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Penannular ditched enclosure, 150m south of Turner's Farm Barn

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Penannular ditched enclosure, 150m south of Turner's Farm Barn

List entry Number: 1004561

Location

Litton Cheney, Dorset

Centred on NGR SY 55625 91741

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Dorset

District: West Dorset

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Litton Cheney

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 15-Oct-1924

Date of most recent amendment: 08-May-2018

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM - OCN

UID: DO 38

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

The buried remains of a prehistoric penannular ditched enclosure; interpreted as a stone circle or a henge.

Reasons for Designation

The prehistoric penannular ditched enclosure, interpreted as a stone circle or a henge, to the south of Turner’s Farm Barn, Litton Cheney is scheduled for the following principal reasons:

* Survival: despite plough levelling and archaeological excavation, a high proportion of the ditch survives as a buried feature; * Potential: the monument is considered to retain archaeological information and environmental evidence relating to the types of activity that occurred within it, and the nature of the environment in which it was constructed; * Documentation (Archaeological): it has been well documented through survey and excavation, and these enhance our understanding of the form and character of the monument.

History

A penannular ditched enclosure at the western end of the Dorset Ridgeway in the parish of Litton Cheney is depicted on the first edition Ordnance Survey map of 1888 as ‘Earthen Circle’. Several stones are also mapped nearby. The site, which was designated a scheduled monument in 1924, was subsequently included in a survey of stone and earth circles in Dorset which was published in 1939 (S and CM Piggott, see Sources). At the time it was described as comprising a shallow ditch with an internal bank along the top of which were several circular depressions. These depressions were identified as marking the probable positions of orthostats (not extant), leading to an interpretation that the site was a stone circle. By the second half of the C20 the bank had been substantially eroded by ploughing and the interior and sections of the ditch were the subject of archaeological investigations. A penannular ditched feature was identified within the enclosure, but no stratigraphic relationship was established between this and the enclosure itself. It has been suggested that this is a timber circle (Gibson, 1994). Sherds of collared urns associated with a number of human cremation burials were recovered from the site and have been dated to the Early Bronze Age. The burials and collared urns are considered to be secondary. The site has been variously interpreted as a stone circle, a henge or a small settlement, but is most probably a stone circle or a henge.

A second circular feature, some 40m to the north-east, is depicted on the 1888 OS map as ‘Tumulus’. It was noted in 1936 as comprising a shallow ditch with a single standing stone on its inner lip. It was also visible in 1974. By the early C21 there was no visible evidence.

More recently in 2001, as part of proposals to construct an exploratory wellsite some 1.5km to the north and to improve the A35 road junction, a trench was excavated approximately 40m to the south-west of the ditched enclosure. No archaeological features or deposits were identified.

Details

PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS: the monument includes the buried remains of a penannular ditched enclosure, probably dating of Neolithic or Early Bronze Age date, and interpreted as a stone circle or a henge. It was subsequently used for as a burial site in the Early Bronze Age. It is situated on a low rise at the western end of the Dorset Ridgeway, overlooking the dry steep valleys leading to the current settlement of Litton Cheney.

DETAILS: there is little surface evidence for the monument, largely due to it having been under cultivation for many years; however, an archaeological excavation in 1974 confirmed its character and form. Although earlier sources refer to stone holes within the interior, the excavation failed to locate any evidence for this. Although no longer discernible above ground, the encircling ditch was identified. It was approximately 35m in diameter and measured some 1.5m wide with an average depth of 0.8m deep. It appeared to have been at least partially backfilled deliberately, perhaps soon after completion. A single causewayed entrance with slightly inturned entrance terminals was located to the south-east. The ditch is considered to survive as a buried feature. The internal bank was estimated to be 3m wide and, due to plough levelling, was found to only exist as a rise in the level of the gravel subsoil. The interior contained a slightly off-centre penannular ditched feature with an entrance on its east side. This shallow ditch contained a large quantity of flint nodules that have been interpreted as packing for approximately 32 upright timber posts. Within this ditched feature was a central post hole and two pits, one pit containing pottery, while the other held an adult cremation and might once have supported an upright post. This pit was cut by a second, later pit which also contained an adult cremation with collared urn sherds. A low cairn to the south contained further deposits of cremated bone and urn fragments. Few finds were recovered, perhaps due to the acidity of the soil, but also included quantities of charcoal, some worked flints and a small amount of Iron Age pottery.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Piggott, S, Piggott, CM, 'Stone and Earth Circles in Dorset' in Antiquity, , Vol. 13, Issue 50, (1939), 138-158
Catherall, PD, 'Excavations at Litton Cheney, Dorset, 1974' in British Archaeological Report, , Vol. 33, (1976), 81-100
Gibson, A, 'Excavations at the Sarn-y-bryn-caled cursus complex,Welshpool, Powys, and the timber circles of Great Britain and Ireland' in Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, , Vol. 60, (1994), 143-224
Websites
Monument No.451093, PastScape, accessed 22 February 2018 from https://www.pastscape.org.uk/hob.aspx?hob_id=451093&sort=4&search=all&criteria=litton%20cheney&rational=q&recordsperpage=30
Other
Terrain Archaeology, May 2001, Proposed West Compton – A (1) Wellsite, Litton Cheney, Dorset. Archaeological Evaluation, Report No. 5076.1

National Grid Reference: SY 55625 91741

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2018. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2018. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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End of official listing