFORMER BOX — A device for converting one voltage of alternating current to another voltage.
  • TRANSFORMER PILLAR — A pillar housing a transformer to convert AC electricity supply, for use by electrified transport systems or for domestic purposes.
  • TRANSFORMER STATION — A building housing transformers to convert AC electricity supply for domestic use.
  • TRANSHUMANCE DWELLING — A house or shelter used by drovers, herders or shepherds during the seasonal moving of livestock from the highlands to the lowlands. Use more specific type where known.
  • TRANSIT SHED — A type of warehouse, usually one-storeyed.
  • TRANSIT TELESCOPE — A telescope which is mounted so as to allow the observation of only those objects in the sky which are passing over a local meridian, an event known as transit.
  • TRANSMISSION RODS — The line of a flat rod system transmitting power from an engine or waterwheel.
  • TRANSMITTER SITE — A site, including buildings and structures, from which communication signals are transmitted.
  • TRANSPORT — Sites, buildings, structures & features related to the conveyance of goods &/or passengers. Includes man-made routeways, mechanical structures & some vehicle types where it is deemed necessary to record such as monuments.
  • TRANSPORT OFFICE — The administrative office of a transport company who provide a service for the conveyance and transportation of either goods or people.
  • TRANSPORT TUNNEL — Sites and structures used for the transportation of goods and people under roads and rivers, or through hills, etc.
  • TRANSPORT WAREHOUSE — A large building, situated by or near a dock, canal, road or railway and used for the temporary storage of goods or merchandise awaiting transportation.
  • TRANSPORT WORKERS HOUSE — The residences of people involved in transport work.
  • TRANSPORTER BRIDGE — A bridge consisting of a lattice girder spanning the distance between the tops of two towers. Designed to transport vehicles across the gap in a container suspended at road level by ropes under a travelling crane on the girder.
  • TRAP HOUSE — A building, similar to a cart shed, but used to house traps, gigs and coaches.
  • TRAPEZOIDAL ENCLOSURE — An area of land, roughly shaped like a trapezoid and enclosed by a boundary ditch, bank, wall, palisade or similar barrier.
  • TRAVEL AGENTS — A commercial premises offering advice on destinations and other travel arrangements, and where travellers may purchase flights,make hotel reservations or book package holidays and tours.
  • TRAVELLING CRANE — A crane, located in an engineering workshop or similar establishment, which can be moved on rails and thus used anywhere within the workshop.
  • TRAVELLING OVERHEAD CRANE — A crane suspended from running rails in the roof of an engineering workshop or similar establishment.
  • TRAVERSER — A platform which moves laterally on wheels, by which boats, railway carriages and engines may be moved from one place to another, eg. from one slipway to another parallel to it.
  • TREADMILL — A structure for producing power through a rotary motion achieved by the weight of men or animals treading on a succession of moving steps or a belt that forms a kind of continuous path.
  • TREADWHEEL — A wheel rotated by the treading of persons or animals to power machinery to raise water, etc.
  • TREADWHEEL CRANE — A crane powered by a treadwheel and used for lifting and lowering, dating from the Roman period. Also used in later periods to assist on building sites, at mines and in ports.
  • TREASURERS HOUSE — A house provided for the treasurer of a cathedral, palace or similar.
  • TREASURY — A free-standing building or a room used as a storage place for valuable objects.
  • TREE AVENUE — A straight road lined with trees along either side, also straight lines of trees found in parkland usually leading to a landscape feature.
  • TREE BELT — An alignment of trees planted as part of a designed landscape. For a belt lining a road use TREE AVENUE.
  • TREE CATHEDRAL — Trees, hedges and shrubs planted in the form of a medieval cathedral sometimes used as a memorial.
  • TREE CLUMP — A group of trees planted as part of a designed landscape.
  • TREE ENCLOSURE RING — A circular bank in which trees have been planted for ornamental purposes or to create an enclosure. May exist purely as a bank which has been formed over the stumps of the trees which had been planted to form the enclosure.
  • TREE HOUSE — Ornamental garden building constructed within the branches of trees.
  • TREE MOUND — An earthen mound, usually within an ornamental garden, on which a tree was planted.
  • TREE RING — Trees planted in an ornamental circle. For earthwork surrounding trees use TREE ENCLOSURE RING.
  • TREE THROW — A bowl-shaped cavity or depression created in the subsoil by the long term presence and growth of tree roots or when a large tree is blown over or has its stump pulled out.
  • TREE TRUNK COFFIN — A prehistoric coffin made out of a hollow tree trunk.
  • TRELLIS — A framework used as a support upon which fruit-trees or climbing plants are trained.
  • TRENCH — An excavation used as a means of concealment, protection or both.
  • TRI RADIAL CAIRN — Starshaped cairn with three radial arms of equal length, a monument unique to upland Northumberland. (Late Neolithic or early Bronze Age).
  • TRIAL LEVEL — Vertical or horizontal levels driven into a hill slope to assess the viability of mineral resources but never fully exploited.
  • TRIANGULATION PILLAR — A purpose-built triangulation pillar used for the metrical survey of Britain carried out by the Ordnance Survey.
  • TRIANGULATION POINT — A purpose-built triangulation point used for the metrical survey of Britain carried out by the Ordnance Survey.
  • TRIBUNAL (MILITARY) — A raised platform from which an officer can address or review his troops.
  • TRICK FOUNTAIN — An automata or water device which surprises the unwary onlooker with water. A feature of 16th and 17th century gardens.
  • TRILITHON — A structure composed of two large upright stone supporting a third, lintel stone.
  • TRIM TRAIL — An outdoor trail that has keep fit equipment with supporting information plaques intermittently positioned along its route
  • TRINITARIAN MONASTERY — An abbey or priory of the Trinitarian brethren also named Maturins.
  • TRINITROTOLUENE FACTORY — A factory or works principally engaged in the refining or manufacture of TNT.
  • TRIPE BOILING SHOP — Workshop used in the the production of tripe.
  • TRIUMPHAL ARCH — A large free-standing arch erected to commemorate a triumph or victory.
  • TROLLEYBUS TURNTABLE — A mechanism used to turn a trolleybus around.
  • TROPHY — A monument erected as a permanent reminder of a military victory. The design usually includes images of the spoils of the battle.
  • TROUGH — A narrow, open container, usually where food or water for animals is put. Use specific type where known.
  • TRUSS BRIDGE — A bridge made up of many relatively small members joined together in a series of interconnecting triangles.
  • TUBE CALCINER — A calciner commonly used between 1870 and circa 1900 for extracting arsenic from mined ores and featuring a slightly inclined rotating iron tube with a firebox at the bottom and an ore feed at the top.
  • TUBE MILL — A plant used for the manufacture of tubes and tubing, from wrought iron or steel.
  • TUBERCULOSIS CHALET — A small detached building used to accommodate patients with tuberculosis.
  • TUDOR GARDEN — A 19th century Tudor revival garden.
  • TUFTING MACHINERY WORKS — An engineering works that produces tufting machinery especially for use in the manufacturing of carpets.
  • TUMBLING WEIR — An outfall from a canal, river or reservoir.
  • TUNGSTEN MINE — A mine used for the extraction of tungsten bearing ore. Use with other mineral ores extracted and MINE, eg. TIN MINE.
  • TUNNEL — An underground channel with a vaulted roof. Use specific type where known.
  • TUNNEL ARBOUR — An extended arbour, eg. the beech arbour at Hampton Court, Middlesex.
  • TUNNEL CHAMBER — A large space in an underground tunnel, usually wider than the tunnel itself, used for storage, etc.
  • TUNNEL KILN — A lime kiln in which coal is burnt, as distinct from a flame-free kiln in which wood or peat is used.
  • TUNNEL PORTAL — The entrance to a tunnel. Use more specific type where known.
  • TURBARY STONE — A marker stone used to demarcate the boundaries of peat cutting grounds and indicate who held the rights for each particular parcel of land.
  • TURBINE — A rotary prime mover. Turbines may be steam, water or gas operated.
  • TURBINE HOUSE — A building housing a turbine.
  • TURBINE MILL — A mill which is powered by a turbine.
  • TURF CUTTING — An area of shallow linear cuts made by the removal of turf for fuel or building material.
  • TURF MAZE — A labyrinthine garden feature, common during the 16th and 17th centuries, created by cutting shallow pathways into deep lawns.
  • TURF PARTERRE — A parterre consisting of an area of turf often with a pattern cut into it.
  • TURF STACK — A structure used to dry turf on. Turves were used as a fuel and as a roofing material.
  • TURFED SEAT — Seats or benches covered in turf, built against a wall, tree or fountain, were a common feature of medieval enclosed gardens.
  • TURFED STEPS — Garden steps covered in turf.
  • TURKISH BATHS — A hot steam bath introduced from the East, in which heavy perspiration is followed by soaping, washing, massage and cooling.
  • TURNERS CURVED ASBESTOS HUT — A prefabricated structure consisting of six curved asbestos cement sheets that were bolted together, without a frame, creating a hut semi-circular in section. Used on airfields during WWII and manufactured from 1942 by the Turner Asbestos Company.
  • TURNING CIRCLE — Mechanism for turning around vehicles in a confined space.
  • TURNING SHOP — A workshop used for completing the shape of a product or part by turning on a lathe or wheel.
  • TURNSTILE — A barrier which rotates on an axis and is usually so arranged as to allow a person to pass through an opening only in one direction.
  • TURPENTINE FACTORY — A place in which turpentine is produced.
  • TURRET — A small tower or bartizan, which was often placed at the angles of a castle, to increase the flanking ability, some only serving as corner buttresses. Also used to describe the small rectangular towers situated between the milecastles along Hadrians Wall.
  • TURRET INSTRUCTIONAL BUILDING — An airfield building housing a turret gunnery trainer used to teach air gunners how to report the correct position of enemy aircraft by practising shooting against projected moving images of enemy aircraft displayed on a target screen (WWII).
  • TWEED MILL — A factory where tweed, a twilled woollen fabric with an unfinished surface, is manufactured.
  • TWIST MILL — A mill in which strands of yarn are twisted together to produce a strong thread with a uniform thickness.
  • TYNESIDE FLAT — A distinctive form of terrace found in the northeast consisting of a long, two storey terrace indistinguishable from a conventional house externally, save that each unit has two front doors, one leading to a separate dwelling or dwellings upstairs.

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U

  • UMBER WORKINGS — A place where umber or oxide of iron and manganese, is extracted from an open cast mine.
  • UMBRELLA AND CANE WORKS — A building or complex producing umbrellas, parasols and canes.
  • UNASSIGNED — Sites, buildings, structures, features & areas of land, both natural & man-made, which cannot be assigned to a particular class (for example, railings).
  • UNDERBRIDGE — A bridge crossing under railway property.
  • UNDERCROFT — A vault or crypt under a church or chapel. Use wider site type where known.
  • UNDERGROUND CAR PARK — A car park situated beneath the surface of the ground.
  • UNDERGROUND GOVERNMENT HEADQUARTERS — A secure, bomb-proof, undergound complex designed to be used by the government in the event of a national emergency such as nuclear war. Usually equipped with communications equipment, emergency rations and water and air filtering plants.
  • UNDERGROUND HOSPITAL — A hospital which has been built either wholly, or partially, underground in order to protect it from attacks by enemy aircraft.
  • UNDERGROUND MILITARY HEADQUARTERS — An underground bomb-proof structure used as a command centre for military operations.
  • UNDERGROUND MONITORING POST — A small underground chamber from where it was intended to monitor radioactive fallout in the event of nuclear attack. The majority were built between 1956 and 1964, although construction continued into the early 1970s.
  • UNDERGROUND RAILWAY — A railway which runs beneath the surface of the ground, eg. the London Underground Railway.
  • UNDERGROUND RAILWAY STATION — A stopping place on an underground railway system where passengers can board and disembark from a train.
  • UNDERGROUND RAILWAY TUNNEL — A tunnel carrying a railway beneath the surface of the ground.
  • UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE — A constructed space beneath the surface of the ground.
  • UNDERPASS — A section of road that provides a passage beneath another road or railway.
  • UNDERSHOT WHEEL — A waterwheel where the inflow of water strikes the paddles or floatboards well below the axis of the wheel, ie. the water more or less passes under it.
  • UNDERWATER DIVING FEATURE — Feature, typically a ship, boat, aircraft or vehicle, deliberately sunk for recreational and diver educational purposes in inland bodies of water used as dive centres, such as lakes and water-filled quarries, or offshore as artificial reefs.
  • UNENCLOSED HUT CIRCLE SETTLEMENT — A settlement with evidence for several hut circles but clearly lacking an obvious boundary. Where it is not certain whether a boundary existed or not, use HUT CIRCLE SETTLEMENT. Characteristic of the later prehistoric period.
  • UNENCLOSED SETTLEMENT — A settlement without any obvious evidence for a boundary. Use specific type where known.
  • UNION ROOM — Area in a brewery used for the production of beer by the Burton Union method.
  • UNITARIAN CHAPEL — A place of worship for Unitarians, a movement which does not believe in the Trinity but only in the Unity of Christ. Christ was to them just an exalted human teacher.
  • UNITED METHODIST CHAPEL — A place of worship for members of the United Methodists Church, a group formed in 1907 by the amalgamation of the United Methodist Free Church, the Methodist New Connection and the Bible Christians.
  • UNITED METHODIST FREE CHAPEL — A place of worship for members of the United Methodist Free Church. Formed in 1857 by the amalgamation of the Methodist Reform Church and the Wesleyan Association they later became part of the United Methodist Church in 1907.
  • UNITED REFORMED CHURCH — A place of worship for members of the United Reformed Church, a group formed in 1972 by the amalgamation of most of the Congregational Churches in England and Wales with the Presbyterian Church in England.
  • UNIVALLATE HILLFORT — A hilltop enclosure bounded by a single rampart, usually accompanied by a ditch.
  • UNIVERSITY — A group of colleges and associated buildings belonging to a university.
  • UNIVERSITY ADMINISTRATION OFFICE — An office where the administrative duties of a university are performed.
  • UNIVERSITY COLLEGE — A college associated with, or forming part of, a university.
  • UPDRAUGHT KILN — A type of pottery oven in which the air passes from the base of the kiln out through the top.
  • UPHOLSTERY SHOWROOM — A building or room used for the exhibition of upholstery for sale.
  • UPHOLSTERY WAREHOUSE — A large warehouse or store for upholstery.
  • UPHOLSTERY WORKS — A factory or building where furniture is upholstered.
  • URANIUM MINE — A mine used for the extraction of uranium bearing ores.
  • URANIUM PROCESSING PLANT — Plant for the processing of uranium ores, such as pitchblende. Uranium is the principal extract, but radium may also be recovered as a by-product
  • URANIUM WORKS — Buildings associated with the extaction of uranium from its pitchblende or copper ores.
  • URBAN SPACE — Areas within the urban environment with their surfaces open to the sky, that have been consciously acquired or publicly regulated to serve urban shaping function, in addition others may provide recreational opportunities.
  • URN — A garden ornament, usually of stone or metal, designed in the the form of a vase used to receive the ashes of the dead.
  • URNFIELD — A village cemetery where cinerary urns were buried in large numbers during the Bronze Age.
  • UTOPIAN COMMUNITY VILLAGE — A model village built by a utopian society or group of artists.

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V

  • VACCARY — A monastic cattle ranch with associated buildings, paddocks and pastures.
  • VALLUM — A flat bottomed ditch flanked by mounds running to the south of Hadrian's Wall for much of its length, marking the boundary of the military zone.
  • VALVE HOUSE — A small building housing a valve which controls the flow within a water regulation system.
  • VALVE TOWER — An iron, stone or concrete tower built up from the bed of a reservoir. From it the control valves of the pipes which draw off water at different levels are operated.
  • VANTAGE POINT — A position or place that allows a wide or favourable overall view of a scene or situation.
  • VARNISH FACTORY — A factory in which varnish is manufactured.
  • VASE — A large, decorative garden ornament resembling a vase.
  • VAT HALL — A building, or room within a brewery, where beer or cider undergoes fermentation in vats or tuns.
  • VAULT — An underground room or building with an arched roof, often used as a burial chamber. Use wider site type where known.
  • VEGETABLE CHUTE — A channel for conveying vegetables.
  • VEGETABLE GARDEN — A garden devoted to the growth of vegetables.
  • VEGETABLE STORE — A building or room for the storage of vegetables, particularly root vegetables, for human consumption.
  • VEHICLE DEPOT — A storage facility used for the accommodation and dispersal of vehicles. Often used by the military and emergency services.
  • VEHICLE ENGINEERING SITE — Sites associated with the manufacture and engineering of vehicles.
  • VEHICLE FACTORY — A factory for the manufacture of vehicles
  • VEHICLE REPAIR CENTRE — A building or site used for the maintenance and repair of motor vehicles.
  • VEHICLE TESTING STATION — A building or site used to assess the mechanical state of a vehicle.
  • VELODROME — A sports arena with a steeply banked oval track for bicycle racing. There are outdoor as well as indoor velodromes.
  • VENEREAL DISEASE UNIT — A centre where patients suffering from venereal and associated diseases receive treatment.
  • VENTILATION CHIMNEY — A tall stack used to disperse foul air from the bottom of a mine.
  • VENTILATION FURNACE — Small furnace, used to create an upward draught of air in mine workings.
  • VENTILATION SHAFT — A shaft designed to allow for the adequate circulation of air through a transport tunnel, for example.
  • VERDERERS COTTAGE — A forester's cottage.
  • VERDERERS HALL — A meeting hall of the verderers, who were the officers appointed to maintain the King's forests.
  • VERGERS COTTAGE — The residence of a verger, typically a layperson who assists in the ordering of religious services within the Anglican church.
  • VERJUICE PRESS — Device for extracting juice from apples, usually crab apples, for use in cooking and medicine. Consists of a stone base carved with channels in the upper surface which was used with an upper weight, often secured with a wooden beam wedged into position.
  • VERMIN TRAP — A device used to trap or kill animals considered to be pests, eg. rats.
  • VERTICAL STEAM ENGINE — An engine in which a vertical piston rod supplies energy via a crankshaft directly to the flywheel suspended above the cylinder. Extensively used as mine winding engines.
  • VESTRY — A room or part of a church where the vestments, vessels and records are kept.
  • VETERINARY HOSPITAL — A hospital for the medical or surgical treatment of domestic or wild animals.
  • VEXILLATION FORT — A military base normally between 20 and 30 acres in size, containing legionary and auxiliary battle units, which served as stores depots and winter quarters during campaigns.
  • VHF FIXER STATION — A Very High Frequency device to allow aircraft to pinpoint their position as an aid to naviagation. Built as part of the Rotor programme.
  • VIADUCT — A bridge, usually resting on a series of arches, carrying roadways or railways over low-lying areas.
  • VICARAGE — The residence of a vicar, parson or rector.
  • VICKERS MACHINE GUN EMPLACEMENT — A square, concrete pillbox-like structure with 36in thick walls and a single large embrasure used to emplace a Vickers Medium Machine Gun. The entrance was protected by an external blast wall.
  • VICTUALLING YARD — A complex of buildings with the purpose of providing and storing food and drink supplies (esp. for the navy).
  • VICUS — A district, suburb or quarter of a town or village adjacent to a fort, with the lowest legal status accorded to a built up area.
  • VIERECKSCHANZEN — A rectilinear ritual enclosure of Iron Age date
  • VIEWING TERRACE — A man made terrace, often constructed in concrete, built to allow spectators a view of organized outdoor events or activities.
  • VILL — Small discreet rural settlements which do not provide the commercial, legal or ecclesiastical services typically found within medieval urban areas.
  • VILLA — A term for a type of house, with varying definitions according to period. Roman villas were high-status and usually associated with a rural estate, whereas Georgian and later period villas were often semi-detached, town houses.
  • VILLAGE — A collection of dwelling-houses and other buildings, usually larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town with a simpler organisation and administration than the latter.
  • VILLAGE COLLEGE — A rural school serving a number of villages, built in Cambridgeshire in the 1930s.
  • VILLAGE CROSS — A cross erected in a village.
  • VILLAGE GREEN — An area of common grassland in a village used for grazing cattle, recreational purposes, etc.
  • VILLAGE HALL — A hall in a village used for meetings and other functions.
  • VILLAGE SIGN — A decorative emblem stating the name of a village or town and depicting aspects of the place's history of culture. Most signs are mounted on a post and usually errected in a central position near the church or village green.
  • VILLAGE TAP — A point in a village providing water for drinking and washing.
  • VINEGAR BREWERY — A site where vinegar is manufactured from soured beer, wine or cider.
  • VINERY — A glass-house or hot-house constructed for the cultivation of a grapevine.
  • VINEYARD — An area of land and associated buildings where vines are cultivated. The grapes produced are then used to make wine.
  • VIOLIN FACTORY — A building where violins are manufactured and the art of violin making is taught.
  • VISITORS CENTRE (LEISURE) — A building or complex, often associated with a historic site or place of interest, containing interpretation panels and information for visitors to the site or area.
  • VISITORS CENTRE (PRISON) — A building or complex in which visitors to a prison can meet with the inmates under the supervision of the prison staff.
  • VITRIFIED STONE — A stone, of unidentified function, showing evidence of great heating at some point in the past, leading to vitrification.
  • VIVARIUM — A small park or enclosure where animals are kept.
  • VOLUNTARY AID DETACHMENT HOSPITAL — A building temporarily requisitioned for use as an auxiliary hospital administered by members of the Voluntary Aid Detachment during the First World War.
  • VOLUNTARY SCHOOL — A school built and/or supported by voluntary contributions.
  • VULNERABLE DEFILE — A pass, vulnerable to attack from the enemy but essential for the movement of troops and which, if captured, could divide a defending force. As a result such passes are defended with anti invasion defences such as pillboxes.

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W

  • WADDING MILL — A mill used for the production of wadding, as opposed to yarn or cloth. Often associated with steam or water power.
  • WADDLE FAN HOUSE — A building housing an electric powered ventilation fan for use in deep mine shafts
  • WAGON SHED — A building or structure to house railway wagons.
  • WAGONWAY — An early form of railway for the transportation of freight by wagons on rails on a road.
  • WAITING ROOM — A room used by those who have to wait at railway or bus stations, etc.
  • WALK — A place or path for walking in a park or garden. Use more specific type where possible.
  • WALKER FAN HOUSE — A building housing a double inlet fan that was used for the ventillation of mine shafts
  • WALKING STICK MILL — A mill used for the manufacture of walking sticks.
  • WALL — An enclosing structure composed of bricks, stones or similar materials, laid in courses. Use specific type where known.
  • WALL BOX — A post box mounted in, or on, a wall.
  • WALL CRANE — A small crane fixed to the wall of a warehouse or similar building.
  • WALL MONUMENT — A substantial monument attached to a wall and often standing on the floor.
  • WALL PAINTING — A painting executed directly onto a wall.
  • WALL WALK — A walkway on the top of a defensive wall, providing access to the parapets and towers.
  • WALLED CEMETERY — A high status, walled, Roman burial ground containing cremations and/or inhumations in mausolea, tombs, barrows, coffins or cists. Dating from the late 1st to the 4th Century AD. DO NOT USE for cemeteries of later dates which are walled.
  • WALLED GARDEN — A garden surrounded by a substantial wall.
  • WALLPAPER FACTORY — A place where paper, frequently printed in ornamental designs, used for covering the interior walls of buildings, is manufactured.
  • WAR MEMORIAL — A structure, building or site commemorating soldiers and civilians killed in war.
  • WAR MEMORIAL (FREESTANDING) — A freestanding structure commemorating nations, actions, soldiers and/or civilians that served or died as a result of conflict.
  • WAR MEMORIAL (TRIBUTE) — An attached plaque, inscription, mural or display commemorating nations, actions, soldiers and/or civilians that served or died as a result of conflict.
  • WAR PRODUCTION FACTORY — A factory or works which has been temporarily turned over to the manufacture of goods for the war effort.
  • WAR ROOM — A reinforced concrete structure, which may be sited above ground or semi-sunken, from where it was intended to conduct the business of government from, in the event of nuclear war. Date specific to the early-mid 1950's.
  • WAR SHELTER — A 19th century structure of various shape or material for the protection of troops in an emergency.
  • WARD BLOCK — Non-pavilion type of attached ward block.
  • WAREHOUSE — A building or part of a building used for the storage of goods or merchandise. Use more specific type where known.
  • WARMING HOUSE — A building or room within a monastery in which the monks were allowed to warm themselves. The warming house was often the only place where a fire was allowed.
  • WARNING SIREN — An instrument used for making a loud sound for information or warning.
  • WARRENERS LODGE — Accommodation for the warrener(s) usually located within the boundary of the Rabbit Warren. They also provided a place to store nets, traps and other necessary equipment.
  • WASH HOUSE — A building where clothes are washed.
  • WASH KILN — A type of buddle used as an ore-cleaning device for seperating metallic ore from waste material by washing the dirty ore in a continuous flow of water.
  • WASHFOLD — A pen for holding sheep waiting to be washed.
  • WASHING FLOOR — Open-air area often terraced on which a range of ore processing operations are carried out.
  • WASHING PIT — A pit or tank where the chemicals used in tanning are washed from the animal hides.
  • WASHING PLACE — Outdoor site for domestic washing, etc.
  • WASHING SHOP — A building containing a range of processes for cleaning and processing metallic ores.
  • WASTE DISPOSAL SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the disposal of domestic and industrial waste.
  • WASTER TIP — A dump for wasters; pieces of pottery spoiled in the manufacturing process.
  • WATCH FACTORY — A factory that manufactures watches.
  • WATCH HOUSE — A house or hut for a nightwatchman; including parish watch houses in churchyards and private watch houses, eg. in dockyards, factories, etc.
  • WATCH OFFICE — A building, originally used as a shelter for the duty pilot or officer on watch on an airfield, and later used to direct air traffic. Use more specific type where known.
  • WATCH OFFICE (1072/26) — A small, single storey building used as the Pilots' room on fighter stations and as the watch office on bomber stations.
  • WATCH OFFICE (12779/41) — A two-storey, structure with a brick ground floor and a reinforced concrete upper floor with balcony and large windows to the watch office and control room. This became the most common building design for air traffic control in the Second World War.
  • WATCH OFFICE (13726/41) — A detached building without an operations block and crew briefing room designed on modern lines similar to, but smaller than WATCH OFFICE (12779/41). Began appearing on new stations from September 1941.
  • WATCH OFFICE (14383/40) — A fighter satellite station watch office built to Air Ministry design drawing number 14383/40.
  • WATCH OFFICE (15684/41) — A night fighter station watch office based on the standard design dor Bomber Satellite Station watch offices
  • WATCH OFFICE (1597/27) — A small building housing pilot's and locker rooms with flight offices and a watch office. The only known example was built at Tangmere.
  • WATCH OFFICE (17658/40) — A fighter satellite station watch office built to Air Ministry design drawing number 17658/40.
  • WATCH OFFICE (18441/40) — A fighter satellite station watch office built to Air Ministry design drawing number 18441/40.
  • WATCH OFFICE (1959/34) — A two-storey watch office, built to Air Ministry drawing number 1959/34. It became the standard design for watch offices with a large, almost square, ground plan with a central observation tower.
  • WATCH OFFICE (1960/34) — A two-storey watch office, built to Air Ministry drawing number 1959/34 but with slight design modifications as detailed in drawing number 1960/34.
  • WATCH OFFICE (207/36) — A two-storey watch office similar in design to drawing number 1959/34 but constructed completely from concrete. A large, almost square, ground plan with a central observation tower.
  • WATCH OFFICE (3156/41) — A fighter satellite station watch office built to Air Ministry design drawing number 3156/41.
  • WATCH OFFICE (343/43) — A modification of WATCH OFFICE (12779/41) where the original large windows were removed and smaller frames fitted, the gap being filled with straight-joint brickwork.
  • WATCH OFFICE (4698/43)
  • WATCH OFFICE WITH MET SECTION — A watch office with additional rooms given over to the meteorological section, including a forecast room and met store.
  • WATCH OFFICE WITH MET SECTION (2328/39) — A two-storey, all-concrete construction with a watch office and additional rooms given over to the meteorological section, including a forecast room and met store. A concrete parapet all around the roof differentiates it from 5845/39.
  • WATCH OFFICE WITH MET SECTION (2423/39) — An all timber constructed watch office with meterological section. Similar in design to 2328/39 and 5845/39. There were only two known examples built in the UK at Wick and St.Eval.
  • WATCH OFFICE WITH MET SECTION (518/40) — A temporary brick and timber watch office based on the all-timber 2423/39. Built after 1941 on many Operational Training Unit airfields the design was superseded by 8936/40.
  • WATCH OFFICE WITH MET SECTION (5845/39) — A two-storey, brick construction with a watch office and additional rooms given over to the meteorological section, including a forecast room and met store. A brick parapet on the roof differentiates it from 2328/39.
  • WATCH OFFICE WITH MET SECTION (8936/40) — Based on the previous all-timber design 2423/39 and the temporary brick and timber design 518/40, the 8936/40 was built with pre-cast concrete slabs replacing the timber floors and staircases with only the balcony and watch office roof in timber.
  • WATCH OFFICE WITH OPERATIONS ROOM — A building, originally used as a shelter for the duty pilot or officer on watch on an airfield, incorporating an operations room.
  • WATCH OFFICE WITH OPS ROOM (13079/41) — Watch Office with operations room designed to Air Ministry drawing number (13079/41)
  • WATCH OFFICE WITH OPS ROOM (7345/41) — Watch Office with operations room designed to Air Ministry drawing number (7345/41
  • WATCH TOWER — A building or structure from which observation is kept of the approach of danger.
  • WATCHMAKERS WORKSHOP — A place where watches and timepieces are manufactured and mended.
  • WATCHMANS BOX — A small building used as a shelter by a constable of the watch responsible for patrolling the streets at night to safeguard life and property.
  • WATER CHANNEL — An artificial watercourse for the conveyance of water.
  • WATER CHUTE — A structure consisting of a large plastic pipe attached to a high tower and sloping down to a swimming pool. Water flows down the inside allowing people to slide down into the pool below.
  • WATER DISPOSAL SITE — Sites and structures associated with the disposal of waste water and waterborne refuse.
  • WATER FEATURE — A body of water, building or structure found in a park or garden used as a water supply or ornament. Use more specific type where known.
  • WATER GARDEN — A garden incorporating fountains and pools in which aquatic and other water-loving plants are grown.
  • WATER GATE — A gate leading to water, either a river or the sea. Used as a means of supplying castles, for example, with goods brought by water transport.
  • WATER LILY HOUSE — A garden building or greenhouse, containing pools in which Water Lilies are grown.
  • WATER MEADOW — Grassland fertilized by allowing floodwater to cover it in winter.
  • WATER METER HOUSE — A building in which apparatus measuring the amount of water supplied/used is housed.
  • WATER PAVILION — A type of GARDEN HOUSE situated on an island in a garden lake or canal or, more generally, by any waterside.
  • WATER PIPE — A pipe through which water is conducted.
  • WATER POINT — A water tank, often raised on stilts, used to supply water to steam trains.
