Romano-British enclosed settlement and hut-circles on Beanley Moor, 650m south-east of Broomhouse
- Heritage Category:
- Scheduled Monument
- List Entry Number:
- Date first listed:
- Date of most recent amendment:
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This copy shows the entry on 27-Nov-2021 at 18:43:40.
The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
- Northumberland (Unitary Authority)
- National Grid Reference:
- NU 10811 18540
Reasons for Designation
In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.
The Romano-British settlement south-east of Broomhouse is exceptionally well preserved; the remains are extensive and well defined and retain significant archaeological deposits. The importance of the monument is enhanced by the survival of similar and other forms of later prehistoric settlement in the vicinity; it will contribute to any study of the wider settlement pattern at this time.
The monument includes the remains of an enclosed stone built settlement of
Romano-British date, situated on a gradually sloping site on the north-east
side of Beanley Moor. The settlement, situated immediately south of the parish
boundary, is roughly rectangular in shape and measures 52m by 32m with walls
of earth and stone 3m wide and standing to a height of over 1m. Internal stone
walls divide the enclosure into three compartments and within the largest
there are the circular foundations of two stone houses or hut-circles 7m in
diameter. Immediately south-east of this enclosure there are the remains of a
small, roughly pear shaped enclosure with a hut-circle, 7m in diameter,
outside to the north-west. Immediately to the south, on the side of a small
burn there are three hut-circles with an average diameter of 5m within walls
1.5m wide and 0.6m high. Two have an entrance on the east and one on the
MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
- Legacy System number:
- Legacy System:
Books and journals
Jobey, G, 'Archaeologia Aeliana, 4 ser 42' in Enclosed Stone Built Settlements in Northumberland, (1964), 64
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing