Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument
List Entry Number: 1007311
Date first listed: 12-Jul-1935
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
District: County of Herefordshire (Unitary Authority)
National Grid Reference: SO 22821 48584
Iron Age defended settlement called Pen Twyn Settlement.
Reasons for Designation
During the Iron Age a variety of different types of settlement were constructed and occupied in south western England. At the top of the settlement hierarchy were hillforts built in prominent locations. In addition to these a group of smaller sites, known as defended settlements, were also constructed. Some of these were located on hilltops, others in less prominent positions. They are generally smaller than the hillforts, sometimes with an enclosed area of less than 1ha. The enclosing defences were of earthen construction. Univallate sites have a single bank and ditch, multivallate sites more than one. At some sites these earthen ramparts represent a second phase of defence, the first having been a timber fence or palisade. Where excavated, evidence of stone- or timber-built houses has been found within the enclosures, which, in contrast to the hillfort sites, would have been occupied by small communities, perhaps no more than a single family group. Defended settlements are a rare monument type. They were an important element of the settlement pattern, particularly in the upland areas of south western England, and are integral to any study of the developing use of fortified settlements during this period.
Despite some tree growth on the ramparts the Iron Age defended settlement called Pen Twyn Settlement survives well and will contain archaeological and environmental evidence relating to its construction, development, longevity, social organisation, territorial significance, agricultural practices, domestic arrangements, abandonment and overall landscape context.
This record was the subject of a minor enhancement on 26 May 2015. The record has been generated from an "old county number" (OCN) scheduling record. These are monuments that were not reviewed under the Monuments Protection Programme and are some of our oldest designation records.
This monument includes an Iron Age defended settlement situated on the summit of a prominent ridge forming the watershed between the valleys of the Millhalf Brook and a tributary to the River Wye. The settlement survives as an oval enclosure of approximately 1.4ha defined to the west by a double rampart with medial and outer ditches, to the north and east by a scarp of up to 2.4m high and to the south by defensive ramparts fossilised into the extant field boundaries.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
Legacy System number: HE 92
Legacy System: RSM - OCN
PastScape 104886, Herefordshire SMR 1013
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing