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The Middle Moor Cross, 230m north-east of Camperdown Farm

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: The Middle Moor Cross, 230m north-east of Camperdown Farm

List entry Number: 1007957

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Cornwall

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: St. Breward

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 18-Oct-1973

Date of most recent amendment: 18-Jan-1994

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 24266

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross erected during the medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD. In addition to serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the Christian faith amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the traveller, wayside crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in difficult and otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly used routes linking ordinary settlements or on routes having a more specifically religious function, including those providing access to religious sites for parishioners and funeral processions, or marking long-distance routes frequented on pilgrimages. Over 350 wayside crosses are known nationally, concentrated in south west England throughout Cornwall and on Dartmoor where they form the commonest type of stone cross. A small group also occurs on the North York Moors. Relatively few examples have been recorded elsewhere and these are generally confined to remote moorland locations. Outside Cornwall almost all wayside crosses take the form of a `Latin' cross, in which the cross-head itself is shaped within the projecting arms of an unenclosed cross. In Cornwall wayside crosses vary considerably in form and decoration. The commonest type includes a round, or `wheel', head on the faces of which various forms of cross or related designs were carved in relief or incised, the spaces between the cross arms possibly pierced. The design was sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ and the shaft might bear decorative panels and motifs. Less common forms in Cornwall include the `Latin' cross and, much rarer, the simple slab with a low relief cross on both faces. Rare examples of wheel-head and slab-form crosses also occur within the North York Moors group. Most wayside crosses have either a simple socketed base or show no evidence for a separate base at all. Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval religious customs and sculptural traditions and to our knowledge of medieval routeways and settlement patterns. All wayside crosses which survive as earth- fast monuments, except those which are extremely damaged and removed from their original locations, are considered worthy of protection.

The Middle Moor Cross has survived well, despite minor modification to the base of its shaft. Earlier records confirm it in its present location. Its simple incised cross and the crude manner of its execution are unusual features. Such a detailed survival of the medieval context for this cross is rare and demonstrates well both the development of the landscape within which this cross has remained a fixed point, and the longevity of the routes which such crosses may serve. The location of this cross beside a route leading to a broadly contemporary chapel and holy well and at a critical position as a waymarker shows well some of the major functions of wayside crosses. The mention of the cross in local folk tradition provides a good example of the personified manner with which local communites often viewed the wayside crosses in their area.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a medieval wayside cross situated beside a modern track and within a medieval trackway onto north-western Bodmin Moor in north Cornwall. The Middle Moor Cross, also known as the Mid Moor Post, survives as an upright granite cross, set in a large granite base-slab, standing 2m in overall height. The cross has a crudely-fashioned round or 'wheel' head, 0.5m high, 0.47m wide and 0.12m thick, with a straight, sloping, facet along its upper edge. The head emerges from the northern edge of the shaft at a slightly higher level than it does from the southern edge. On each principal face, the head bears a simple incised cross, 0.5m high and 0.47m across the arms. The style of the incised cross is thought to indicate an early date. The undecorated, rectangular-section shaft rises 1.1m from the base to the lower edge of the head. The shaft measures 0.35m wide and 0.24m thick, bulging slightly along the centre of its southern edge to 0.43m wide. The shaft is cemented into the centre of a large, roughly-shaped, ovoid granite base-slab, measuring 1.15m north-south by 1.55m east-west and up to 0.15m high. The base-slab is itself supported on a partly turf-covered rubble plinth up to 0.32m high and measuring 1.35m north-south by 1.85m east-west. The Middle Moor Cross is situated in its original location, beside a private road onto the open moor, on a verge bordered to its SSE by the hedgebank of Camperdown Farm. However, disused medieval embanked and ditched boundaries survive on that farm and the neighbouring moor, revealing that in the medieval enclosure layout, the position of this cross lies near the middle of a broad routeway, 200m wide at this point, between two large medieval pasture enclosures. The enclosures, and hence the routeway, end on the medieval limit of the common moorland grazing 140m to the north-east of the cross, from where the cross could be seen as a guidepost to travellers from the open moor. The route marked by this cross is also noted in the 19th century as an early route to the distinctive hill of Roughtor, where there was a small medieval chapel and a holy well. A local tradition, recorded in the later 19th century, recounts that when the Middle Moor Cross heard the bells of St Breward it would turn round, and it did this so often that it fell down. This concurs with the record that the cross shaft and head had fallen from the base in the 19th century, but they were re-erected in 1888 by a local vicar. In 1938 the cross had been knocked down again, its re-erection requiring a new tenon to be cut on the base of the shaft, reducing the height of the cross by 0.30m.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Langdon, A G, Old Cornish Crosses, (1896)
Langdon, A G, Stone Crosses of North Cornwall, (1992)
Other
consulted 1993, Carter, A./Quinnell, N.V./RCHME/CAU, 1:2500 AP plot for SX 1279,
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1973,
Title: 1:25000 Ordnance Survey Map; SX 07/17; Pathfinder Series 1338 Source Date: 1988 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:

National Grid Reference: SX 12505 79297

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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End of official listing