  • WATER POWER PRODUCTION SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the production and use of water power.
  • WATER PUMP — A point of public water supply, including conduits, fountains, wells, pumps and standpipes.
  • WATER PUMPING STATION — A pumping station used as part of a clean water supply system.
  • WATER REGULATION INSTALLATION — Buildings, structures and sites for regulating the flow of water.
  • WATER SPORTS CENTRE — An area of land incorporating bodies of water, either natural or manmade for use in water sports activities such as canoeing, rowing and sailing. Usually includes a leisure complex with facilities for the users.
  • WATER STORAGE SITE — Sites and structures associated with the storage of water and waste water. Use only where the exact form or function is unknown otherwise use more specific term.
  • WATER SUPPLY AND DRAINAGE — Sites, building, structures & features associated with the supply & drainage of water & the disposal of sewage and waste water. Includes bodies of water, waterways & associated ancillary structures.
  • WATER SUPPLY SITE — Site and structures associated with the supply of clean water.
  • WATER TANK — A receptacle for the storage of water.
  • WATER TAP — A water point with a device to regulate the flow of water.
  • WATER TOWER — A tower serving as a reservoir to deliver water at a required point.
  • WATER TOWER (1178/25) — A large, circular, reinforced-concrete tank supported on concrete staging built to Air Ministry drawing number 1178/25 and designed to hold 30,000 gallons of water. The height of the tower varied according to local site requirements.
  • WATER TOWER (20/40) — A plate-steel water tower made with two compartments holding 30,000 gallons of water. Designed to Air Ministry drawing number 20/40.
  • WATER TOWER (9526/41) — A plate-steel water tank on a steel tower designed to hold 80,000 gallons of water. Designed to Air Ministry drawing number 9526/41.
  • WATER TRANSPORT SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with water transport.
  • WATER TUNNEL — A large, undergound watercourse.
  • WATER TURBINE — A prime mover in which a central wheel with curved vanes, enclosed in a chamber, receives water directed onto the curved vanes by a ring of fixed guide vanes, causing the wheel to rotate about its axis.
  • WATER WHEEL — A structure associated with forges, watermills, water-powered factories, etc.
  • WATERCOURSE — A channel used for or formed by the conveyance of water. Can be natural, eg. a river or artificial eg. an aqueduct. Use more specific type where known.
  • WATERCRAFT — A boat, ship or other vessel either whole or in part. Watercraft often survive as commemorative monuments or have been reused as floating restaurants, museums, hotels etc.
  • WATERCRESS BED — A cultivated plantation of watercress, usually situated near springs or small running streams.
  • WATERFALL — A fall of water. Use for artificial waterfalls if naturalistic in form, otherwise use CASCADE.
  • WATERFRONT — The area of a town or city, such as a harbour or dockyard, alongside a body of water.
  • WATERHOLE — An artificial pond or pool constructed for the purpose of watering livestock, particularly in prehistory.
  • WATERMILL — A mill whose machinery is driven by water.
  • WATERWORKS — Buildings, engineering constructions and machinery, used for the purpose of supplying a town, etc, with water distributed through pipes.
  • WATERWORKS COTTAGE — A house occupied by an employee of a waterworks. Usually found in association with a pumping station or waterworks.
  • WAX FACTORY — A building or buildings used for the manufacture of all types of wax.
  • WAY MARKER — A marker of some form used to delineate a route, especially ones associated with pilgrimages.
  • WAYMARKER CROSS — A rural cross erected to show the way.
  • WAYSIDE CHAPEL — A chapel for the use of travellers and pilgrims.
  • WAYSIDE CROSS — A cross erected by the side of the road.
  • WAYSIDE PUMP — A water pump situated at the side of a road or track for use by travellers and their animals.
  • WEALDEN HOUSE — A medieval house with central open hall and two storey bays, jettied at first floor level, on either side.
  • WEALDEN TERRACE — A continuous row of WEALDEN HOUSES.
  • WEAPONS PIT — Usually a small, two or three man trench, dug as an isolated fieldwork rather than as part of a defensive system. A WWI and WWII feature.
  • WEAPONS TESTING SITE — A building, site or structure associated with the demonstration and testing of weapons and military equipment.
  • WEATHER STATION — A building, group of buildings or installation in which experiments and observations are undertaken to gather and record information about the weather.
  • WEATHER VANE — A vane usually combined with crossed rods to show the four compass points. Used to indicate the direction of the wind.
  • WEAVERS COTTAGE — A type of clothier's house, consisting of TOPSHOP and dwelling, used for hand-weaving of textiles.
  • WEAVERS WORKSHOP — A handloom weavers workshop where the weaver received yarn from a clothier and manufactured a woven piece of cloth from it.
  • WEAVING MILL — A factory, incorporating power driven machinery from the late 18th century, where cloth was manufactured from threads interlaced at right angles to each other in a loom.
  • WEAVING SHED — A textile-weaving factory housing powerlooms; commonly a one-storeyed shed with wide, north-light roof carried on iron columns.
  • WEIGH HOUSE — A building containing a weighing machine for weighing goods; sometimes found in markets, ports, etc.
  • WEIGHBRIDGE — A platform scale, flush with the road, for weighing vehicles, cattle, etc.
  • WEIGHING MACHINE — An apparatus for weighing people, animals or things.
  • WEIR — A dam constructed on the reaches of a canal or river designed to retain the water and to regulate its flow.
  • WELFARE CENTRE — A building where advice and aid appertaining to physical and economic wellbeing of disadvantaged members of a community are made available.
  • WELL — A shaft or pit dug in the ground over a supply of spring-water.
  • WELL CHAPEL — A chapel adjacent to, associated with or containing a well.
  • WELL COVER — A lid for a well. Well covers are often ornate and can be made of various materials.
  • WELL HEAD — The structure at the top of a draw well.
  • WELL HOUSE — A building over a well housing machinery for raising the water. Often consisting of a DONKEY WHEEL or HORSE GIN.
  • WELL KEEPERS COTTAGE — The residence of a well keeper.
  • WESLEYAN ASSOCIATION CHAPEL — A place of worship for followers of the Wesleyan Association. This group split from the Methodists in 1836 and were separate until joining the Methodist Reform Church in 1857.
  • WESLEYAN METHODIST CHAPEL — A place of worship for Wesleyan Methodists. This was the original Methodist church from which the other denominations seceded. In 1932 they joined the United Methodists and the Primitive Methodists to form the Methodist church.
  • WESLEYAN REFORM UNION CHAPEL — A place of worship for followers of the Wesleyan Reform Union, a movement formed in 1859 by those members of the Methodist Reform Church who did not join the Wesleyan Association.
  • WET DOCK — A large, watertight enclosure in which the water is maintained at the high-tide level so that vessels remain constantly afloat in them.
  • WHALING STATION — A building or site where the carcasses of whales were butchered and rendered into by products such as oil, fenk and whalebone.
  • WHARF — A large wooden structure built alongside the water's edge where ships may lie for unloading.
  • WHARFINGERS COTTAGE — A dwelling for the keeper of a canal wharf.
  • WHEEL HOUSE — A building to house waterwheels, attached to a WATERMILL or water-powered factory.
  • WHEEL MOULD — A circle made out of stones, which is used for making wheels.
  • WHEEL PIT — The rectangular pit in which the lower part of a waterwheel revolves.
  • WHEEL RUT — A linear groove worn into the surface of a road or thoroughfare by the continuous passage of wheeled vehicles. Usually expected to occur in pairs.
  • WHEELWRIGHTS WORKSHOP — A place where wheels and wheeled vehicles were manufactured, originally from wood.
  • WHETSTONE MINE — A place where silicate rock was extracted to be shaped for use as whetstones. Examples can be found in Derbyshire and the Blackdown Hills in Devon.
  • WHIM HOUSE — A building housing a whim, a machine worked by a horse, used for raising ores, etc, from a mine.
  • WHINSTONE MINE — A mine used for the extraction of any hard dark-coloured rock.
  • WHIPPING POST — A post set up, to which offenders were tied to be whipped.
  • WHISTLE FACTORY — A building or buildings used for the production of whistles.
  • WHITE GARDEN — A garden deliberately planted with white plants and shrubs.
  • WHITESMITHS WORKSHOP — A workshop with a forge for the melting and working of white metal, ie. low-melting alloys. Also used for a smith specializing in decorative or finely finished wrought iron work.
  • WHITING MILL — A building housing machinery for crushing chalk for whiting. Whiting was used in toothpaste, paint, tablets, putty and other products.
  • WHITING WORKS — A building or site used for the manufacture of whiting either from crushed chalk, limestone, marble or through chemical preparation.
  • WHOLESALE MARKET — A market where goods are bought and sold in bulk, rather than by retail.
  • WHOLESALE SHOP — A place where goods are sold in bulk, rather than by retail.
  • WHOLESALE WAREHOUSE — A large storehouse where wholesale goods are stored.
  • WIGMAKERS SHOP — A place where wigs, hair-pieces and hair extensions are made and sold.
  • WILD CAT ENCLOSURE — An enclosure for wild cats such as Lions and Tigers
  • WILD GARDEN — A garden where woodland and meadow flowers grow in an apparently natural way.
  • WILLEY SHED — A building in which wool or cotton were beaten to clean and separate the fibres.
  • WINCH — A stationary hoisting machine consisting of a rotating drum around which a cable, rope or chain is attached.
  • WINCH HOUSE — A building housing a winching mechanism.
  • WIND ENGINE — A simple wind-driven machine used for a variety of purposes.
  • WIND FARM — A group of electricity-producing windmills or wind turbines.
  • WIND POWER SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the production and use of wind power.
  • WIND PUMP — A wind-powered pump for land drainage.
  • WIND SCREEN — Vertical screens made of wood or steel framing mounted on concrete blocks were built to protect airships from cross winds when entering or leaving the airship sheds.
  • WIND TUNNEL — A structure used to test the aerodynamics of aircraft or vehicles.
  • WIND TURBINE — An apparatus designed with a large vaned wheel rotated by the wind in order to generate electricity.
  • WINDER HOUSE — A building housing an engine, usually with an attendant boiler house and chimney. Used for winding from a pit.
  • WINDING CIRCLE — An area of ground indicating the site of a horse or man-powered winding mechanism.
  • WINDING ENGINE — An engine used for directly winding up coal from deep mines, first used in the 18th century.
  • WINDING GEAR — Machinery for raising and lowering men and materials to and from the surface of a mine.
  • WINDING HOLE — A widening in a canal to allow boats to turn around.
  • WINDLASS — A mechanical structure, consisting of a roller or beam on supports, round which a rope or chain is wound, and used for various purposes, eg. raising a bucket from a well, etc.
  • WINDMILL — A tower-like structure of wood or brick with a wooden cap and sails which are driven around by the wind producing power to work the internal machinery. Use with product type where known.
  • WINDMILL MOUND — An artificial mound of earth indicating either the former site of a windmill or built as the base of a post windmill.
  • WINE AND CIDERMAKING SITE — Buildings, sites and structures associated with the production of wine and cider.
  • WINE BAR — A licenced establishment where wine and other alcoholic drinks are sold for drinking on the premises.
  • WINE CELLAR — A building or subterranean structure used for the storage of wine.
  • WINE LODGE — A public house licensed for the sale of wine and other alcoholic drinks.
  • WINE PRESS — A press in which the juice is extracted from grapes in the manufacture of wine.
  • WINERY — An establishment where wine is produced.
  • WINGED FURNACE — In the glass industry, a furnace of Lorraine Type, comprising a central rectangular melting furnace with ancillary structures at each corner, adjacent to the fires. Post-Mediaeval until superceded by coal-fired furnaces.
  • WINTER BEE HOUSE — A dark outbuilding or cellar with internal recesses for overwintering skeps of bees.
  • WINTER GARDEN — Originally an area planted with evergreens or winter-flowering plants for winter display, they can also be large glasshouses built for public entertainment where the original purpose of displaying plants has either disappeared or been minimalised.
  • WIRE MILL — A factory where metal wire is manufactured.
  • WITHERITE MINE — A mine used for the extraction of the mineral Witherite. When secondary mineral, use with term for product, eg. LEAD MINE.
  • WITHY BOILER — Used for boiling sections of willow for basket making, etc.
  • WOAD MILL — A mill for the processes of grinding, balling, couching, drying and packing of woad. The mill can be demountable, enabling it being located close to the fields, as woad crop has to be rotated and move to new fields as soon as the ground is exhausted.
  • WOMEN AND CHILDRENS HOSPITAL — A specialist hospital for the medical and surgical treatment of women and children.
  • WOMENS AUXILIARY AIR FORCE CAMP — A camp used for the accommodation of members of the Womens Auxiliary Air Force who undertook a variety of essential roles within the RAF to enable their male counterparts to fight more effectively.
  • WOMENS HOSPITAL — A specialist hospital where women receive medical and surgical treatment.
  • WOMENS INSTITUTE — A building used by members of the Womens Institute, an organization which meets regularly and engages in various social and cultural activities.
  • WOMENS LAND ARMY CAMP — A camp used to accommodate members of the Womens Land Army who undertook essential agricultural work during the Second World War.
  • WOMENS LAND ARMY HOSTEL — A hostel used to accommodate members of the Womens Land Army who undertook essential agricultural work during the Second World War.
  • WOOD — A tract of land with trees, sometimes acting as a boundary or barrier, usually smaller and less wild than a forest.
  • WOOD BANK — An earthen bank indicating the limit of a wood or coppice
  • WOOD CHEMICAL WORKS — A factory or works used for the production of turpentine, wood alcohol and similar chemicals by the distillation of pulped wood.
  • WOOD DRYING KILN — A kiln used for the drying of wood.
  • WOOD PROCESSING SITE — Includes processing and manufacturing of all forms of wood.
  • WOOD PRODUCT SITE — Manufacture and use of wood side products, ie. unprocessed wood rather than processed timber.
  • WOOD SHED — A building or room in which wood is stored.
  • WOOD WORKERS WORKSHOP — A workshop in which products are made using wood and timber.
  • WOODEN ROAD — A road surface made out of wooden blocks or planks. It was much used in English cities before 1940, but the cost of wooden blocks eventually made it uneconomical.
  • WOODLAND GARDEN — A garden created within woodland where imported species such as camellias, magnolias and rhododendrons are grown.
  • WOODWORKERS HUT — A hut used by a person who makes items from wood. Often found in a woodland setting.
  • WOODWORKING SITE — A site where unprocessed wood is used to manufacture goods.
  • WOOL BARN — A barn used for the storage and drying of wool.
  • WOOL DRY HOUSE — A building used to dry wool in.
  • WOOL EXCHANGE — A commercial building used primarily as a trading place for wool merchants.
  • WOOL LOFT — A room or building used for the storage of fleeces.
  • WOOL MANUFACTURING SITE — Includes worsted and other wool-related textiles.
  • WOOL STAPLE — A market appointed for the sale of wool.
  • WOOL STOVE — A house for drying wool after fulling and dying.
  • WOOL WALL — A structure used for drying yarn in open fields.
  • WOOL WAREHOUSE — A large store where wool is stored.
  • WOOLCOMBERS SHOP — A workshop in which carded wool was passed through heated combs to straighten and separate the long and short fibres prior to spinning. Associated with the worsted branch of the textile industry.
  • WOOLLEN MILL — A factory where short wool was spun into woollen yarn to produce cloth.
  • WORKERS COTTAGE — Industrial worker's house which has been purpose built by an employer, as opposed to the workshop houses used by artisans.
  • WORKERS HOSTEL — A temporary hostel built for industrial or transport workers; for example, railway workers' hostels were provided for engine drivers.
  • WORKERS TEMPORARY SETTLEMENT — A temporary settlement or encampment erected by construction workers (eg for reservoir construction).
  • WORKERS VILLAGE — A model village built in association with a factory, mill, railway, or any other industrial complex; usually built by the employer.
  • WORKHOUSE — A 19th century establishment for the provision of work for the unemployed poor of a parish; later an institution administered by Guardians of the Poor, in which paupers are lodged and the able-bodied set to work.
  • WORKING MENS CLUB — A club founded to provide education, relaxation, and recreation for working men.
  • WORKING MENS COLLEGE — A college founded for the education and betterment of the working classes. Lectures usually being held after the end of the working day.
  • WORKING MENS INSTITUTE — A place where working men could educate themselves through lectures and the use of a reading room with newspapers, etc.
  • WORKS — Usually a complex of buildings for the processing of raw materials. Use specific type where known.
  • WORKSHOP — A building or room used for small scale manufacture. Use more specific term where possible.
  • WORSTED MILL — A factory where worsted, a well-twisted woollen yarn made from long staple wool and used in the manufacture of suits and other garments, was produced.
  • WRECK — The remains of a vessel which has either sunk or suffered structural damage to the extent where it can no longer function.
  • WRESTLING RING — An area where the sport of wrestling takes place.

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X

  • XYZ HUT — A prefabricated timber structure similar to Sectional hutting that was used by the Air Ministry for accommodation at airfields during WWII. Manufactured by Gerrard and Sons from 1939 to 1941.

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Y

  • Y STATION
  • YARD — A paved area, generally found at the back of a house.
  • YARD MARKER — An earthwork or structure on a rifle range used to mark a set distance from the rifle butts (usually at 50 or 100 yard intervals).
  • YARN DRY HOUSE — A heated room or building used to dry yarn after it has been washed.
  • YARN HOUSE — A building associated with rope manufacture, especially in naval dockyards.
  • YARN MILL — A building containing machinery for the spinning of yarn.
  • YARN PREPARATION WORKS — Works where yarn is prepared prior to spinning.
  • YEW GARDEN — A garden where yew and other coniferous trees are grown.
  • YEW WALK — A garden walk lined with yew trees and hedges.
  • YOUTH CLUB — A place provided for leisure-time activities of young people.
  • YOUTH COURT — A magistrates court sitting for the purpose of holding trials for children and young people. Replaced the juvenile court, following legislation, in 1991.
  • YOUTH HOSTEL — A place where (young) holiday-makers and hikers can be put up cheaply for the night.

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Z

  • Z BATTERY — An anti aircraft battery armed with 3 inch rockets with a ceiling of 22,000 feet. Both single and multiple launchers were designed. Single launchers being used to defend vulnerable points such as coastal batteries with multiple launchers defending town.
  • Z STATION
  • ZEBRA CROSSING — A path across a road marked with black and white stripes where pedestrians may cross.
  • ZINC MINE — A mine used for the extraction of zinc bearing ore. Use with other metal ores extracted and MINE where necessary, eg. LEAD MINE.
  • ZINC WORKS — A site used for the extraction of metallic zinc by a variety of processes.
  • ZOO — A garden or park, with ancilliary buildings, in which wild animals are kept and reared for public exhibition.
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