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Medieval longhouse settlement (known locally as Lamlavery), and an associated field system

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Medieval longhouse settlement (known locally as Lamlavery), and an associated field system

List entry Number: 1004609

Location

1160m WSW of Newpark, Davidstow, Bodmin, North Cornwall

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Cornwall

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Davidstow

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 15-Jul-1977

Date of most recent amendment: 11-Jul-2014

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM - OCN

UID: CO 1046

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

The site, covering an area of circa 0.81km by 0.6km, includes the earthwork and buried remains of a longhouse settlement, probably medieval in origins, of at least five long houses with associated ancillary buildings, a trackway and associated field system situated on a north-west facing slope to the east of Crowdy Marsh on Davidstow Moor.

Reasons for Designation

The medieval longhouse settlement (known locally as Lamlavery), 1160m west-south-west of Newpark, and the associated field system are scheduled for the following principal reasons:

* Survival: the earthworks of the settlement survive well and are associated with an area of ridge and furrow that also survive as earthworks;

* Diversity: the site contains a good range of features such as the earthwork and buried remains of building platforms, trackways, enclosures and a field system relating to its occupation and farming practices during the medieval period;

* Potential: the stratified archaeological deposits have the potential to provide further evidence to increase understanding of the character and occupation of the settlement within the wider medieval landscape;

* Documentation: the medieval settlement is referenced in historical documents and is well-documented by aerial photography and field survey;

* Group value: the settlement forms part of the archaeological landscape of Bodmin Moor, a well-recorded upland area with a wide variety of surviving examples of land-use from the prehistoric period onwards. Lamlavery has particularly strong group value with a number of nearby scheduled settlements including the medieval settlement near Canaglaze (National Heritage List entry 1007278) to the south-east.

History

Bodmin Moor, the largest of the Cornish granite uplands, has long been recognised to have exceptional preservation of archaeological remains. The Moor has been the subject of detailed archaeological survey and is one of the best-recorded upland landscapes in England. The extensive relict landscapes of prehistoric, medieval and post-medieval date provide direct evidence for human exploitation of the Moor from the earliest prehistoric period onwards. The well-preserved and often visible relationship between settlement sites, field systems, ceremonial and funerary monuments as well as later industrial remains provides significant insights into successive changes in the pattern of land use through time. Over 30 settlements retaining visible remains of medieval character are recorded on Bodmin Moor. Some of these are single abandoned farms but the majority are small hamlets containing between two and six farmhouses. Documentary evidence indicates that most of such settlements on the Moor were established between the C11 and mid-C14 AD. Although many of these settlements were no longer in use by the close of the medieval period, some were not abandoned until a later period. Medieval settlements are often visible as close groupings of small buildings, each containing a long house, its ancillary buildings and one or more adjacent small plots, which served as kitchen gardens or stock pens. These components are arranged within the settlement around internal yards and trackways, which led from the settlement to its associated fields, pasture and water supply. Occasionally such trackways show evidence for cobbling or paving. Long houses were the dominant type of farmhouse in upland settlements of south-west England between the C10 and C16. Rectangular in plan, usually with rubble or boulder outer walls and their long axis orientated downslope, the interiors of long houses were divided into two separate functional areas, an upslope domestic room and a downslope stock byre. The proportions of the plan occupied by the domestic room and the shippon vary considerably but the division between the two was usually provided by a cross passage of timber screens or rubble walling running transversely through the long house, linking opposed openings in the long side walls. Ancillary buildings are generally separated from the farmhouse itself, or else appear as out-shuts attached to the long house and often extending one end. These additional structures served as barns, fuel or equipment stores and occasionally contained ovens and corn-drying kilns.

The settlement 1160m west-south-west of Newpark, is an isolated group located on the the north slope of Davidstow Moor. It is known locally as ‘Lamlavery’ and probably took its name from a nearby rock. The name was first recorded in 1440 as ‘Lamlavera’ a Cornish word with the element ‘lam’ meaning ‘a leap’.

The land has been largely used for grazing since at least the late-C20.

The site was plotted from aerial photos and surveyed at 1:2500 during the Bodmin Moor Survey Project.

Details

PRINCIPAL FEATURES The site, covering an area of circa 0.81km by 0.6km, includes the earthwork and buried remains of a longhouse settlement, probably medieval in origin, of at least five long houses with associated ancillary buildings, a trackway and an associated field system situated on a north-west facing slope to the east of Crowdy Marsh on Davidstow Moor.

DESCRIPTION The settlement survives as at least five long houses with associated ancillary buildings defined by stony banks of up to 3.6m wide and 0.7m high with enclosures including irregularly-shaped garden plots which are defined by stone and earth built banks of up to 0.5m high. The long houses measure 17m long by 8.5m wide on average and have opposed entrances in their long walls but the internal divisions are not clearly discernible. The ancillary buildings may be parallel to the long houses or isolated structures. The hollow of a track way runs to the east of the houses on a north-east to south-west alignment for approximately 535m. The houses are surrounded by a strip field system, particularly to the south-west (about 0.5 by 0.3km) and to east (about 0.42 by 0.17km) of the track way. The field system ridge and furrow earthworks survive up to 0.5m high, particularly near to the settlement.

EXTENT OF SCHEDULING The area of protection includes the earthwork and buried remains of the settlement known locally as Lamlavery and associated areas of ridge and furrow. The north-west boundary is defined by the marsh field boundary (including a modern fence); the boundaries to the north-east, south-east and south-west have been drawn to include a 5m margin around them to provide sufficient protection for the surviving earthworks. EXCLUSIONS All modern fences and signage are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath all of these is, however, included.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Johnson, N, Rose, P, 'The Human Landscape to c 1800' in Bodmin Moor An Archaeological Survey, (1994)
Preston-Jones, A, Rose, P, 'Cornish Archaeology' in Medieval Cornwall, (1986)
Other
National Mapping Project Data for Bodmin Moor,
Number: 3512 Name: LAMLAVERY - Medieval settlement, Medieval longhouse, Cornwall and Scilly Historic Environment Record ,
Number: 3512.10 Name: DAVIDSTOW MOOR - Medieval field system, Medieval trackway, Cornwall and Scilly Historic Environment Record,
PastScape Monument No:-434263,

National Grid Reference: SX1570883182

Map

Map
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End of official listing