Brandon Dean camp
Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument
List Entry Number: 1006528
Date first listed: 23-Mar-1949
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
District: Northumberland (Unitary Authority)
National Grid Reference: NU 04387 17848
Defended settlement, 707m north west of Brandon Hillhead.
Reasons for Designation
During the earlier Iron Age (seventh to fifth centuries BC) a variety of different types of defensive settlements began to be constructed and occupied in the northern uplands of England. The most obvious sites were hillforts built in prominent locations. In addition to these a range of smaller sites, sometimes with an enclosed area of less than 1ha and defined as defended settlements, were also constructed. Some of these were located on hilltops, others are found in less prominent positions. The enclosing defences were of earthen construction, some sites having a single bank and ditch (univallate), others having more than one (multivallate). At some sites these earthen ramparts represent a second phase of defence, the first having been a timber fence or palisade. Within the enclosure a number of stone or timber-built round houses were occupied by the inhabitants. Stock may also have been kept in these houses, especially during the cold winter months, or in enclosed yards outside them. The communities occupying these sites were probably single family groups, the defended settlements being used as farmsteads. Construction and use of this type of site extended over several centuries, possibly through to the early Romano-British period (mid to late first century AD). Defended settlements are a rare monument type. They were an important element of the later prehistoric settlement pattern of the northern uplands and are important for any study of the developing use of fortified settlements during this period.
The defended settlement north west of Brandon Hillhead is partially preserved with large sections of its defences preserved as upstanding earthworks. The monument will contain archaeological deposits relating to its construction, use and abandonment. It provides insight into the nature of settlement and defence during the Iron Age.
This record was the subject of a minor enhancement on 23 May 2016. This record has been generated from an "old county number" (OCN) scheduling record. These are monuments that were not reviewed under the Monuments Protection Programme and are some of our oldest designation records.
The monument includes the remains of a defended settlement of Iron Age date, situated to the south west of Brandon Hilll and bordering the steep slopes of Brandon Dean to the west. The enclosure is sub-oval in plan and measures approximately 59m by 41m. It was surrounded by multiple banks and ditches which are preserved on its west side as earthworks. On the west side there are three concentric ramparts which are partly formed by scarping the natural slope. In areas where the ground is more level there are two medial ditches between the ramparts. The ramparts have an average width of 2m5m and are broken by an entrance on the north west side. The ditches are approximately 3m wide.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
Legacy System number: ND 258
Legacy System: RSM - OCN
PastScape Monument No:- 4993
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing