Slight univallate hillfort on Allen Knott
Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument
List Entry Number: 1008262
Date first listed: 16-Aug-1965
Date of most recent amendment: 02-Nov-1994
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
District: South Lakeland (District Authority)
National Park: LAKE DISTRICT
National Grid Reference: NY 41445 01054
Reasons for Designation
Slight univallate hillforts are defined as enclosures of various shapes,
generally between 1ha and 10ha in size, situated on or close to hilltops and
defined by a single line of earthworks, the scale of which is relatively
small. They date to between the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age (eighth -
fifth centuries BC), the majority being used for 150 to 200 years prior to
their abandonment or reconstruction. Slight univallate hillforts have
generally been interpreted as stock enclosures, redistribution centres, places
of refuge and permanent settlements. The earthworks generally include a
rampart, narrow level berm, external ditch and counterscarp bank, while access
to the interior is usually provided by two entrances comprising either simple
gaps in the earthwork or an inturned rampart. Postholes revealed by excavation
indicate the occasional presence of portal gateways while more elaborate
features like overlapping ramparts and outworks are limited to only a few
examples. Internal features included timber or stone round houses; large
storage pits and hearths; scattered postholes, stakeholes and gullies; and
square or rectangular buildings supported by four to six posts, often
represented by postholes, and interpreted as raised granaries. Slight
univallate hillforts are rare with around 150 examples recorded nationally.
Although on a national scale the number is low, in Devon they comprise one of
the major classes of hillfort. In other areas where the distribution is
relatively dense, for example, Wessex, Sussex, the Cotswolds and the
Chilterns, hillforts belonging to a number of different classes occur within
the same region. Examples are also recorded in eastern England, the Welsh
Marches, central and southern England. In view of the rarity of slight
univallate hillforts and their importance in understanding the transition
between Bronze Age and Iron Age communities, all examples which survive
comparatively well and have potential for the recovery of further
archaeological remains are believed to be of national importance.
Despite destruction of much of the southern and eastern extents of the site, the remainder of the slight univallate hillfort on Allen Knott survives reasonably well. Limited excavation in 1964 confirmed the survival of part of the stone revetted bank, and the monument will retain further evidence of both the building methods employed in the construction of the bank and the arrangement of the settlement within the hillfort's interior.
The monument is a slight univallate hillfort located on the summit of Allen
Knott. It includes the northern part of a sub-rectangular enclosure with
rounded corners. The southern and eastern extents of the site have been
largely obliterated by a combination of agriculture and quarrying. The
surviving portion of the enclosure measures a maximum of 135m by 76m
internally and is defended on its north and west sides by a stone revetted
bank measuring up to 2.7m wide and 0.2m high. Limited excavation of this bank
in 1964 found it to be constructed with an earth and rubble core retained on
one side by a dry-built stone wall still surviving up to four courses high.
A modern drystone wall field boundary and an iron fence around the quarry are
excluded from the scheduling, the ground beneath the wall and fence, however,
MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
Legacy System number: 23683
Legacy System: RSM
Books and journals
Collingwood, R G, 'Trans Cumb And West Antiq And Arch Soc. New Ser.' in The Earthwork on Allen Knott, , Vol. XIII, (1913), 142-6
Lowndes, R A C, 'Trans Cumb and West Antiq and Arch Soc. New Ser.' in Allen Knott Earthwork, , Vol. LVIV, (1964), 94-7
FMW Report, Crow, J., AM107, (1985)
Raymond,F., MPP Single Mon Class Description - Slight Univallate Hillforts, (1988)
SMR No. 1904, Cumbria SMR, Settlement on Allen Knott, (1987)
To Robinson,K.D. (MPPFW), Clarris, P, (1993)
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing