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Belvoir Castle

List Entry Summary

This garden or other land is registered under the Historic Buildings and Ancient Monuments Act 1953 within the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens by English Heritage for its special historic interest.

Name: Belvoir Castle

List entry Number: 1000957

Location

Belvoir, Grantham, Leicestershire, NG32 1PE

The garden or other land may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Leicestershire

District: Melton

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Belvoir

County: Leicestershire

District: Melton

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Croxton Kerrial

County: Leicestershire

District: Melton

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Redmile

County: Lincolnshire

District: South Kesteven

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Woolsthorpe By Belvoir

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: II

Date first registered: 05-Mar-1986

Date of most recent amendment: 10-Oct-2017

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: Parks and Gardens

UID: 1955

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Garden

Various gardens, mostly early C19 but incorporating later C17 elements, and an extensive landscape park, associated with a spectacular, early-C19, hilltop castle. Reservoir to south of parkland, constructed between 1794 and 1797 as a floodwater reservoir for the Grantham Canal.

Reasons for Designation

The parkland and gardens of Belvoir Castle, mostly early C19 but incorporating late-C17, late-C18 and early-C20 elements, and Knipton Reservoir, are registered at Grade II for the following principal reasons:

Historic interest: * As the historic pleasure grounds and parkland of Belvoir Castle, a spectacular hill-top castle; * For the multi-phased design of the gardens, parkland and reservoir, mostly laid out in the early C19, but incorporating late C-17, late-C18 and early-C20 elements;

Architectural interest: * For the successful design of the buildings which ornament the parkland, the majority of which are listed, and some at high grades;

Design interest: * For the association of the parkland and gardens with a number of renowned landscape and garden designers, including Lancelot ‘Capability’ Brown and Harold Peto; * For the design contributions of 4th, 5th and 8th Duchesses of Rutland, who played key roles in forming the Picturesque landscape at Belvoir Castle;

Degree of survival: * For the high degree of survival of the original plan form of the late-C18 reservoir, as well as the early-C19 boathouse, Reservoir Cottage, Croxton Avenue and layout of the early-C19 plantations;

Group value: * For the strong group value the gardens, parkland, and reservoir hold with the Grade I-listed Belvoir Castle and its estate.

History

The name Belvoir (‘beautiful view’), dates back to Norman times, when Robert de Todeni (William the Conqueror’s Standard Bearer at the Battle of Hastings), built a castle on the site of the current Belvoir Castle, and founded a priory at the foot of the mound. Belvoir passed to the Ros family in 1247, when the heiress of the last Albini married Robert de Ros. In 1267, Robert de Ros raised a new embattled wall for the castle, and a surviving C13 seal shows Belvoir Castle as a quadrangular keep. During the War of the Roses, Thomas, Lord Ros, a Lancastrian supporter, was executed in 1464, having already been attainted and his lands forfeited. Belvoir was granted to William, Lord Hastings, but Ros’s friends disputed this with force, and the Castle was left ruinous.

Belvoir was restored to the Ros family on the accession of Henry VII, and subsequently passed to the Manners family on the marriage of Eleanor, sister and heiress of Edmund Lord Ros, to Sir Robert Manners. It was not, however, until the time of Sir Robert’s grandson, Thomas, 1st Earl of Rutland, that the rebuilding of the Castle began. The work commenced soon after 1523 on a grand scale, and was completed in 1555 by the 2nd Earl. The 5th Earl was implicated in Essex’s plot against Queen Elizabeth I in the closing years of her reign, and was imprisoned in the Tower, but was released, and his lands restored to him on the accession of James I. The 5th Earl entertained the monarch at Belvoir on his journey from Scotland to London, and so satisfied was the King with his reception that on the morning of his departure, he created 46 knights. In 1645, during the Civil War, Belvoir was besieged for four months before the Royalist garrison surrendered. In 1649, demolition of the Castle was ordered by Cromwell’s parliament, with the reluctant consent of the 8th Earl of Rutland.

From 1654, reconstruction work began at Belvoir under the direction of John Webb, a pupil of Inigo Jones, who after Jones’ death became one of the country’s leading architects, and the rebuilding and laying out of the grounds were completed by 1668. The 9th Earl of Rutland was created Marquis of Granby and Duke of Rutland in 1703, and the surviving stable block and associated outbuildings are believed to date from around 1705. His grandson, the 3rd Duke, made some improvements to the Castle in the early C18, adding the picture room and cellars, and the Wilderness garden around 1730. Panoramic views of Belvoir Castle by Thomas Badeslade, in Vitruvius Britannicus, and by Jan Griffier the Younger, in 1730, 1731 and 1744 respectively, illustrate with detail the contemporary form of the castle, landscaping, and a hunting scene in full cry. Each of these perspective views shows the Spiral Walk on the slopes on the Castle, adorned with seven figurative statues by Caius Gabriel Cibber, which were commissioned by the 1st Duke in 1680 at a cost of £35. Despite these impressive depictions in the second quarter of the C18, the travel writer Arthur Young quipped in 1776: ‘The house is now almost entirely unfurnished and the gardens neglected, so that it looks more like the habitation of one in distress than the seat of one of our most opulent nobles.’

Grand-scale alterations were evidently contemplated during the time of the 4th Duke, for in 1780, the famous landscape designer Lancelot ‘Capability’ Brown prepared plans for Belvoir Castle, following work by Brown’s surveyor Jonathan Spyers in 1779, who recorded an estate of 3,928 acres. For his advice on improvements to the castle and estate, Brown charged a total of £496, including £196 and 8 shillings for Spyers’ survey, which was paid to Brown’s executors after his death in 1783. Brown's plan for the Belvoir landscape included the creation of lakes, new woods, tree clumps and belts, and major earth works, such as smoothing out the castle mound and building an embankment to link it to a nearby hill. He also proposed major architectural alterations including Gothic castellation of the castle and a service tunnel, new woodland ridings and a new approach road from Harston to cross his proposed lakes. Rather than moving the nearby village of Woolsthorpe to improve the view, he incorporated it into his plan, partly screened by trees. Brown proposed new pleasure gardens, but wished to retain the existing formal Tudor gardens, canal and Wilderness. He also planned to create a ‘chase’, open land for hunting, and to reinstate Belvoir’s free warren, for hunting with hawks, to reflect Belvoir’s medieval past.

However, the 4th Duke had inherited large debts, made worse by his passions for art, gambling, women and entertaining. Such was the Duke’s vast debt that Horace Walpole remarked in a letter to Lady Ossory: ‘Mr Brown has shown his designs for improving Belvoir Castle. They show judgement and would be magnificent. I asked where the funds were to arise for I hear the Duke’s exchequer is extremely empty.’ The Duke’s lawyer and agent, Joseph Hill, took charge of the Belvoir estate and the Duke’s vast debts, and implemented an emergency plan, including the employment of the Duke as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in Dublin, and the sale of timber from the Belvoir woodlands. Tree planting started in 1782, and on the proposed planting of Luccombe Oaks, Thomas Thoroton commented: ‘I mean it to be exactly what Brown has Drawn in his Plan which I have consulted.’ By the turn of the century, most of the perimeter belts of trees and some woodland had been planted. The 4th Duke died in 1787, and since the Duke’s eldest son and heir was only nine, the 4th Duchess and her brother, the Duke of Beaufort, took over the estate as joint trustees. Working with Brown’s plan, the Duke of Beaufort ordered an avenue from the old church in Woolsthorpe to be planted in 1792. By the time the 5th Duke came of age in 1799, his father’s debts were largely repaid and the family fortunes improved.

William King, agent of the 4th and 5th Dukes played an important role in generating funds for the Belvoir Estate in the late C18 and early C19, including the construction of the Grantham Canal through the estate between 1793 and 1799. William Jessop, a noted canal engineer was consulted on the engineering works, and wrote his ‘Observations on the Use of Reservoirs for Flood Water’ in 1792, leading to the passing of the Grantham to Trent Act in 1793. This act authorised the construction of the Grantham Canal under the charge of Jessop, with resident engineers James Green, responsible for the section from the Trent to the Leicestershire border, and William King supervising the section from the Leicestershire border to Grantham (including reservoirs at Knipton and Denton). The canal, which opened to traffic in 1797, is believed to be the first canal in England predominantly supplied by reservoirs, and the first industrial scheme initially designed to rely on floodwater reservoirs.

Knipton Reservoir was begun in 1794, and the Parish of Knipton Enclosure Act (1797) took all wasteland and common land at Knipton within the property of the Duke of Rutland. The reservoir, the first sizable lake to be constructed at Belvoir, appropriated the natural topography of Knipton Vale and floodwaters of the River Devon, and was fed from Knipton Reservoir to the canal through the estates of the Duke of Rutland via open and underground brick culverts. It is possible that a reservoir may have been discussed with Brown, and in a letter between Hill and the 4th Duke in 1787, Hill suggests that the valley at Knipton could supply ‘your Graces River & Lake with any Quantity of Water - I should be glad to see such a work well executed - for that Country seems to want such assistance, as well as Shade & Shelter - & a little Dress & Ornament’. An ornamental boat was brought from London in 1801, and the following year the thatched boathouse was built on the east bank of the reservoir. The water level of the reservoir was raised in 1804, a draw-off tunnel was constructed in 1944, and a secondary weir, bridge and spillway constructed in 1972. The Grantham Canal passed into railway ownership in 1854, and was formally abandoned in 1936 due to a decline in trade.

A large number of trees were planted at the reservoir in 1801, including 5000 spruce, 1000 larch, 1000 alders and 1000 birch, and it is recorded that a woodman’s cottage stood at the reservoir in 1819. The reservoir was stocked with fish in 1801, and Reservoir Cottage was constructed 150m east of the reservoir in 1806 as a fishing lodge (possibly to the designs of Sir Revd John Thoroton), and was extended in 1823 and in the mid-C20. Croxton Avenue was laid out along the embankment of the reservoir in 1802, linking two neighbouring estates owned by the Manners family: Croxton Park to the south and Belvoir Castle to the north. This dramatic approach route was chosen for the travels of the Dowager Queen Adelaide between Croxton Park and Belvoir in 1839, and she was later accompanied on the same route by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert in 1843.

The young Lady Elizabeth Howard arrived at Belvoir in 1799 from her home, Castle Howard in Yorkshire, to marry the young 5th Duke of Rutland, and set about revitalising the castle and gardens from 1801. The current Belvoir Castle, listed Grade I, dates from 1801-30, and is mostly by James Wyatt, fresh from working on Windsor Castle. The new chapel and the south-west elevation of the castle were chiefly designed by Frederick Trench, and based on Brown’s designs of 1782. Perspective views of the castle by Thomas Wright and J M W Turner in 1814 and 1816 respectively, capture the picturesque qualities of the castle and its extreme topography. A catastrophic fire in 1816 saw the destruction of the north-east and north-west fronts, grand staircase, and picture gallery, including some thirty paintings by such famous artists as Reynolds, Titian and Van Dyck. Reconstruction work was led by the Rev Sir John Thoroton, Rector of Bottesford, domestic chaplain to the Duke and close friend of the Duchess.

The 5th Duchess was incredibly ambitious and industrious during her 26 years at Belvoir. Up to her death in 1825, her achievements included: the construction of a model farm designed by Wyatt, which included a working dairy and an 8-acre kitchen garden; removal of the C18 bowling green, and use of the earth to construct an embankment linking Castle Hill and Blackberry Hill; demolition of the old chapel and picture gallery; establishment of the Ladies Garden (now the Duchess’s Garden) and construction of the Root and Moss House; development of a (pre-existing) two-mile circuitous Duke’s Walk; and preparation of the 10.5-acre lakes, with a five-arched bridge concealing a change of level between the two sheets of water. During this time, the 5th Duke also oversaw the construction of new kennels within the parkland south-east of the Castle in 1802 (previously located at Croxton Park), the planting of Kennel Wood, and the establishment of Kennel Walk. In the year following the Duchess’s death, the ponds were dug out, however these greatly silted up. They have recently been re-dug and renamed the Memorial Lakes in 2015. The 8th Duke came to Belvoir in 1906, and his wife Violet, an accomplished artist, set about enhancing the house and gardens. The 8th Duchess engaged the accomplished landscape architect Harold Peto (1854-1933) to redesign the Rose Garden in 1906, which was previously terraced by the Rev Sir John Thoroton in 1814. Peto’s garden features Cibber’s statue of Winter at its east end, with the remaining six statues by Cibber being relocated to the Statue Garden below the Rose Garden. The Rose Garden was populated with statuary, including a Corinthian column bought by the Duchess on a trip to Bologna in 1907, and a marble statue of a horse, that had been presented to the 5th Duke in 1851 by Admiral Thomas Cochrane.

