Scalesceugh Roman kilns
Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument
List Entry Number: 1007181
Date first listed: 11-Jan-1972
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
District: Carlisle (District Authority)
Parish: St. Cuthbert Without
National Grid Reference: NY 44810 49529, NY 44901 49607
Roman Pottery and Tile Kilns, 145m north west and immediately NNW of Scalesceugh Lodge.
Reasons for Designation
Roman pottery production in Britain started soon after the Roman conquest c.AD 40-50 and continued into the fifth century. The peak of production was during the second century AD, after which the number of production centres began to diminish. Pottery made in Britain was supplemented by a wide range of ceramics imported into Britain from elsewhere in the Roman Empire. Early examples of Roman potteries are concentrated in the south and east, principally in the Nene Valley and Kent areas. In the second century potteries became more widespread, with rare northern examples being restricted to sites with military associations. In the third and fourth centuries the main focus for pottery production was along the navigable rivers of the central southern and south and east of the country. By the end of the fourth century production was restricted to parts of North Yorkshire, Lincolnshire and limited areas of the south east. All of the nearly 400 known potteries in England are located with ready access to markets, and all are situated close to necessary raw materials such as suitable clay, water and fuel. Potteries are often found in clusters, in both urban and rural areas. Although there was some variation throughout the country, all Roman potteries broadly included the same elements: kiln drying chambers and associated structures such as worksheds, preparation floors, stores and sometimes accommodation for the workforce. Some potteries had fewer than five kilns, others upwards of 35. The pottery site may also be situated within a larger industrial complex which accommodated other crafts with similar technological needs, such as iron smelting. Roman pottery making sites in Britain provide important information about the technology of pottery manufacture and its development and, more generally, the economic structure of the Roman province. They also offer scope for understanding trade patterns and how they related to the political and military situation. Roman pottery sites are rare nationally and all examples which are known to survive in good condition and still retain most of their components are considered to be of national importance.
The Roman Pottery and Tile Kilns 145m north west and immediately NNW of Scalesceugh Lodge are preserved as buried remains. Excavation has indicated that substantial parts of the kilns and associated structures remains intact including kiln floors and wall foundations and further deposits will be preserved relating to the construction, use and abandonment of the monument. The monument provides insight into Roman pottery and tile production and into the changes in manufacture, trade and economy that occurred during the period.
This record was the subject of a minor enhancement on 23 March 2016. This record has been generated from an "old county number" (OCN) scheduling record. These are monuments that were not reviewed under the Monuments Protection Programme and are some of our oldest designation records.
The monument includes the remains of a series of pottery and tile kilns of Roman date, situated in two areas of protection on a south facing slope and adjacent to the River Petteril. The monument has been partially excavated in 1915-16 and 1970-1 revealing large quantities of charcoal, inscribed tiles of the 9th and 20th Legions as well as the buried remains of a pottery kiln infilled in the Roman period. The kiln had a paved and cobbled floor and the foundations of a substantial enclosure wall as found nearby. A geophysical survey has revealed that the monument contains at least 42 kilns or hearths spread along the presumed route of a Roman road, which runs through the scheduled area.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
Legacy System number: CU 280
Legacy System: RSM - OCN
PastScape Monument No:- 11340
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing