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Site of Swine Cistercian nunnery

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Site of Swine Cistercian nunnery

List entry Number: 1007750

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: East Riding of Yorkshire

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Swine

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 29-Jul-1964

Date of most recent amendment: 25-May-1994

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 23804

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

A nunnery was a settlement built to sustain a community of religious women. Its main buildings were constructed to provide facilities for worship, accommodation and subsistence. The main elements are the church and domestic buildings arranged around a cloister. This central enclosure may be accompanied by an outer court and gatehouse, the whole bounded by a precinct wall, earthworks or moat. Outside the enclosure, fishponds, mills, field systems, stock enclosures and barns may occur. The earliest English nunneries were founded in the seventh century AD but most of these had fallen out of use by the ninth century. A small number of these were later refounded. The tenth century witnessed the foundation of some new houses but the majority of medieval nunneries were established from the late 11th century onwards. Nunneries were established by most of the major religious orders of the time, including the Benedictines, Cistercians, Augustinians, Franciscans and Dominicans. It is known from documentary sources that at least 153 nunneries existed in England, of which the precise locations of only around 100 sites are known. Few sites have been examined in detail and as a rare and poorly understood medieval monument type all examples exhibiting survival of archaeological remains are worthy of protection.

Despite limited damage caused by the construction and use of the modern farm and from drainage works the monument survives well as a series of earthwork and below ground remains. It will retain evidence of the buildings which formerly occupied the precinct, and the fishponds and other water-management features will retain archaeological and environmental remains in the silts which have accumulated in them.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The remains of Swine nunnery are situated on the plain of Holderness at the west end of the village of Swine. The monument includes a single area containing part of the medieval nunnery precinct. Little of the nunnery remains upstanding although the present parish church includes elements of the main church building. There are extensive earthwork remains across much of the monument which indicate the layout and land-use within the precinct and in particular how water was managed within it. The area also includes Giant Hill, a large earthen mound. The core of the nunnery, in which the church and attached buildings were situated, lie at the eastern side of the site. The present parish church includes elements of the nunnery church; both church and churchyard remain in ecclesiastical usage and are not included within the scheduling. The nunnery church, known to have been 76 feet (25m) long, is thought to have extended beyond the western end of the present church into the area of the modern farmyard. The church follows the usual layout of a Cistercian nunnery and is aligned east-west. Antiquarian sources confirm that it formed the north range of a four-sided complex of buildings known as the cloister. Much of this complex is thought to have been disturbed by the construction of later farm buildings and is not included within the scheduling, although the western range of the cloister is considered to lie beneath the present farmyard and is included. These claustral buildings would have lain at the heart of the nunnery precinct which was defined, at least in part, by a large moat-like ditch between 5m and 10m wide and up to 2m deep. This survives as a waterlogged feature along the northern, western and, in part, the southern boundaries of the monument. The greater part of the monument comprises the outer court of the nunnery; that area given over to agricultural and industrial processes, which would have provided economic support for the nunnery, rather than the spiritual functions and activities more commonly associated with key religious buildings. The area to the west of the modern farmhouse and outbuildings is crossed by three drainage ditches which sub-divide this part of the precinct. One of these drains, which is 1.5m wide and 0.5m deep, runs from east to west. This feature carried water from the area of the church to the western boundary ditch and is culverted where it runs beneath the modern farm and churchyards. Another drain runs to the southern boundary from this east-west drain. It is 5m wide and 1m deep. A second east-west drain of similar dimensions drains into this north-south drain from the east. These ditches served both to define various enclosures and to supply and drain water to and from various parts of the precinct. The area to the north of the first east-west drain was largely given over to agriculture, indicated by ridge and furrow earthworks and associated drainage works, but also includes a complex of six fishponds and Giant Hill. The fishponds are orientated east-west, allowing gravity to carry water through the ponds from the higher ground to the east. The easternmost pond is 22m long, east-west, 9m wide and 1.5m deep. Immediately to the south lies a second pond 8m long, east-west, 7m wide and 0.5m deep. Slightly further west is a T-shaped group of 3 interlinked ponds. The main arm of the T formation, which is orientated north-south, is formed by 2 ponds, each being 20m long. The northern pond is 12m wide and was subdivided by earthwork banks 3m wide and 1m high which lie 10m from its north end. The southern pond is 6m wide and 0.5m deep. The east-west arm of the T is formed by a pond 40m long, east-west, 15m wide and 1.75m deep. All three ponds are inter-connected by short, silted channels. The sixth pond in the wider group is 30m long from north to south, 20m wide and is up to 1.75m deep though it has been partially infilled at its northern end. These ponds were used for the breeding of fish which formed an important part of the medieval diet of the inhabitants of the nunnery. Giant Hill is 3.5m high, 60m long, east-west, and 32m wide. Although tradition suggests it is a prehistoric burial mound, excavations in 1919 and 1960 proved that it was constructed between 1350 and 1450. Its exact function remains uncertain though it may be a lookout for a deer park which is known to have lain to the south of the nunnery. The area south of the main east-west drain is divided into three by the drains described above. It includes the earthwork remains of ponds, platforms and a moated enclosure. This enclosure is situated immediately to the south of the main east-west drain and immediately to the east of the north-south drain. The platform defined by the moat is 16m square, while the surrounding moat is up to 12m wide and 1m deep. The rest of this area was used for agriculture, indicated by ridge and furrow earthworks. This area also includes one further fishpond which is 30m long, north-south, 6m wide and 1m deep. The nunnery at Swine was founded c.1150 by Robert de Verli and was dedicated to the Virgin Mary. At its foundation it had 14 nuns and a prioress. Later male Premonstratensian canons were introduced to the site, although they were removed sometime before 1287 following complaints of lax behaviour. Much of the site had to be rebuilt in 1308 following a fire at the nunnery. The nunnery was dissolved in 1539, the 19 nuns were dispersed and the land passed to the Constable family. Little excavation has been carried out at the site. Tom Sheppard of Hull Museum carried out trial works in 1919, concentrating largely on Giant Hill. In 1960 W Varley of Hull University also investigated the hill. Fishponds to the south of the farm are not included in the monument as it is not yet known whether they were actually part of the nunnery complex. The farm house and the surface of the farmyard are excluded from the scheduling although the ground beneath them is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Allison, KJ, The East Riding of Yorkshire Landscape, (1976), 93
Bulmer, T, History and Directory of East Yorkshire, (1892), 518
Dugdale, W, Monasticon, (1817), 494
Knowles, D , Medieval Religious Houses: England and Wales, (1971), 272
Loughlin, N, Miller, K, Survey of Archaeological Sites in Humberside, (1979), 60
Loughlin, N, Miller, K, Survey of Archaeological Sites in Humberside, (1979), 60
Midmer, R, English Medieval Monasteries, (1978), 0
Pevsner, N, The Buildings of England: Yorkshire - York and the East Riding, (1972), 352
Thompson, T, History of the Church and Priory of Swine, (1824), 12
Varley, W, 'Yorks. Arch. Journal' in Giant's Hill, Swine, , Vol. 45, (1973), 142-148
Other
Sheppard, T, Giant's Hill, Swine, 1920,

National Grid Reference: TA 13199 35829

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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This copy shows the entry on 20-Oct-2017 at 04:33:28.

End of official listing