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The Site of The Battle of Halidon Hill 1333

List Entry Summary

This battlefield is registered within the Register of Historic Battlefields by English Heritage for its special historic interest.

Name: The Site of The Battle of Halidon Hill 1333

List entry Number: 1000012

Location

The site of the Battle of Halidon Hill, Berwick-upon-Tweed, Northumberland

The battlefield may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Northumberland

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Berwick-upon-Tweed

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not Applicable to this List Entry

Date first registered: 06-Jun-1995

Date of most recent amendment: 18-Oct-2016

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: Battlefields

UID: 13

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Battlefield

The site of the Battle of Halidon Hill (1333) which saw the army of King Edward III defeat a Scottish Army led by Sir Archibald Douglas during an attempt to relieve a siege of Berwick-upon-Tweed.

Reasons for Designation

Halidon Hill was the 20-year-old Edward III's military baptism. Here he learnt how powerful a combination of archers and dismounted men-at-arms could prove. Crecy and Poitiers, later in his reign, would show that the tactics first tested against the Scots could be equally effective against the mounted knights of France. The topography allows a clear understanding of the course of the battle despite the change in landscape character.

History

The expulsion of Edward Balliol from the Scottish throne in a coup just before Christmas 1332 prompted his sponsor, King Edward III of England, to open hostilities against Scotland by besieging Berwick-upon-Tweed, which had been retaken by the Scots in 1318. In an attempt to relieve Berwick, a Scottish army gave battle against Edward III and Edward Balliol.

The Scots waited until after midday to attack, and marched across boggy ground to meet the English, but buckled under a hail of arrows. The bloodiest fighting was on the right half of the English line, where the battle continued throughout the day. Eventually the English prevailed and pursued the remaining Scots northwards. Berwick fell the next day.

Details

The battlefield, which in 1333 was uncultivated scrub and marsh, now shows a patchwork of fields characteristic of Parliamentary enclosure in around 1800, at which time the land was drained and improved.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Myers, A R (ed), English Historical Documents 1327-1485
Nicholson, R, Edward III and the Scots: the Formative Years of a Military Career, (1965)
Rayner, M, English Battlefields, (2004), pp. 162-6
Other
English Heritage, Halidon Hill 1333 Battlefield Report, 1995,

National Grid Reference: NT9678955540

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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End of official listing