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Three Roman burial mounds, a Bronze Age bowl barrow, a pagan Saxon inhumation cemetery and a short length of Roman road on Overton Hill.

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Three Roman burial mounds, a Bronze Age bowl barrow, a pagan Saxon inhumation cemetery and a short length of Roman road on Overton Hill.

List entry Number: 1008461

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Wiltshire

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: West Overton

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 10-Mar-1925

Date of most recent amendment: 14-Jun-1994

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 21720

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

A small number of areas in southern England appear to have acted as foci for ceremonial and ritual activity during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age periods. Two of the best known and earliest recognised, with references in the 17th century, are around Avebury and Stonehenge, now jointly designated as a World Heritage Site. In the Avebury area, the henge monument itself, the West Kennet Avenue, the Sanctuary, West Kennet long barrow, Windmill Hill causewayed enclosure and the enigmatic Silbury Hill are well-known. Whilst the other Neolithic long barrows, the many Bronze Age round barrows and other associated sites are less well-known, together they define one of the richest and most varied areas of Neolithic and Bronze Age ceremonial and ritual monuments in the country.

The monument contains a rare combination of burial remains dating from the Neolithic up to the Saxon period. The Bronze Age bowl barrow is a rare form in the Avebury area and is part of the nationally important Overton Hill round barrow cemetery. The Roman barrows represent a unique group and their relationship to the well preserved section of the Roman road is of importance in understanding the Roman landscape of the Avebury region. The site later became a focus for an early Anglo-Saxon cemetery contemporary with the Saxon settlement in Avebury village. The various elements present on the site represent important examples of their class, with the Roman road being exceptional in the extent to which it remains visible as an earthwork. All will contain archaeological remains and environmental evidence relating to the development of the monument and the changing use of the Avebury landscape in which they were built.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes three Roman burial mounds, a Bronze Age bowl barrow forming part of the Overton Hill round barrow cemetery, a short length of Roman road and an Anglo-Saxon inhumation cemetery. The monument is located south-east of Avebury on Overton Hill, at the point where the Roman road running east-west intersects the older prehistoric Ridgeway track, running north-south. Until the partial excavation of all four barrows in 1962, it was thought that only the road dated to the Roman period and that all the round barrows were Bronze Age. It is now known that the clustering of three Roman barrows adjacent to the Roman road is a unique occurrence within the British Isles. The earliest evidence for burial on the site is a Bronze Age bowl barrow 20m across and 0.5m high. When examined, this barrow was found to be unusual because there was no trace of a ditch and the construction of the barrow was similar to `Beaker' period barrows in Wales. The barrow was constructed on an artificial stone ring-cairn and this preserved evidence of the earlier Neolithic landscape on which the barrow was built. The barrow contained a skeleton in a central grave, accompanied by a Long Necked Beaker, surrounded by a bank of flint and sarsen which covered two child burials. Subsequent burials in the central area, including both inhumations and cremations, two in urns, were dated to the first phase of the `Wessex' culture. In addition, four undisturbed Saxon secondary burials with iron spears, knives and shield bosses were found. The section of Roman road is part of the important Roman route from Londinium (London) to Aquae Sulis (Bath). This well preserved section is 210m long and 15m wide, standing as a clearly visible earthwork up to 0.5m high. Running parallel to the road carriageway, on either side, are 5m wide ditches which have become infilled over time as a result of cultivation. The ditch to the south of the carriageway is, however, just visible as an earthwork. These ditches provided a means of drainage to keep the road surface clear, and to facilitate this the road surface was cambered, in the same way as modern roads. The three contemporary Roman burial mounds can be described as follows: (SU11926833) Roman burial mound 6.7m across and 0.3m high. Surrounding the barrow mound is a ditch from which material was quarried during the construction of the monument. This has become infilled over time but survives as a buried feature c.1m wide. When examined, the barrow was found to contain a central cremation pit and disturbed pieces of cremated human bone, as well as fragments of bronze. Fragments of unburnt human bone dated to the Anglo- Saxon period were also found in the disturbed areas of this mound. (SU11926835) Roman burial mound 6.7m across and 0.2m high. Surrounding the barrow mound is a ditch c.1m wide. When examined, the barrow contained a central cremation pit and bronze fragments of Roman date. The ditch of this mound contained post-holes, suggesting that the mound was surrounded by a fence or similar structure. Anglo-Saxon pottery fragments and unburnt bone suggest that the mounds were used for secondary interments. (SU11936837) Roman burial mound 11m across and 0.3m high. Surrounding the mound is a ditch c.1m wide. When examined, this mound contained a central Roman cremation pit and the ditch contained post-holes. In addition to fragments of secondary Anglo-Saxon interments, the ditch was cut by a shallow grave containing an extended skeleton of a child, head to the south-west and accompanied by Anglo-Saxon pottery sherds. A Saxon inhumation cemetery including adult warriors and children, numbering at least ten individuals, was later placed on the site. The full extent of this is not currently known.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Smith, I F, Simpson, D D A, 'Wiltshire Arch. and Natural History Society Magazine' in Wiltshire Arch. and Natural History Society Magazine, , Vol. 59, (1964), 68-85
Smith, I F, Simpson, D D A, 'Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society' in Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society: Volume NS 32, , Vol. NS 32, (1966), 122-155
Other
SU 16 NW 55 a, b, c, RCHM(E), Three Roman Tombs on Overton Hill, (1973)
SU 16 NW 55 d, RCHM(E), A bowl barrow (SU 16 NW 55 d), (1973)
SU 16 NW 55, RCHM(E), Pagan Saxon inhumations, (1973)
SU 16 NW 93, RCHM(E), Anglo-Saxon skeletons in agger of Roman road., (1973)
SU 16 NW 93, RCHM(E), Inhumations found during bull-dozing of Ridgeway, (1973)
SU 16 NW 93, RCHM(E), Skeletons discovered during bull-dozing of Ridgeway, (1973)
SU 16 NW 93, RCHM(E), Three Roman Tombs on Overton Hill (SU 16 NW 93), (1973)
SU16NW300, CAO, Roman Road from Cunetio to Aquae Sulis, (1989)
SU16NW706, CAO, RB barrow excavated by Smith and Simpson, (1989)
SU16NW707, CAO, RB tomb with disturbed secondary burials., (1989)
SU16NW708, CAO, RB tomb with secondary Saxon burials., (1989)
SU16NW93, RCHM(E), Roman Road, (1973)

National Grid Reference: SU 11993 68290

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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This copy shows the entry on 14-Dec-2017 at 10:53:59.

End of official listing