18th century garden feature at Hanworth Park
Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument
List Entry Number: 1002008
Date first listed: 03-Feb-1953
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
County: Greater London Authority
District: Hounslow (London Borough)
National Grid Reference: TQ 11257 71849
The remains of an 18th century garden pavilion, 34m south of St George’s church.
Reasons for Designation
A pavilion is a light, sometimes ornamental structure in a garden, park or place of recreation, used for entertainment or shelter. Along with other garden buildings such as banqueting houses, they were common components of 18th century formal garden layouts. These were characterised by a core of geometric layout, typically orientated in relation to the major residence to which they formed the setting. Planted areas were commonly arranged in geometric beds, or parterres, in patterns which incorporated hedges, paths and sometimes ponds, fountains and statuary. By contrast, other areas were sometimes set aside as romantic wildernesses. They represent a significant and illuminating aspect of the architectural and artistic tastes of the time, and illustrate the skills which developed to realise the ambitions of their owners. Surviving evidence can include standing structures, earthworks and buried remains.
The remains of the 18th century garden pavilion, 34m south of St George’s church, survive well and incorporate two examples of 16th century sculptural work in the form of terracotta roundels. These are two of the earliest examples of Renaissance sculpture in England, and as such are of considerable historic and artistic significance. It will also contain archaeological and environmental information relating to the medieval royal residence of Hanworth House, as well as the later post-medieval garden and its use.
This record was the subject of a minor enhancement on 25 March 2015. This record has been generated from an "old county number" (OCN) scheduling record. These are monuments that were not reviewed under the Monuments Protection Programme and are some of our oldest designation records.
The monument includes the remains of a late 18th century garden pavilion, incorporating 16th century sculptural work. It is situated on low-lying flat ground at Tudor Court, south-west of Hanworth Park. The north and south ends of the pavilion were originally formed by two very similar round-headed alcoves constructed of stock brick. The alcove to the north abuts St George’s Churchyard wall whilst that to the south forms the north wall of No.7 Tudor Court and incorporates two later windows. Each alcove is topped by a pediment enclosing a 16th century red terracotta roundel. That to the south features a central bust of a Roman Emperor and that to the north may represent the Roman goddess Minerva. These are thought to be part of a set made by the Florentine sculptor Giovanni da Maiano for Cardinal Wolsey in about 1521, some of which are built into the gatehouses of Hampton Court Palace. These two examples are likely to date to the time when Anne Boleyn occupied Hanworth House and a major redecorating scheme was carried out. Between the alcoves are four Doric columns, originally thought to be part of an arcade which ran between the ends of the pavilion. The timber uprights and cross-beams which were once attached to the columns are no longer present.
The remains of the 18th century garden pavilion are on the site of Hanworth House, a medieval house which became a royal residence of Henry VIII after 1515. In 1532, Henry VIII bestowed Hanworth on Anne Boleyn and the residence was extensively decorated. After Anne Boleyn was executed the house reverted back to the king but in 1544 the estate was given to Queen Catherine Parr. It continued as a royal residence until the freehold was relinquished in 1627. It was partly rebuilt by Lord Cottington but in 1797 was largely destroyed by fire. Tudor Court, to the south-east beyond the constraint area, includes former stable buildings dating to about the late 18th century.
The north and south alcoves, forming the ends of the garden pavilion, are Grade II listed.
Tudor Court is Grade II listed. The remains of the 16th century fireplace arches, the surviving 16th and 17th century garden walls, forecourt walls and boundary walls to Hanworth House are Grade II listed.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
Legacy System number: LO 79
Legacy System: RSM - OCN
Julien-Lees, S, Historic Royal Palaces Conservation Department Bulletin Issue 25 November 2005 , accessed 5th October 2009 from http://www.hrp.org.uk/Resources/De%20Maiano%20terracotta%20roundels.pdf
NMR TQ17SW5. PastScape 398090. LBS 202469, 202470, 202468, 202471, 439345, 439347 and 439344
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing