Buck Park deerpound
Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument
List Entry Number: 1007592
Date first listed: 06-Nov-1962
Date of most recent amendment: 22-Feb-1993
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
District: Eden (District Authority)
Parish: Shap Rural
National Park: LAKE DISTRICT
National Grid Reference: NY 53645 10587
Reasons for Designation
Deer parks were areas of land, usually enclosed, set aside and equipped for
the management and hunting of deer and other animals. They were generally
located in open countryside on marginal land or adjacent to a manor house,
castle or palace. They varied in size between 3ha and 1600ha and usually
comprised a combination of woodland and grassland which provided a mixture of
cover and grazing for deer. Parks could contain a number of features,
including hunting lodges (often moated), a park-keeper's house, rabbit
warrens, fishponds and enclosures for game, and were usually surrounded by a
park pale, a massive fenced or hedged bank often with an internal ditch. Some
parks were superimposed on existing fieldscapes and their laying-out may have
involved the demolition of occupied farms and villages. Occasionally a park
may contain the well preserved remains of this earlier landscape. Although a
small number of parks may have been established in the Anglo-Saxon period, it
was the Norman aristocracy's taste for hunting that led to the majority being
constructed. The peak period for the laying-out of parks, between AD 1200 and
1350, coincided with a time of considerable prosperity amongst the nobility.
From the 15th century onwards few parks were constructed and by the end of the
17th century the deer park in its original form had largely disappeared. The
original number of deer parks nationally is unknown but probably exceeded
3000. Many of these survive today, although often altered to a greater or
lesser degree. They were established in virtually every county in England, but
are most numerous in the West Midlands and Home Counties. Deer parks were a
long-lived and widespread monument type. Today they serve to illustrate an
important aspect of the activities of medieval nobility and still exert a
powerful influence on the pattern of the modern countryside. Those deer parks
which survive well, are well-documented, and contain within their boundaries
significant well-preserved evidence of earlier landscapes, are normally
identified as nationally important.
Despite some later stone robbing which has reduced the height of the enclosure walls, Buck Park deerpound survives well and retains a virtually complete circuit of walls. It is a rare example in Cumbria of a surviving stone-walled deerpound and retains considerable stretches of original medieval fabric and architectural features in the walls. Additionally, evidence of deer park management activities will be preserved within the compound.
The monument is Buck Park deerpound. It is located immediately east of the
junction of Tonguerigg Gill and Sleddale Beck and includes a stone-walled
enclosure of about 1.3ha divided into two unequal halves by a cross-wall. The
walls stand to a maximum height of about 3.6m and in places are topped with
coping stones. The average width is 0.75m, although the cross-wall swells out
at its northern end to about 1.2m. The external entrance was located at the
north-eastern corner of the eastern half but is now blocked. A gateway through
the cross-wall is located next to the north wall and measures 4m wide. The
jambs of the gate are well built and iron brackets for gates still survive
2.5m above ground level, although these are likely to be post-medieval in
date. In the north wall, immediately east of the gate, is a culvert spanned by
a dry stone arch. A small sheepfold has been constructed adjacent to the south
wall of the western enclosure utilising stones from the deerpound enclosure
The deerpound was associated with Shap Abbey and the abbot was given licence
to impark from 1366 onwards.
MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
Legacy System number: 22494
Legacy System: RSM
Books and journals
Cantor, L, 'Arch Gazetteer' in Medieval Parks of England: A Gazetteer, (1983), 80
Thompson, B L, 'Trans Cumb and West Antiq and Arch Soc. New Ser.' in A Deer Park in Wet Sleddale, , Vol. XXXIV, (1934), 43-4
SMR No. 2902, Cumbria SMR, Deerpound Near Tonguerigg Gill, (1985)
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing