Romano-British farmstead 200m south west of Longman's Barn Farm
- Heritage Category:
- Scheduled Monument
- List Entry Number:
- Date first listed:
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This copy shows the entry on 16-Jun-2019 at 04:14:31.
The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
- Cotswold (District Authority)
- National Grid Reference:
- ST 86929 98619
Reasons for Designation
In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.
The Romano-British farmstead 200m south west of Longman's Barn Farm survives well and is known to contain archaeological and environmental evidence relating to the monument and the landscape in which it was constructed. This monument represents one of few such sites known in the area and will provide a useful comparison with the agricultural estates of the larger villas, a number of which are known in the Cotswold Hills.
The monument includes a Romano-British farmstead 200m south west of Longman's
Barn Farm on a steep north-facing slope in the Cotswold Hills.
The farmstead, which includes the remains of a range of buildings scattered
over an area of c.0.75 ha, appears as a series of low earthworks, stone
footings and platforms occupying a natural terrace in the hillside. The site
is rectangular with dimensions of 150m from east-west by 42m from north-south.
The stone footings are c.5m wide and represent a building with dimensions of
8m by 12.5m located along the centre of the southern side of the monument.
There are also at least five other building platforms visible as earthworks.
These represent structures of varying sizes which have dimensions of between
10m by 10m and 50m by 13m.
The extent of the monument is largely defined by the nature of the local
topography. The steep slopes to the north and south form the main boundaries
of the monument, while artificial banks run across the terrace at right angles
to define the monument on the eastern and western sides.
The northern slope rises c.10m above the terrace and there are two platforms
cut into the lower part of the slope. These have dimensions of 10m by 10m and
25m by 10m. The southern slope descends c.15m to a similar terrace. The Roman
date for this site is confirmed by the abundance of associated Roman finds.
Roman pottery, including stamped samian ware, and 25 coins dating to the reign
of Theodosius (AD 378-95) have been recovered.
Occupation debris and blackened earth, identified at the site during the
digging of fence posts and floor levels, were revealed underneath a collapsed
dry stone wall.
Excluded from the scheduling are all fence posts and dry stone walls relating
to the field boundaries, although the underlying ground is included.
MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
- Legacy System number:
- Legacy System:
Description of appearance of site,
Footings of building,
Mention of 25 coins of Theodosius,
Mention of occupation debris,
View of feature,
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing