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Prehistoric enclosure containing three hut circles and eight clearance cairns and an adjacent hut circle and cairnfield north east of Boat How, Burnmoor

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Prehistoric enclosure containing three hut circles and eight clearance cairns and an adjacent hut circle and cairnfield north east of Boat How, Burnmoor

List entry Number: 1008536

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Cumbria

District: Copeland

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Eskdale

National Park: LAKE DISTRICT

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 18-Jul-1994

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 23697

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Within the upland landscape of Cumbria there are many discrete plots of land enclosed by stone walls or banks of stone and earth, most of which date to the Bronze Age (c.2000-700 BC), though earlier and later examples also exist. They were constructed as stock pens or as protected areas for crop growing and were sometimes subdivided to accommodate stock and hut circle dwellings for farmers and herdsmen. The size and form of enclosures may therefore vary depending upon their particular function. Their variation in form, longevity and relationship to other monument classes provide important information on the diversity of social organisation and farming practices amongst prehistoric communities. They are particularly representative of their period and a substantial proportion of surviving examples are considered worthy of protection. Cairnfields are concentrations of cairns sited in close proximity to one another. They often consist largely of clearance cairns, built with stone from the surrounding land surface to improve its use for agriculture and, on occasion, their distribution can be seen to define field plots. However, funerary cairns are also frequently incorporated, although without excavation it may be impossible to determine which cairns contain burials. Clearance cairns were constructed from the Neolithic period (from c.3400BC), although the majority of examples appear to be the result of field clearance which began during the earlier Bronze Age and continued into the later Bronze Age (2000-700 BC). The considerable longevity and variation in size, content and associations of cairnfields provide important information on the development of land use and agricultural practices. Cairnfields also retain information on the diversity of beliefs and social organisation during the prehistoric period. The prehistoric enclosure containing three hut circles, eight clearance cairns, and the adjacent hut circle and cairnfield north east of Boat How survives well. The monument contains a developed type of cairnfield; that is one where the land has been subjected to initial land clearance then utilised further - in this case by the construction of an enclosure containing hut circles together with an additional hut circle outside the enclosure. A further phase of use may be indicated by the agricultural use of the interior of the enclosure. This contrasts markedly with the primary type of cairnfield found elsewhere on Burnmoor and illustrates well the differing prehistoric land management strategies. The monument lies close to other prehistoric monuments on Burnmoor and indicates the importance of this area in prehistoric times.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a prehistoric enclosure which contains three hut circles and eight clearance cairns, together with a fourth hut circle and a small cairnfield to the east of the enclosure. It is located on gently sloping fellside overlooking Burnmoor Tarn to the north east of Boat How, and lies within a large area of open moorland known as Burnmoor which contains an abundance of prehistoric remains. The enclosure is sub-circular and has a boundary formed by a stone bank measuring up to 3.6m wide and 0.3m high on all sides except the south west. There is a narrow entrance on the enclosure's north east side. The enclosure measures approximately 110m by 90m internally and contains a cluster of three hut circles and eight clearance cairns along its central axis. The hut circles each have a flat internal area with a diameter of between 3m - 3.85m which is encircled by a low wall of stones up to 0.2m high. Each hut has an entrance on the eastern side. The clearance cairns are circular and range between 1.95m - 4m in diameter and 0.1m - 0.4m in height. To the east of the enclosure, a short distance beyond the entrance, there is a fourth hut circle. It has a slightly sunken internal area 3.35m in diameter which is surrounded by a low wall of stones up to 0.2m high. There is an entrance on the hut's western side. Elsewhere on the eastern side of the enclosure there is a small cairnfield comprising a dispersed group of 11 cairns ranging between 1.95m - 4.3m in diameter and 0.1m - 0.35m in height.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Leech, R H, The Lake District National Park Survey - Burnmoor, (1992), 10-11
Leech, R H, The Lake District National Park Survey - Burnmoor, (1992), 11
Leech, R H, The Lake District National Park Survey - Burnmoor, (1992), 11
Leech, R H, The Lake District National Park Survey - Burnmoor, (1992), 10
Leech, R H, The Lake District National Park Survey - Burnmoor, (1992), 9-10
Leech, R H, The Lake District National Park Survey - Burnmoor, (1992), 10
Leech, R H, The Lake District National Park Survey - Burnmoor, (1992), 10
Other
Raymond,F., MPP Single Monument Class Descriptions - Cairnfields, (1987)

National Grid Reference: NY 17995 03654

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1008536 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 18-Nov-2017 at 02:18:27.

End of official listing