Prehistoric enclosure and associated field system south east of Ivy Cottage


Heritage Category:
Scheduled Monument
List Entry Number:
Date first listed:
Date of most recent amendment:


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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

Eden (District Authority)
National Grid Reference:
NY 45857 47892

Reasons for Designation

Prehistoric enclosures are plots of land usually enclosed by stone walls or banks of stone and earth in upland areas, and banks of earth with an external ditch in lowland areas. Many date to the Bronze Age (c.2000 - 500 BC) although earlier and later examples also exist. They were constructed as stock pens or as protected areas for crop growing and were sometimes subdivided to accommodate animal shelters and hut circle settlements. The size and form of prehistoric enclosures may therefore vary very considerably, depending on their particular function. Their variation in form, longevity, and their relationship to other monument classes provides important information on the diversity of social organisation and farming practices among prehistoric communities. Field systems provide important evidence of a carefully planned reorganisation of landscape and definition of landholdings. Their articulation with other contemporary archaeological features, such as land boundaries and enclosures, provide an insight into agricultural practices and activity during the Bronze Age. The prehistoric enclosure and associated field system south east of Ivy Cottage remains clearly visible on aerial photographs, despite the fact that no upstanding earthworks survive. The monument lies within the Eden valley and its tributary valleys, an area whose rich agricultural soils supported a considerable prehistoric and Romano-British population from Neolithic times onwards, and it will contribute to any further study of the early settlement patterns of the area.


The monument includes a prehistoric enclosure and associated field system located south east of Ivy Cottage on the lower northern slopes of Barrock Fell. The site is visible as crop marks on aerial photographs which clearly show features such as infilled ditches and hut circles. The aerial photographs show a curvilinear ditched enclosure measuring approximately 60m across its widest parts and containing two hut circles adjacent to its northern side, two oval hut circles or small enclosures at the eastern side, and traces of a hut circle adjacent to the western side. There is an entrance at the enclosure's north western corner. To the north of the enclosure aerial photographs have identified the infilled ditches of a field system. This includes two sub-rectangular fields or enclosures at the northern end of the complex which are joined to the main enclosure by fragmented traces of parallel ditches. Other fragmented infilled ditches belonging to this field system lie to the north west of the main enclosure.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 5 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number:
Legacy System:


AP No. BE/83, Cambridge University Collection,
SMR No. 706, Cumbria SMR, Settlement E of Ivy Cottage, (1987)


This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.

End of official listing

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