Heritage Category:
Maritime Wreck
List Entry Number:
Date first listed:
Location Description:
West Mary's Rocks, off Battisborough Island, Devon


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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

Location Description:
West Mary's Rocks, off Battisborough Island, Devon
National Grid Reference:
SX 60660 46628


A scatter of tin ingots was found in 1991/2 near West Mary's Rocks by divers. The location indicates loss from a ship or perhaps a wreck site. Detailed investigation has not been possible owing to sediment accumulation over the site since its initial discovery. The ingots are very rare and although it has not been possible to date the finds, the range of shapes and weights suggest they were made before 1000 BC, but the method of working suggests that they may be as early as the Bronze Age.

Although the ingots were found in association with some timber, this is believed to be evidence of a submarine forest rather than of a shipwreck. The site itself is thought to represent a vessel involved in the export of tin, an industry known in south-western England from an early period.


Crudely cast tin ingots were found by chance in the Erme estuary during visual and metal-detector surveys of the area during 1991/2 Over forty tin ingots have so far been recorded and recovered.

Three large pieces of wood, thought to be hull fragments, were found embedded in the seabed close to the ingots. These were radiocarbon dated and found to be of quaternary date. It is likely that the wood is associated with a submerged forest known to exist around the coast.


Designation History: Designation Order: (No 3), No 2895, 1993 Made: 24th November 1993 Laid before Parliament: 25th November 1993 Coming into force: 26th November 1993 Protected area: 100 metres within 50 18.15 N 03 57.41 W

No part of the restricted area lies above the high-water mark of ordinary spring tides.

Archaeological History: The almost pure tin ingots were discovered by members of the South-West Maritime Archaeology Group on the landward side of West Mary's Rocks in 1991/2 at a depth of about 10 metres. The site is centred on a gently sloping area of shingle with broken rock on the sheltered north side of a 3 metre high reef adjacent to the site, which almost breaks the surface at low water. Much of the shingle is covered in sand while the reef and larger rock fragments are covered in kelp and other weed.

Initially, seven ingots were recovered but following visual and metal-detector surveys of the area, over 40 tin ingots have so far been recorded and recovered. The ingots were made from a mould in earth or sand with one side being flat: This method of ingot manufacture dates back to the Bronze Age. The ingots are of various sizes ranging from 41cm long, 21cm wide, 6.5cm deep weighing 13 kilos to a smaller 7.8cm, weighing less than a quarter of a kilo.

The ingots are difficult to date without any associated evidence: They could be as early as the Bronze Age or as late as the medieval period, but parallels from other sites, notably in France, suggest a probable late Roman date. In July 2002, the ingots were donated to the Royal Albert Memorial Museum, Exeter. From the number, concentration, and location of the ingots, it appears fairly clear that they were being carried in a vessel and that any associated shipwreck was involved in the export of tin mined from the local area, the same area also being known for the import of wines, with associated amphora finds.

Three large timbers found embedded in the seabed close to the ingots were radiocarbon-dated at 6305+/- 50 BP and 6270 +/- BP and are thought to be evidence of a submerged forest since they predate the tin industry.


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number:
Legacy System:
AMIE - Wrecks


Books and journals
Fenwick, V, Gale, A, Historic Shipwrecks : Discovered, Protected and Investigated, (1998)
'Devon Archaeological Society newsletter' in Devon Archaeological Society newsletter, (2002)
'The Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society' in Proceedings of the Devon Archaeological Exploration Society, , Vol. 53, (1995)
Tin Ingot Site [interim report],


This site is designated under the Protection of Wrecks Act 1973 as it is or may prove to be the site of a vessel lying wrecked on or in the sea bed and, on account of the historical, archaeological or artistic importance of the vessel, or of any objects contained or formerly contained in it which may be lying on the sea bed in or near the wreck, it ought to be protected from unauthorised interference. Protected wreck sites are designated by Statutory Instrument. The following information has been extracted from the relevant Statutory Instrument.

Statutory Instrument

Information provided under the Statutory Instrument heading below forms part of the official record of a protected wreck site. Information provided under other headings does not form part of the official record of the designation. It has been compiled by Historic England to aid understanding of the protected wreck site.

Statutory Instruments: 1993/2895

End of official listing

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