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War Dyke entrenchment in Whiteways Plantation and South Wood

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: War Dyke entrenchment in Whiteways Plantation and South Wood

List entry Number: 1002983

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: West Sussex

District: Arun

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Houghton

National Park: SOUTH DOWNS

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 30-Jan-1967

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM - OCN

UID: WS 330

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

The War Dyke and associated linear earthworks, 145m south of Whiteways Lodge.

Reasons for Designation

Linear boundaries are substantial earthwork features comprising single or multiple ditches and banks which may extend over distances varying from between less than 1km to over 10km. They survive as earthworks or as linear features visible as cropmarks on aerial photographs or as a combination of both. The evidence of excavation and study of associated monuments demonstrate that their construction often spans the millennium from the Middle Bronze Age, although they may have been reused later. The scale of many linear boundaries has been taken to indicate that they were constructed by large social groups and were used to mark important boundaries in the landscape; their impressive scale displaying the corporate prestige of their builders. They would have been powerful symbols, often with religious associations, used to define and order the territorial holdings of those groups who constructed them. Linear earthworks are of considerable importance for the analysis of settlement and land use; all well-preserved examples will normally merit statutory protection.

Despite some damage from quarrying in the past, the War Dyke and associated linear earthworks survive very well and form a prominent feature in the landscape. They will contain archaeological and environmental information relating to their construction, original purpose, and the landscape in which they were built. The presence of other archaeological remains, which form separate schedulings nearby, such as earthworks in Dalesdown Wood and a Cross Dyke to the north, enhance its importance.

History

See Details.

Details

This record was the subject of a minor enhancement on 6 November 2014. The record has been generated from an "old county number" (OCN) scheduling record. These are monuments that were not reviewed under the Monuments Protection Programme and are some of our oldest designation records.

The monument includes a prehistoric linear boundary and associated linear earthworks situated on the slopes of Rewell Hill in the South Downs, which descend eastwards to the River Arun. The earthwork spans a distance of 1.32km and is denoted by a bank with a ditch on each side where the ground is fairly level, but becomes a bank with single ditch on the uphill side along the steeper slopes. The bank varies in height from about 3m to 1.5m above the bottom of the ditch or ditches. It runs north-east from Rewell Hill Woods on a north-facing slope before descending an east-facing slope, where it is crossed by London Road (A284). At this point it curves ESE before resuming north-east through Arundel Park where it extends nearly as far as the River Arun. A short section at the eastern end, south of Houghton Lodge, appears to have been destroyed through quarrying. The earthwork presumably went as far as the River bank at this end. At the western end, on the north-facing slope of Rewell Hill Wood, another bank runs 363m parallel a short distance downslope from the War Dyke. A later hollow way runs between these two earthworks, possibly on the site of an original passage gap. Also between the two linear features and near London Road is a scarped ditch with lower bank, part mutilated by later trackways and quarrying. East of London Road the War Dyke apparently overlies an earthwork comprising a bank with a ditch on the western, uphill, side. This extends for about 80m before fading into previously ploughed land. The name ‘War Dyke’ is derived from local tradition. The original purpose of the linear earthwork is uncertain but it shows similarities to the Chichester Dyke and is possibly of Iron Age origin. The size and position of the War Dyke suggests that it may have partly served a defensive purpose.

Further archaeological remains survive in the vicinity of this monument some, such as a nearby Cross Dyke, are scheduled but others are not because they have not been formally assessed.

Selected Sources

Other
West Sussex HER 2498 - MWS2788. NMR TQ01SW48. PastScape 393296.

National Grid Reference: TQ 00201 10419, TQ 00451 10478, TQ 00849 10563

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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This copy shows the entry on 23-Oct-2017 at 12:34:46.

End of official listing