Details

SUMMARY Various gardens, mostly early C19 but incorporating later C17 elements, and an extensive landscape park, associated with a spectacular, early-C19, hilltop castle. Reservoir to south of parkland, constructed between 1794 and 1797 as a floodwater reservoir for the Grantham Canal.

LOCATION, SETTING, LANDFORM, BOUNDARIES AND AREA Belvoir Castle stands 8km west of Grantham, close to the meeting points of Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire, on an isolated hill on the south-east edge of the Vale of Belvoir over which it enjoys panoramic views. The current registered area measures around 804ha.

ENTRANCES AND APPROACHES There are numerous approaches to the Castle. Most of them meet south-west of the Castle before a common drive approaches past the Rose Garden and the Battery, to enter the west side of the courtyard. The main private drive enters the grounds 300m north of the Castle, via a gate shared with the drive to the estate yard. It then curves around the north-west side of the Castle hill. Other approaches, through the park, are longer. From the east there is a 3.5km long drive from the Lodge, an ornate two-storey stone building of 1885, 1km east of Woolsthorpe. This curves along a plateau above Woolsthorpe, where the drive (here Foster's Avenue) is tree lined, with panoramic views towards the Castle and across the Vale of Belvoir beyond. The drive then drops, crossing the bridge between the two lakes, before running through Middlesdale towards the main approach to the Castle. A second drive, from the south-east, enters the park past an ornate mid-C19 lodge 600m north-east of Knipton village. This runs on a straight line roughly northwards, west of the Upper Lake and Belvoir Hunt Kennels, to join the Woolsthorpe drive 500m north-east of the bridge. A third approach is from the north-west, by a long straight avenue from Redmile.

PRINCIPAL BUILDING A hilltop castle was established here, overlooking the Vale of Belvoir, in the late C11. Major rebuilding took place in the earlier C16, by John Webb (d 1672) between 1654 and 1668 after Civil War slighting, and in the early C19. After the 5th Duke came of age in 1801, James Wyatt (d 1813) was employed to rebuild Belvoir. In 1816, by when the south-west and south-east fronts were complete, a great fire destroyed the north-west and north-east fronts. Their reconstruction was directed by the Rev Sir John Thoroton (d 1820), rector of Bottesford and friend of, and domestic chaplain to, the 5th Duke. He was assisted by Elizabeth, Duchess of Rutland, who had been brought up at Castle Howard and was likewise an enthusiastic amateur architect. Before her death in 1825 the Duchess was also responsible for laying out new gardens and enhancing the Castle's setting. The Castle (listed grade I) is little changed since the early C19, a massive, quadrangular, hilltop feudal palace with a skyline of turrets and battlements. Its main feature is Thoroton's huge projecting tower on the centre of the north-east front, which echoes Wyatt's tower on the south-west side.

At the bottom of the slope, 200m north-east of the Castle, is a U-plan, two-storey ironstone stables block (listed grade II*) of 1704-5 by John Barker (d 1727), now used as offices and for accommodation. Within its courtyard is an exercise ring (listed grade II*) of around 1819, probably the earliest free-standing structure of its kind in England, and occupying an important position in the history of hunting. About 20m north-east of Barker's stables are others (listed grade II) of the early C18, while 15m south of the former is a six-bay house (listed grade II) of the early C18. Of similar date is Brewery Row (listed grade II), a row of four houses 25m south-east of Barker's stables.

ORNAMENTAL GARDENS AND PLEASURE GROUNDS North-east of the Castle, descending the hillside to the stables complex, is a flight of three broad terraces. On the middle one is a swimming pool and hard tennis court. On the north-west side of the terraces is an icehouse (listed grade II) of around 1830.

A broad walled terrace runs around the north and west sides of the Castle. From this there is access to the Battery, a 20m long bastion-like crenellated projection which projects south-west of the Castle to command the main approach from the south-west. Believed to represent the motte of the Norman castle, the Battery was remodelled as a promenade ground and is shown thus on Badeslade's views of 1731. The present Battery, which is considerably smaller, represents an early C19 remodelling.

The Battery overlooks a lawn leading to the Rose Garden with flagged paths and geometric beds, which occupies the sloping ground south-west of the Castle. It was laid out in around 1906 by Violet (d 1937), wife of the 8th Duke, to the designs of Harold Peto. Yew hedges run around the north-west and north-east sides of the garden, along the top (north-east) of which, alongside a stone terrace wall, runs a curving terrace path with mature specimen trees. This path appears to be the broad walk along which Cibber's statues were placed, as shown in Badeslade's views of 1731. A statue of Winter (listed grade II*) of around 1680 by Caius Gabriel Cibber (d 1700) stands at the head of an axial path which leads from the terrace path on a south-westerly line.

At the bottom of the axial path down the Rose Garden, 110m south-west of the Castle, is a stone bastion, which in the early C20 supported a rustic summerhouse. Beneath the bastion is a gothic-arched seat, which overlooks the Statue Garden. This, approached via an elaborately stone-balustraded path with urns and rockwork (all probably early C19) at its north-west corner, comprises six further life-size statues (Juno, Taste, Smell, Spring, Summer, Autumn: all listed grade II*) of around 1680 by Cibber, arranged in two curving rows down a steeply-sloping grass slope. Across the bottom of the slope is a terrace, at one end of which is a stone bench seat. It seems likely that the Statue Garden was among the early-C19 gardening works at Belvoir. In 1905 there was massed bedding in the Statue Garden.

From south-west of the Statue Garden a terrace path passes through ornamental woodland to the Duchess', or Spring, Garden, created around 1810 by the 5th Duchess of Rutland. This comprises walks around a natural south-facing amphitheatre-like embayment approximately 180m in diameter, well planted with mature specimen trees, shrubs and other plants. On the main grass terrace path around the north side of the garden is the Duchess' Seat, a splendid hexagonal root house (listed grade II) of around 1810, with thatched roof, moss-filled walls, and rustic furniture.

North-west of the Duchess' garden, and approximately 450m south-west of the Castle, is the family Mausoleum (listed grade II), a limestone building of 1826-8 in the Romanesque style by Benjamin Dean Wyatt (d 1855) and Philip Wyatt (d 1835).

Like the Castle, the gardens were remodelled after the Civil War, and the results are shown in illustrations by Badeslade of 1731. Descending from Castle to stables is a flight of terraces, which survive in simplified form today. East of these, in the vicinity of the later walled kitchen garden, was an extensive geometric Wilderness or labyrinth, most likely created for the 3rd Duke after 1721. South of this, running around the eastern and southern slopes of the Castle mound, were concentric plantations, perhaps terraced. Cibber's statues can be seen spaced regularly along a broad walk around the bottom of the Battery. This scheme had been much simplified by 1744, and by the early C19 had been virtually obliterated.

PARK Belvoir's park extends for approximately 2km east, west and south of the Castle. Around the hill on which the Castle stands, through the low ground of Middlesdale to its south, and around the sides of Blackberry Hill which rise south of that, is woodland, largely of an ornamental character. The plateau on top of Blackberry Hill is open ground, and earlier in the C20 was used as a private golf course. Frog Hollow pool lies in the valley between Blackberry Hill and the rising ground of Granby Wood to its south. In 1905 there was a bog garden here. South-west of this, along the edge of the park, extensive elder woods were planted in the 1990s, the flowers of which were gathered for a locally manufactured beverage. North-west of Castle and Blackberry Hills the park slopes down into the Vale of Belvoir. This land, West Wong, is arable land with some clumps of trees. North-west of the estate yard, 300m north-east of the Castle, are two fishponds. One is 200m long, the other (named Westminster) 100m. Some 200m to the west, on the edge of the registered area, is the site of a medieval Benedictine priory. Until the Civil War there is also believed to have been a village here, sited between the priory and the estate yard 300m to the south-east.

