Outer Golden Pot medieval wayside cross

Overview

Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1008282

Date first listed: 12-Apr-1994

Map

Ordnance survey map of Outer Golden Pot medieval wayside cross
© Crown Copyright and database right 2018. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
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Location

The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

District: Northumberland (Unitary Authority)

Parish: Alwinton

District: Northumberland (Unitary Authority)

Parish: Rochester

National Park: NORTHUMBERLAND

National Grid Reference: NT 80442 07234

Summary

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross erected during the medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD. In addition to serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the Christian faith amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the traveller, wayside crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in difficult and otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly used routes linking ordinary settlements or on routes having a more specifically religious function, including those providing access to religious sites for parishioners and funeral processions, or marking long-distance routes frequented on pilgrimages. Over 350 wayside crosses are known nationally, concentrated in south-west England throughout Cornwall and on Dartmoor where they form the commonest type of stone cross. A small group also occurs on the North York Moors. Relatively few examples have been recorded elsewhere and these are generally confined to remote moorland locations. Outside Cornwall almost all wayside crosses take the form of a 'latin' cross, in which the cross-head itself is shaped with the projecting arms of an unenclosed cross. In Cornwall wayside crosses vary considerably in form and decoration. The commonest type includes a round, or 'wheel', head on the faces of which various forms of cross or related designs were carved in relief or incised, the spaces between the cross arms possibly pierced. The design was sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ and the shaft might bear decorative panels and motifs. Less common forms in Cornwall include the 'Latin' cross and, much rarer, the simple slab with a low relief cross on both faces. Rare examples of wheel-head and slab-form crosses also occur within the North York Moors group. Most wayside crosses have either a simple socketed base or show no evidence for a separate base at all. Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval religious customs and sculptural traditions and to our knowledge of medieval routeways and settlement patterns. All wayside crosses which survive as earth- fast monuments, except those which are extremely damaged and removed from their original locations, are considered worthy of protection.

The base of the Outer Golden Pot medieval cross survives well and remains in its original position alongside a medieval routeway. The importance of the monument is enhanced by the survival of at least two further crosses thought to lie along the same medieval route.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The base of a medieval cross, one of three in this area, is situated in an elevated position on the western edge of Dere Street, the Roman road between Corbridge and Newstead in Scotland. Once thought to be the remains of Roman milestones associated with Dere Street, they are wayside crosses of 14th century date associated with the continued use of Dere Street in the medieval period. The socket stone is all that now survives; it is rectangular in shape and measures 0.8m by 0.9m; it is embedded in the ground but projects 0.2m above ground level. There is a socket hole off centre which measures 40cm by 30cm and is 10cm deep. The Outer Golden Pot is represented on Armstrong's map of 1769 by a symbol thought to represent a cross socket and a stump of shaft. The monument is also Listed Grade II. The surrounding fenced enclosure and the metal star situated beside the cross are excluded from the scheduling but the ground beneath them is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Legacy

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 25024

Legacy System: RSM

Sources

Books and journals
Roy, W, Military Antiquities of the Romans in North Britain, (1793), 109
Honeyman, H L, 'Archaeologia Aeliana 4 ser 4' in The Golden Pots, (1927), 90-103
Other
NT 80 NW 06,
Title: Map of Northumberland Source Date: 1769 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:

End of official listing