Bridge at Haydon Bridge
Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument
List Entry Number: 1006490
Date first listed: 24-Dec-1963
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
District: Northumberland (Unitary Authority)
National Grid Reference: NY 84333 64289
Reasons for Designation
Multi span bridges are structures of two or more arches supported on piers. They were constructed throughout the medieval and early post-medieval period for the use of pedestrians and packhorse or vehicular traffic, crossing rivers or streams, often replacing or supplementing earlier fords. During the early medieval period timber was used, but from the 12th century stone (and later brick) bridges became more common, with the piers sometimes supported by a timber raft. Most stone or brick bridges were constructed with pointed arches, although semi-circular and segmental examples are also known. A common medieval feature is the presence of stone ashlar ribs underneath the arch. The bridge abutments and revetting of the river banks also form part of the bridge. Where medieval bridges have been altered in later centuries, original features are sometimes concealed behind later stonework, including remains of earlier timber bridges. The roadway was often originally cobbled or gravelled. The building and maintenance of bridges was frequently carried out by the church and by guilds, although landowners were also required to maintain bridges. From the mid-13th century the right to collect tolls, known as pontage, was granted to many bridges, usually for repairs; for this purpose many urban bridges had houses or chapels on them, and some were fortified with a defensive gateway. Medieval multi span bridges must have been numerous throughout England, but most have been rebuilt or replaced, examples that retain significant medieval and post- medieval fabric are considered to be of national importance.
Substantial portions of Haydon Bridge are well-preserved and along with the importance of the early-post medieval fabric of the bridge there is the potential for remains of the medieval bridge to be sealed within or beneath the later structure. The bridge provides insight into the development of the road system and the importance of spanning the River South Tyne.
This record was the subject of a minor enhancement on 26 May 2016. This record has been generated from an "old county number" (OCN) scheduling record. These are monuments that were not reviewed under the Monuments Protection Programme and are some of our oldest designation records.
The monument includes a bridge of early post-medieval date, which spans the River South Tyne at Haydon Bridge. The bridge is constructed from squared stone blocks and has six segmental arches of which the southerly four have arch rings and the northerly two are ribbed. The piers have triangular cutwaters carried up with passing places. The bridge is topped by a parapet with chamfered coping.
The bridge dates to the late 17th century but stands on the site of a medieval bridge, first mentioned in 1309. The previous bridge at Haydon Bridge was destroyed in the flood of 1771 and the current bridge was completed in 1773. In 1806 one of the arches collapsed and consequently three of the arches were rebuilt. Haydon Bridge is a listed building Grade II.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
Legacy System number: ND 392
Legacy System: RSM - OCN
PastScape Monument No:- 1043134
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing