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Croglam Castle defended Iron Age settlement

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Croglam Castle defended Iron Age settlement

List entry Number: 1004615

Location

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Cumbria

District: Eden

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Kirkby Stephen

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 16-May-1951

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM - OCN

UID: CU 193

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

During the earlier Iron Age (seventh to fifth centuries BC) a variety of different types of defensive settlements began to be constructed and occupied in the northern uplands of England. The most obvious sites were hillforts built in prominent locations. In addition to these a range of smaller sites, sometimes with an enclosed area of less than 1ha and defined as defended settlements, were also constructed. Some of these were located on hilltops, others are found in less prominent positions. The enclosing defences were of earthen construction, some sites having a single bank and ditch (univallate), others having more than one (multivallate). At some sites these earthen ramparts represent a second phase of defence, the first having been a timber fence or palisade. Within the enclosure a number of stone or timber-built round houses were occupied by the inhabitants. Stock may also have been kept in these houses, especially during the cold winter months, or in enclosed yards outside them. The communities occupying these sites were probably single family groups, the defended settlements being used as farmsteads. Construction and use of this type of site extended over several centuries, possibly through to the early Romano-British period (mid to late first century AD). Defended settlements are a rare monument type. They were an important element of the later prehistoric settlement pattern of the northern uplands and are important for any study of the developing use of fortified settlements during this period. All well-preserved examples are believed to be of national importance. Croglam Castle defended Iron Age settlement is well-preserved as an earthwork. The monument will contain archaeological deposits relating to its construction, use and abandonment and environmental deposits relating to the use of the surrounding landscape. The monument is unusual in occupying a defendable topographic position yet having an internal ditch and outer bank. Therefore the monument provides insight into the diversity of settlement and occupation during the Iron Age.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes the earthwork and buried remains of a defended settlement of Iron Age date, situated on the top of a slight hill with views in all directions. The settlement enclosure, also known as Croglam Castle, is preserved as an earthwork and is sub-oval in plan measuring approximately 130m north east to south west by 65m north west to south east. The enclosure is surrounded by a single ditch with a counterscarp bank both of which closely follow the contours of the hill. The ditch measures approximately 12m in width with the external height of the bank measuring about 1m and there is a single entrance on the north east side where the bank increases in size. The form of the earthwork indicates it to be an Iron Age enclosure. The encircling bank is topped by a modern boundary wall, which is excluded from the scheduling; however, the ground beneath the wall is included.

SOURCES PastScape Monument No:- 14595 NMR:- NY70NE3 Cumbria HER:- 2000

Selected Sources

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details

National Grid Reference: NY 76845 07692

Map

Map
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This copy shows the entry on 16-Oct-2017 at 11:07:46.

End of official listing