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Medieval wayside cross at Wenmouth Cross, 320m north of Wenmouth

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Medieval wayside cross at Wenmouth Cross, 320m north of Wenmouth

List entry Number: 1007754

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Cornwall

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: St. Neot

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 26-Jun-1952

Date of most recent amendment: 22-Oct-1993

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 24254

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Bodmin Moor, the largest of the Cornish granite uplands, has long been recognised to have exceptional preservation of archaeological remains. The Moor has been the subject of detailed archaeological survey and is one of the best recorded upland landscapes in England. The extensive relict landscapes of prehistoric, medieval and post-medieval date provide direct evidence for human exploitation of the Moor from the earliest prehistoric period onwards. The well-preserved and often visible relationship between settlement sites, field systems, ceremonial and funerary monuments as well as later industrial remains provides significant insights into successive changes in the pattern of land use through time. Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross erected during the medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD. In addition to serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the Christian faith amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the traveller, wayside crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in difficult and otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly used routes linking ordinary settlements or on routes which might have a more specifically religious function, including providing access to religious sites for parishioners and funeral processions. Wayside crosses vary considerably in form and decoration but several regional types have been identified. The Cornish wayside crosses form one such group. The commonest type includes a round, or `wheel', head on the faces of which various forms of cross were carved. The design was sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ. Less common forms include the `Latin' cross, where the cross-head itself is shaped as the arms of an unenclosed cross and, much rarer, the simple slab with a low-relief cross on both faces. Over 400 crosses of all types are recorded in Cornwall. Of the 35 surviving on Bodmin Moor, 21 are recorded as wayside crosses. Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval routeways, settlement patterns and the development of sculptural traditions. All wayside crosses which survive as earth-fast monuments, except those which are extremely damaged and removed from their original locations, are considered worthy of protection.

The Wenmouth Cross has survived reasonably well. Despite some modifications from its former use as a gatepost, it remains a good example of a latin cross complete with head, shaft and base. Although it has been moved a short distance, its original location beside an ancient routeway is known; its present situation remains on that same route which demonstrates well the various roles of wayside crosses in marking both major cross-country routes and the ways within the parish to the church.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a medieval wayside cross situated at Wenmouth Cross, a crossroads on an early routeway near St Neot on southern Bodmin Moor. The wayside cross survives with an upright granite head and shaft set in a granite cross-base. The cross has a head with unenclosed arms, a form called a 'latin' cross, with its principal faces facing south and north. The cross rises 1.12m high above its base. The shaft is sub-rectangular in section, tapering slightly from 0.36m wide at its base to 0.32m just below the arms, and is up to 0.25m thick. All edges have a chamfer 0.05m wide. Only the eastern side-arm survives of the original three at the head, the western and upper arms having been truncated at their bases. The surviving arm is 0.2m long, with chamfered upper and lower edges. Along the west face of the cross are three lead-filled holes, at points 0.2m, 1.12m and 1.15m below the top of the shaft, marking the former sites of gatepost fittings from a period when the cross was re-used as a gatepost in Lampen Lane in St Neot village. A shallow recess on top of the cross, where the upper arm was truncated, may also have been caused by its use as a gatepost. A single-line latin cross is incised on both principal faces of the monument extending the length of the shaft, with the cross-groove along the centre of the arms. The cross-shaft is set in a base which, although presently obscured beneath the turf, is recorded as the same cross-base in which the shaft was secured when this cross was formerly sited at its original location 160m west along the same ancient routeway beside Tremorkin Farm. Maps dated until the 1880's record the cross at that location; by 1896, the base remained in place but the cross-shaft had been removed to serve as a gatepost at Lampen Lane, St Neot village. In 1932, the shaft and cross-base were re-united and moved to their present location at Wenmouth Cross. The monument's present and former locations are on an ancient east-west route skirting the southern edge of Bodmin Moor; this is also one of several main routes to the parish church which are marked by medieval wayside crosses in St Neot parish. An area 2m wide beyond the cross is included in the scheduling to ensure its protection. Within this area both modern signposts to the east of the cross and the surface of the metalled road passing south of the cross are excluded from the scheduling although the ground beneath these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Langdon, A G, Old Cornish Crosses, (1896)
Other
AM7 scheduling documentation for CO 295, consulted 1993
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 17142/17142.01/17142.02,
Title: 1:2500 Ordnance Survey Map: SX 06/16, Pathfinder Series No. 1347, Bodmin Source Date: 1989 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:

National Grid Reference: SX 19661 67875

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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This copy shows the entry on 20-Nov-2017 at 05:53:14.

End of official listing