Romano-British enclosed stone hut circle settlement and associated field system on Wickerslack Moor


Heritage Category:
Scheduled Monument
List Entry Number:
Date first listed:
Date of most recent amendment:


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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

Eden (District Authority)
Crosby Ravensworth
National Grid Reference:
NY 59921 15541

Reasons for Designation

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non- defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common. Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known. These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common, although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography. All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be identified as nationally important.

The monument is a good example of a Romano-British settlement with an associated field system. Its earthworks survive well and preserve much detail of the layout of the settlement. It is one of a group of similar settlements at the head of the Lyvennet valley and will contribute to the study of Romano-British settlement patterns.


The monument is a Romano-British enclosed stone hut circle settlement and associated field system located on a plateau of Wickerslack Moor adjacent to where the ground begins to fall away into the Lyvennet valley. It is one of a number of similar sites located around the head of the Lyvennet valley and includes the turf-covered stone walls up to 1m high of at least eight hut circles varying in internal diameter between c.3.6m - 6.4m. There are three associated fields, two sub-circular and one rectilinear, to the east of the huts, with traces of a stock pen in the southerly field. There is a second stock pen located between this southerly field and two huts to the west. The western part of the site, including the area occupied by the huts, is enclosed by a rectilinear boundary wall that joins the southern field boundary wall and, although not well defined on the north-east, appears to have joined up with the northern field boundary wall. Limited antiquarian investigation of some of the hut circles located paved floors and hearthstones. The site would have been in use during the Roman conquest of the north. It lies within an area which was occupied by the Carvetii tribe. A field boundary on the monument's south side is excluded from the scheduling although the ground beneath it is included

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number:
Legacy System:


Books and journals
Collingwood, R G, 'Trans Cumb & West Antiq & Arch Soc. New Ser.' in Prehistoric Settlements in Crosby Ravensworth, , Vol. XXXIII, (1933), 216-7
Simpson, , 'Antiq Jour' in Antiq Journal, , Vol. XVIII, (), 37
RCHME, Westmorland, (1936)
SMR No. 1551, Cumbria SMR, British Settlement on Wickerslack Moor, Crosby Ravensworth, (1985)


This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.

End of official listing

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