Set against the bottom of the wooded slope of the Castle and 250m to its south is Dairy Cottage (listed grade II), built around 1810, probably by James Wyatt, as an ornamental dairy. This has an octagonal, two-storey, central block with pavilions to either side. It looks down a grass paddock, on the east side of which, approximately 75m from the dairy, is a wooden, six-bay, thatched cowhouse (now used for timber seasoning), probably contemporary with the dairy. The pasture looks towards Lower Lake, the more northerly of two sheets of water on the River Devon, each 500m long and separated by an early C19 five-arched stone bridge (listed grade II). On the west bank of Upper Lake, 100m south-west of the bridge, are the Kennels (listed grade II) of the Belvoir Hunt, founded in 1740 and always among the country's most prestigious. Four-sided with turrets to the corners, the complex was designed in 1802 to accommodate four packs of hounds. South-west of the kennels is Knipton Pasture, a 1km long tract of level ground, now arable. East of Upper Lake is the Devan, steeply-rising permanent pasture, well studded with mature specimen trees. East of Lower Lake the ground, crossed by the drive from east of Woolsthorpe, climbs slightly less steeply, although again there are large numbers of mature trees. As the drive reaches the top of the slope, 200m south-east of Woolsthorpe church, it passes an irregular area of wooded ground, Holywell Wood, within which are springs and a Holy Well. East of Holywell Wood the park is permanent pasture.

The medieval Belvoir park, created in 1306 and probably disparked in the 1460s, lay in Redmile, north-west of the later park. When the present park was created is unknown, although during the period of post-Civil War reconstruction seems probable. There was certainly a deer park here by 1731. In 1780 Lancelot Brown (1716-83) was consulted on landscaping Belvoir and improving the Castle, but although detailed drawings were prepared (at a cost of £496), and some elements executed, his ideas were not fully realised. As seen today the park is very much a product of the early-C19 landscaping and gardening at Belvoir.

KITCHEN GARDEN At the bottom of the wooded slopes of the hill below the Castle are ornate, early-C19, brick-walled kitchen gardens (listed grade II) of playing card plan. They are aligned on a north-south axis, and measure 220m long by 120m wide. The northernmost quarter is divided off by a wall, broken in the centre to allow an axial view down the garden from the mid C19 gothic Garden House (listed grade II) situated 50m north of the walled garden. This looks through to a highly ornate iron-gated entrance, with ornate limestone detailing to the arched surround in the centre of the south side. Similar gates lie on the east and west sides of the northern compartment. Other entrances are pedimented, and these alternate with octagonal columns topped with decoratively carved limestone ogee capitals. Some gardening still went on in the northern compartment in 1998; the main garden area was grazed, and lines of young trees ran down the centre. Along the north wall is a full range of brick sheds with lancet doors and windows. Various glasshouses and other structures, some of C19 date, stand outside the north-east corner of the garden.

The precise date of the garden walls remains to be established. Almost certainly it is they which are alluded to in an 1831 description of Belvoir (Gardener's Magazine 1831), and it would therefore seem likely that they were among the early C19 improvements by the Duchess and her professional advisers.

KNIPTON RESERVOIR Knipton Reservoir is located approximately 3km south of Belvoir Castle, between the villages of Knipton and Branston. The reservoir measures approximately 220m x 1200m, running 650m on a north-south axis, before curving west for 550m. The surface area of the waterworks measures approximately 200,000 sq m (49.4 acres), and has a capacity of 543,000 sq m and depth of 7.1m. The reservoir is fed from a stream off the River Devon at the south-west corner, and the water falls to the north-east corner to two spillways. The original spillway (constructed around 1795) comprises a 15m-long convex masonry weir, which discharges onto a gently falling, tapered apron to pass beneath the dam crest via a three-arch, masonry bridge. Downstream of the bridge there is a 3.5m-wide stepped concrete channel which continues to a stilling basin. Approximately 15m south of the original spillway, an 18m-long convex overflow weir, reinforced concrete bridge and spillway were constructed in 1972, and discharge downstream to merge with the original spillway via a drop structure. To the south of the 1972 bridge, an earthen embankment extends approximately 210m along the north-east bank of the reservoir, forming part of Croxton Avenue. It is understood that the embankment was constructed of clay in 1799, and reaches a maximum height of approximately 12m. Around 70m south of the 1972 bridge, an outlet pipe passes under the embankment, and discharges via a concrete flume and brick tunnel (constructed in 1944) to enter the carrier channel, which was the original feed from the reservoir to the Grantham Canal, through the Duke’s estate via open and brick-vaulted culverts. Downstream of the reservoir the River Devon passes along the west side of Knipton and then enters Belvoir Upper Lake and Lower Lake after about 2km.

On the east bank of the reservoir, a timber-framed boathouse, built in 1802, stands on a stone plinth, with a thatched roof (not listed). Overlooking the reservoir at the crest of the east bank, stands Reservoir Cottage, built in 1806 as a fishing lodge, and extended in 1823 and the mid-C20 (not listed). North-east of the cottage, the thatched roof of an ornamental oast house remains visible from the reservoir (not listed). It is probable that Reservoir Cottage, the thatched oast house and boat house were designed to form part of the views along the east bank of the reservoir. From the steeply-sloped east bank, plantations control Picturesque views south-west over the reservoir, towards the steeples of the Church of St Guthlac at Branston and St Denys at Eaton (approximately 1.5km and 2.5km distant respectively), and conceal views of the dam to the north-west.

Croxton Avenue runs along the east bank of the reservoir, and from the early C19 formed an important route between the Duke’s estates at Croxton Park in the south and Belvoir Castle to the north (both approximately 3km from the reservoir). From the north-east corner of the reservoir to Belvoir Castle, this takes the form of a tree-lined avenue (now overgrown and with a variety of species). There are a number of plantations surrounding the reservoir, most likely planted in the early C19 to frame views and control game, including Boathouse Wood (east), Reservoir Wood (west) and Bunkers Wood (north-west). These woods have been replanted over time, but some mature trees do survive.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Badeslade, T, Rocque, J, Vitruvius Britannicus: Vol. IV, (1739), Plates 47-50
Phibbs, J L, Place-making: The art of Capability Brown, (2017)
Rutland, Duchess of, Pruden, Jane, Capability Brown and Belvoir: Discovering a Lost Landscape, (2016)
Rutland, Duke of, Belvoir Castle: The Leicestershire Home of the Dukes of Rutland, (1976)
Shields, Steffie, Moving Heaven and Earth, Capability Brown's Gift of Landscape, (2016)
Stroud, D, Capability Brown, (1975)
Symes, M, Garden Sculpture, (1996), 31-2
Cantor, L M, 'The Medieval Parks of Leicestershire' in Transactions of the Leicestershire Archaeological and Historical Society, , Vol. 46, (1970-1), 19
Jessop, William, 'Observations on the Use of Reservoirs for Flood Waters' in The Repertory of Arts, Manufactures, and Agriculture: Consisting of Original Communications, Specifications of Patent Inventions, Practical and Interesting Papers, Selected from the Philosophical Transactions and Scientific Journals of All Nations ..., Volume 3, (1795), 243-50
Henthorn-Brown, D, 'Canal reservoirs in Great Britain' in Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers. Engineering History and Heritage, , Vol. 162 (2), (May 2009), 103-10
'Belvoir Castle, Lincolnshire' in Country Life, , Vol. 4, (27 August 1898), 240-3
'Belvoir Castle, Lincolnshire' in Country Life, , Vol. 4, (3 September 1898), 272-5
'Belvoir Castle, Leicestershire' in Country Life, , Vol. 120, (6 December 1956), 1284-90
'Belvoir Castle, Leicestershire' in Country Life, , Vol. 120, (13 December 1956), 1402-5
Websites
Capability Brown, ‘Belvoir Castle’, accessed 8 August 2017 from http://www.capabilitybrown.org/garden/belvoir-castle
Institution of Civil Engineers, ‘Panel for Historical Engineering: Knipton Dam’, accessed 8 August 2017 from https://www.ice.org.uk/knowledge-and-resources/ice-library-and-digital-resources/historical-engineering-works/details?hewID=690
Redmile Archive, ‘William King: Engineer on the Grantham Canal’, accessed 8 August 2017 from http://www.redmilearchive.freeuk.com/king.html
Other
British Waterways Board, ‘Knipton Reservoir: Report on an Inspection on 18 August 1982’
Canal & Rivers Trust, ‘Knipton Reservoir: Report under Section 10 of the Reservoirs Act 1975’, 13 June 2017
Shields, Steffie, 'Knipton Reservoir: A Historical Report and Survey', June 2017

National Grid Reference: SK8247232174

Map

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