Two enclosures and a cairnfield 180m north east of Crazy Well Pool


Heritage Category:
Scheduled Monument
List Entry Number:
Date first listed:


Ordnance survey map of Two enclosures and a cairnfield 180m north east of Crazy Well Pool
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

West Devon (District Authority)
National Park:
National Grid Reference:
SX 58339 70595, SX 58398 70522

Reasons for Designation

Dartmoor is the largest expanse of open moorland in southern Britain and, because of exceptional conditions of preservation, it is also one of the most complete examples of an upland relict landscape in the whole country. The great wealth and diversity of archaeological remains provide direct evidence for human exploitation of the Moor from the early prehistoric period onwards. The well-preserved and often visible relationship between settlement sites, major land boundaries, trackways, ceremonial and funerary monuments as well as later industrial remains, gives significant insights into successive changes in the pattern of land use through time. Within the landscape of Dartmoor there are many discrete plots of land enclosed by stone walls or banks of stone and earth, most of which date to the Bronze Age (c.2000-700 BC), though earlier and later examples also exist. They were constructed as stock pens or as protected areas for crop growing and were sometimes subdivided to accommodate stock and hut circle dwellings for farmers and herdsmen. The size and form of enclosures may therefore vary considerably depending on their particular function. Their variation in form, longevity and relationship to other monument classes provide important information on the diversity of social organisation and farming practices amongst prehistoric communities. They are particularly representative of their period and a substantial proportion of surviving examples are considered worthy of protection.

In addition to the enclosures a cairnfield survives within this monument. Cairnfields are concentrations of three or more cairns sited within close proximity to one another; they may consist of burial cairns or, as in this case, cairns built with stone cleared from the land surface (clearance cairns). Round funerary cairns were constructed during the Bronze Age (c. 2000-7000 BC) and consisted of earthen or rubble mounds, sometimes ditches, which covered single or multiple burials. Often occupying prominent locations, they are a major visual element in the modern landscape. The considerable variation in the size of cairnfields and their longevity as a monument type provide important information on the diversity of beliefs and social organisations amongst early prehistoric communities. They are particularly representative of their period and a substantial proportion of surviving examples are considered worthy of protection. Despite limited damage caused by the cutting of the Devonport Leat, the two enclosures and cairnfield 140m north east of Crazy Well Pool survive well and contain archaeological and environmental evidence relating to the monument and the landscape in which they were constructed. Cairnfields lying within clearly defined enclosures are rare on the Moor and this example should provide a valuable insight into this particular type of Bronze Age agricultural activity.


The monument, which falls into two areas divided by a leat, includes two irregular shaped enclosures and 22 clearance cairns lying on a gentle south- facing slope overlooking the valley of Newleycombe Lake. The interior of the eastern enclosure, most of which lies south of the leat, measures 114m north west to south east by 54m north east to south west and is defined by a rubble wall up to 1.5m wide and 0.4m high, except on the south where it survives as a 1.5m wide and 0.7m high lynchet. Seventeen cairns lie within this enclosure and two are incorporated into the boundary wall. Fifteen of these cairns are sub-circular in shape and measure between 2m and 4.3m in diameter and stand between 0.2m and 0.7m high. The remaining two cairns are oval in shape, one measures 5m long by 2.6m wide and 0.5m high and the second is 6m long by 3.5m wide and 0.4m high. Three cairns lie north of the enclosure, are all sub-circular in shape, measure between 3m and 3.8m in diameter and stand between 0.4m and 0.5m high. A small enclosed area lies in the south east corner of the large enclosure, measures 16m north to south by 12m east to west and is defined by a 1m and 0.3m high rubble bank. The second large enclosure lies on the northern side of the leat, measures 94m east to west by at least 60m north to south and is defined by a 1m wide and 0.3m high rubble bank. The southern and part of the western lengths of enclosure wall do not survive as earthworks but may survive as buried features. The Devonport leat cuts through both enclosures and survives as a 2m wide and 1.2m deep channel defined on the downslope side by a 3m wide and 0.9m high bank of material upcast during the cutting of the leat. A stone-faced overflow channel measuring 2.5m long, 1.2m wide and 0.4m deep is cut into this bank, but is now blocked by a stone wall. This leat was constructed in 1793 by the Company of Properties of the Plymouth Dock Waterworks to carry over 2 million gallons of Dartmoor water daily to Devonport. The upper length of the leat still carries water to the Dousland treatment works. The Devonport leat is excluded from the scheduling.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number:
Legacy System:


Books and journals
Hemery, E, Walking the Dartmoor Waterways, (1991), 9-33
Devon County Sites and Monuments Register, SX57SE292,
Devon County Sites and Monuments Register, Various entries,
MPP fieldwork by S. Gerrard,


This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.

End of official listing